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Bimanual variation in palmar dermatoglyphics.

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BIMANUAL VARIATION I N PALMAR
DERMATOGLYPHICS
HAROLD CUMMINS, S T E L L A LECHE, AND K A T H E R I N E McCLURE
Department of Anatomy, Tulane University, School of Medicine
NINE FIGURES
INTRODUCTION
This account is concerned with comparisons of the dermatoglyphs of right and left hands, including various dimensional features, which have not been studied heretofore, as
well as the topography of main lines and patterns, in which
characteristic bimanual variations are already recognized.
That certain of the bimanual differences may be correlated
with functional ascendancy of the right hand has been suggested (Keith, '24). While the present study confines itself
to the detail of bimaiiual comparisons, entirely apart from the
manual habits of the individuals examined, it should be
explained that the material has been assembled with a twofold purpose. We are at present interested only in analysis
of the mass data for their bearing on the morphology of the
dermatoglyphs; but it may be pointed out that the subjects,
here treated simply as the possessors of right and left hands,
have been tested for manual functional dominance, so that
they may be assorted in accordance with these tests and
combined with an additional series of selected left-handed
subjects for correlation of the dermatoglyphic variants with
handedness. This phase of the problem, to be reported later,
d l include the rating of right-left differences in individual
pairs of hands as well as mass treatment.
The material comprises 300 individuals, most of whom are
university students. I n soliciting subjects the ultimate use of
199
T H E A X I E R I C A N J O U R N A L OF A N A T O M Y , VOL. 46, NO. 1
200
HAROLD COMMINS, S. LECHE, A N D K. McCLURE
the material in a study of manual dominance was not disclosed, and we are therefore confident that the normal distribution of handedness types has not been vitiated hy
attracting persons interested in their own peculiarities of
handedness. Accordingly, and though we deal with the collection without regard to handedness, it is with the assurance
that both manual habits and bilateral dermatoglyphic differences form a random sample.
Males and females are equally represented, 150 of either
sex. To admit sexual comparisons the results are presented
not only for the collection as a whole, but also for the sexes
separately.
Owing to the occurrence of racial variation in dermatoglyphics, it is necessary to point out that the material here
considered is limited to a population approximating the
European-Americans treated as a racial group by Cummins
and Midlo ('26) ; the few Jews included in the present collection are negligible, since the character of the known racial
differences (Cummins and Midlo, '27) does not affect the
bimanual comparisons.
The heritability of dermatoglyphic traits is another factor
to be considered in the present study. Members of the same
family are not included in the collection, thus obviating a possible distortion of the statistics by the introduction of individuals having distinctive familial traits.
Our dermatoglyphic records are inked palm prints taken
after the method of Strong ( 'as),with the exception that the
waxed paper for inking is omitted. Prints made by this
method are of superior quality, both in definition and completeness of printing, as typified by figure 1. The essential
distinction of the process, contrasted with other methods of
printing, consists in the use of a cushion of sponge rubber to
ensure a complete and even contact of the palm.
Interpretation and formulation of the palm prints conform
exactly to the methods prescribed by Cummins et al. ( '29).
While for intsrpretation and formulation the prints were
shared among us, they were reviewed jointly to guard against
BIMANUAL VARIATION
201
errors of inadvertence and inconstancy in interpretation
(Cummins et al., ’28).
Measurements of the prints are made to the nearest whole
millimeter, using Martin’s Gleitxirkel. All measurements
were performed and checked by one observer (Leche). The
sharp points of the caliper are used as markers for measurements admitting their fixation upon the two limits of the
dimension (namely, the intertriradial distances a-b, b--6, o d ,
and a-d; proximal and ulnar shifting of the axial triradius;
proximal shifting of line T from triradius a ) . The ‘point of
delta’ as defined by Wilder and Wentworth (’18, pp. 193-194)
provides the locus of reference for all measurements involving a triradius, while the point of intersection of lines is
necessarily the reference for the measurements which make
use of lines (line T and shifting of axial triradius). I n one
measurement (line-D index, see below) the caliper jaws serve
as verticals, and their inner margins provide the markers.
A slight error in the intertriradial dimensions may be introduced by variable spreading of the fingers, as shown in prints
of single palms taken under variable conditions of digital
spreading. Though such discrepancies are so slight as to be
insignificant, they are minimized by our having printed in a
constant manner, namely, with the hand passive, the fingers
being neither wide-stretched nor pressed together.
The entire collection could not be utilized f o r certain metric
determinations, due to the occasional absence of features serving as points of reference for measurements, such as triradius c. Each table therefore carries statements of the
numbers employed in the particular determination, and it is
to be understood that in every instance of a total less than
150 (or 300 where the sexes are combined) the loss arises
solely by the exclusion of prints on this score.
Dimensional studies of the palmar dermatoglyphs have
been wanting; hence interest attaches to the absolute values
of our measurements, representing as they do the period following or very near the completion of growth. While the
absolute values are emphasized here, right-left indices will be
202
H A R O L D CUMMINS, S. LECHE, A N D K. MCCLURE
necessarily substituted when the series is combined with a
group of left-handed individuals, most of whom are children.
The right-left index is a comparative expression of the bimanual differences, as follows :
Measurement in right hand, millimeters x 100
Measurement in left hand, millimeters
A certain disadvantage inheres in the application of this
index to a wide range of absolute values. In the instance of
Fig. 1 P r i n t of a right palm, illustrating the reference points f o r measurements, explained in text.
BIMANUAL VARIATION
203
the smaller dimensions a right-left disparity is reflected in
indices departing widely from 100 (equality), even reaching
figures of several hundreds. The indices based upon larger
dimensions may reflect bimanual differences which are significant, though the values approach or only slightly exceed
the index indicating equality. Only statistical constants for
the right-left indices in this collection are presented in the
tables, their frequency distributions being reserved for the
forthcoming report dealing with handedness.
MAIN LINES
The symbols by which main lines are formulated have a
descriptive import. Each symbol signifies a specific position
of the terminus of the traced line, and the attainment of that
position prescribes within narrow limits of possible variation
the course of the line as a whole. Thus it is admittable to
make use of the symbols as records of the courses of main
lines. Main lines, moreover, are representative of the configurations of the regions which they penetrate. Lines A and D
are particularly serviceable descriptive elements, since most
commonly they course through extensive territories of generalized ridge systems. Lines €3 and C, while being supplementary aids in the same service, are of less value in that
they are so frequently indicative only of the character of
localized configurations in the interdigital areas.
Inasmuch as emphasis is placed upon the main lines as
indicators of ridge directions over large areas of the palm,
notably the transversality of the distal region (line D especially) and obliqueness of the proximo-ulnar region (line A
especially), our formulations have been reviewed with especial care to ensure that they conform to the requirements for
this application. I n duplex symbols for line D the symbol of
the more radially located terminus is selected for the summation of positions, while in the instance of line A the more
proximal position is chosen, these discriminations being
demanded by the character of the comparisons in which the
positions are used.
204
HAROLD CUMMINS, S. LECHE, A N D K. MCCLURE
Line A
The terminations of line A, listed in table 1, show that in
right hands the line tends more closely to follow a transverse
course than in the lefts. Termination in position 5” signifies an
actual transverse alignment, and the succession of positions
5’, 4 , 3 , 2 , and 1denote a progressive swing of the line toward
the longitudinal axis of the palm. The bimanual distinction
becomes more pronounced when the individual positions are
grouped, each group embracing a region of greater extent
than the separate positions indicated in the formula. Such
a combination is suggested by Steggerda ( ’29), who states :
I n general, line A terminates in higher positions in the right hands
than in the left hands. This is shown even more clearly in Table 160,
in which the terminations have been grouped into three modal types,
in which type 3 includes positions 1 and 2, as well as 3, thus uniting
all the terminations giving the palm a longitudinal configuration.
Positions 4 and 5, combining the terminations showing an oblique
configuration, are grouped as type 4; while terminations 5’ and 5”,
indicating a more nearly transverse direction of ridges are included
as type 5.
TABLE 1
Terminations of line A : percentile occurrence of each position
MALE
POSITION
Right
1
2
3
4
5’
5”
6
7
0
1.3
30.0
22.7
37.3
7.3
.7
.7
(150)
I
FEMALE
(150)
BOTH SEXES
Left
Right
Left
Right
Left
4.7
13.3
43.3
16.0
19.3
3.3
0
0
3.3
2.7
32.7
12.7
41.3
7.3
0
0
12.7
8.7
41.4
14.7
22.0
.7
0
0
1.7
2.0
31.4
17.8
39.3
7.3
8.7
11.0
42.4
15.4
20.7
2.0
0
0
.4
.4
The positions mentioned by Steggerda are those adopted by
Cummins and Midlo ( ’26) in subdividing Wilder’s original
border positions into smaller units for a more precise expression of the angular relations of line A. The meanings
of the numerical symbols do not correspond exactly to the
positions defined in the revised methods (which see, pp. 4 3 6
MO), hence it is necessary to redefine the grouping. Posi-
205
BIMANUAL VARIATION
tions 1, 2, and 3 together form a modal type (which may be
arbitrarily termed type 3) embracing the most extreme shifts
toward the longitudinal; positions 5’ and 5” naturally combine to form a group (type 5) of the more transverse alignments, while position 4 serves to indicate the midlevel of
angularity (type 4).
A sharp contrast between right and left hands is to be
noted in table 2. Type 4 may be regarded as a position of
relative equilibrium; here the frequencies in right and left
hands are nearly equal. In sharp contrast, the frequencies
of type 3 are almost doubled in left hands, while type 5 shows
a corresponding excess in right hands. Table 1demonstrates
TABLE 2
Terminations of line A : percentile occurrences o f three modal types formed b y
combining, as indicated in the first column, the several positions of table 1.
(The atypical terminations 6 and 7, which occur only in two male palms, are
ignored)
MALE
(150)
FEMALE
(150)
BOTH SEXES
TYPE
3 (1+2+3)
4
5 (5‘”’’’)
Right
Left
Right
Left
Right
Left
31.3
22.7
44.6
61.3
16.0
22.6
38.7
12.7
48.6
62.8
14.7
22.7
35.1
17.8
46.6
62.1
15.4
22.7
206
HAROLD CUMMINS, S. LECHE, AND I<. MCCLURE
study cited, are guarded against in the revised methods of
interpretation. The improvement of technique in printing
supplied by the Strong method removes one of the most serious sources of error in tracing the line through the central
region of the palm. I n the light of these facts increased confidence may be placed in the interpretations of line A.
Line B
Line R, its mentioned above, is of less service than line A
in right-left comparisons. It is true that its positions
(table 3) do display significant differences of frequency in the
two hands. These differences are partly accounted for, howTABLE 3
Terminations of line B : percentile occurrence of each position
3IILE
150)
FEMIAL
POSITION
3
4
5’
5”
6
i
8
9
‘150)
I
BOTHSEXEB
Right
Left
Right
Left
Right
Left
0
0
2.7
30.7
8.0
51.3
7.3
0
.7
0
10.7
42.7
18.i
27.3
0
0
0
0
2 .O
36.7
0
0.7
10.i
.4
i.3
10.0
26.0
0
0
0
0
2.4
33.7
i.7
48.7
46.0
6.0
2.0
52.i
6.7
1.o
.4
10.i
4i.i
14.4
26.7
0
0
ever, as correlates of the interdigital configurations. Positions 6, 7, 8, and 9 all signify the intimate relationships
between line B and the dermatoglyphs of the third and fourth
interdigital areas, and as such they provide no assistance in
defining the character of the more proximal region in which
there is chief interest. There exists, notwithstanding, a bimanual distinction which is related to that of line A. It will
be noted that in the right hands of both sexes the terminations of line B are concentrated in positions 6, 7, 8, and 9these positions denoting that the line embraces patterns
included within the area of transversality. I n left hands the
terminations are more massed in the ulnar border positions,
3, 4, 5’, and 5”. In entering these positions line B penetrates
207
BIMANUAL V.4RIATION
the area immediately adjacent to the region occupied by
line A. Hence line B has a like value in describing the slant
of the central and proximal configuration. The fact that left
hands possess more terminations on the ulnar border is an
illustration, additional to that furnished by line A, of the sinistral tendency to depart from the transverse alignment.
LiNe C
The frequencies of line C, listed in table 4,provide further
demonstration of a difference in the angular relation of the
configurations. It is evident that the left hand possesses a
TABLE 4
Terminations of line C : percentile occwrence of each position
MALE
POSITION
5‘
5”
6
7
8
9
10
11
X
X
0
Oid
(150)
FEMALE
(150)
BOTH SEXES
Right
Left
Right
Left
Right
Left
0
3.3
6.0
19.3
0
49.3
7.3
0
8.7
.7
5.3
0
.7
16.0
2.7
30.0
0
23.3
0
0
20.0
4.0
2.7
.7
0
7.3
4.0
24.7
0
41.3
6.0
2.0
6.7
1.3
6.7
0
0
16.7
2.0
30.0
.7
26.7
0
0
12.0
.7
11.3
0
0
5.3
5.0
22.0
0
45.3
6.7
1.0
7.7
1.0
6.0
0
.4
16.4
2.4
30.0
.4
25.0
0
0
16.0
2.4
7.0
0.4
larger number of terminations on the ulnar border (5’ and 5”),
with a total incidence of 16.8 per cent, contrasted with 5.3 per
cent in right hands. The assortment of positions related to
the distal border bears directly on the radial extent of transversalitp. Under the head of line D stress is placed on the
function of this line in depicting the radial extent of transversality in the distal palmar area. Line C participates in
this function, as shown particularly when the distal positions
are combined into regional sections. The positions related to
the ulnar portion of the distal zone of the palm (6, 7, and 8)
form a natural group ; combination of these positions gives
208
HAROLD CUMMINS, S. LECHE, AND K. MCCLURE
a total of 27 per cent in right hands and 32.8 per cent in the
lefts. I n the same manner, positions 9 and 10 may be grouped
together, yielding a total of 52 per cent in right hands and
25 per cent in lefts. Left hands, therefore, are characterized
in the area of line C by a more limited extent of transversality
and a more pronounced swing toward the longitudinal axis.
Among the positions listed in table 4 are to be noted the
three specialized variants formulated as X, x, and 0. These
symbols signify abortive states of the line (X and x ) and
complete suppression (0). It is evident that left hands, with
their total occurrence of 25.4 per cent, against 14.7 per cent
in rights, have a more marked tendency to suppression of
line C.
Line D
Table 5 lists the occurrences of the various terminations of
line D. While the significance of the distribution is plainly
evident, it becomes accentuated after combining the positions
in natural modal types (table 6), as suggested by Cummins
and Midlo ('26). The results demonstrate a pronounced
bimanual distinction in the radial extent of transversality in
the distal zone of the palm, right hands exceeding the lefts
in the prolongation of transversely coursing ridges toward
the radial margin. F o r further discussion of the significance
of line D see Cummins and Midlo ( '26). I n right hands the
distribution may be summarized by the statement : 11>9>7,
while in left hands 9>11>7. As the table shows, the actual
occurrences of the modal types are so widely different that
confidence may be placed in this statement of descending
frequencies.
In view of the importance of the radial extent of line D as
a mark of the degree of transversality, it seems desirable to
express its relationships by measurements. Previous studies
of this nature being lacking, it was necessary to devise a procedure fitting the need. Anticipating that the metric determinations would be applied in hands of varying dimensions, it
seemed requisite to express the line-D measurement as a pro-
209
BIMANUAL VARIATION
portionate value of the dimension with which it is associated,
namely, the distance between triradii a and d. The measurements are made in the following manner. The a-d dimension being obtained with the sharp points of Martin’s caliper,
the caliper is laid upon the print with the edge of the calibrated bar joining triradii a and d, d coinciding with the
terminal of the calibrated bar enclosed by the fixed jaw. The
sliding jaw is then slipped to the most extreme radial point
TABLE 5
Terminations of line D : percentile occurrence o f each position
MALE
POSITION
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
. .
____FEMALE (150)
150)
____
BOTH SEXES
Right
Lett
Right
Left
Right
Left
0
3.3
6.7
24.0
14.7
50.0
.7
.7
.7
14.0
2.0
38.0
18.0
27.3
0
0
0
9.3
4.7
24.7
10.0
51.3
0
0
20.0
2.0
42.7
9.3
26.0
0
0
0
6.3
5.7
24.4
12.4
50.7
.4
.4
17.0
2.0
40.4
13.7
26.7
0
0
0
.4
TABLE 6
Terminations of line D : percentile occurrences of three modal types, formed by
combining, as indicated i n the first column, the several positions of table 5
MALE
TYPE
7 (6+7+8)
9 (9+10)
11 (11+12+13)
(150)
FEMALE
(150)
BOTH SEXES
Right
Left
Right
Left
Right
Left
10.0
38.7
51.4
16.7
56.0
27.3
14.0
34.7
51.3
22.0
52.0
26.0
12.0
36.8
51.5
19.4
54.1
26.7
of the traced line D ; in most instances this point proves to
be the actual terminus of the line, but it is often the apex of
an arching sweep of the line, slightly farther radial than the
very end of the line. In either case it will be apparent that
the caliper jaws provide rigid verticals. Regardless of the
fact that the point selected on line D lies distal to a-d, the
a.xk of measurement parallels a-d, the measurement recording the distance along this parallel from a vertical erected on
triradius d. This measurement, multiplied by 100, serves as
210
HAROLD CUMMINS, S. LECHE, AND K. XCCLURE
the numerator of a fraction providing the ‘line-D index,’ a-d
being the denominator. There is thus obtained a comparative expression of the actual values of the line-D dimension
and the base line a-d. The index performs a distinct service,
in that the formulated positions (which also are referred to
the base line a-d) are but coarse indicators of the progression
of transversality in the radial direction.
A slight error may be introduced in the localization of the
point marking the terminus of line D, due to inequalities in
printing the distal palmar margin. An actually complete
print extends to the very margins of the interdigital skin
folds. The terminus of a line D which enters a n interdigital
interval is marked as a point at the border of the print. I n
spite of effort to standardize printing, it is probable that the
prints are not quite uniform with respect to this distal
extension. Though the error is small, we direct attention to
its existence and to the fact that its effect would appear especially in a line extended f a r radially, since the actual terminus
of such a line may be situated at a point slightly beyond the
margin of the print.
F o r statistical analysis the indices were collected into
classes of five units (see frequency distribution, fig. 2, and
statistical constants, table 7). I n both hands there is a trimodal frequency curve. This distribution probably has as
its basis a response of line D to the configurations of the
interdigital areas. It is suggested that while interdigital
patterns are wholly or at least partly independent of the factors conditioning transversality, their variable presence and
suppression may introduce local disturbances of configuration which divert line D. It is to be noted that both right
and left hands show concentrations centering about the
indices 27, 57, and 82. Considering these centers as reference
points for comparison of the distribution of indices in the two
hands, the relative occurrences in the right hands are as follows : 82>57>27, while in the lefts we find 57>82>27. This
distribution recalls the statement of frequencies of the positions of line D, table 6, which likewise describe the extent of
211
BIMANUAL VARIATION
65
60
55
50
45
40
;
35
a
R
e
g 30
ra.
25
20
15
10
5
Class centers
Fig. 2 Frequency distribution of the line-D index in 300 right palms and 300
lefts. Common distribution of right and left, solid black; right alone, // // ; left
alone, \\ \\.
TABLE 7
The line-ll index
I
NUM.IBB&
1
MEAN
I
STANDARD
DEVIATION
I
COEFFICIENT O F
VARIATION
Absolute indices
{
Bothsexes {
Female
R
Male
Female
Both sexes
65.3621.031
56.67 & 1.080
63.9321.037
54.93%1.008
6 4 . 6 5 k .731
55.80% .771
150
150
150
150
300
300
150
150
300
1
18.71319.6 k
18.8222
18.303+
18.7812
19.821-C
.728
.763
.732
.712
.517
.545
28.63021.202
34.58621.499
39.44121.241
33.32021.434
2 9 . 0 5 0 2 2364
35.519k1.094
119.81624.665
57.40222.235
94.11522.592
88.59925.531
43.85122.009
70.72822.755
R/L index
135.23%6.602
130.90&3.163
133.0653.66s
212
HAROLD CUMMINS, S. LECHE, AND K. MCCLURE
transversality, though in terms of the modal positions 7, 9,
and 11. A survey of the line-D terminations available in
several racial collections ( European-Americans, Jews, negroes, Maya Indians, and Chinese) shows that the radial
extent of transversality measured in terms of the modal types
is a definite bimanual variant. The small size of the collection of Indians ( thirty-seven individuals), which seemingly
forms an exception (with 6.1 per cent of type 11 in right
hands compared with 8.5 per cent in lefts), combines with infrequency of type 11 in this population to account for the
apparent discrepancy ; the relative frequencies of types 9 and
‘I clearly bear out the truth of the generalization. Comparisons of races with regard to the line-D index are not available. However, in the preliminary work carried out for testing the efficiency of the line-D index results were obtained
which indicate, as is to be expected, that measurements simply
express with greater precision the same differential character of the two hands which is reflected in,the formulated statement of the line-D positions.
The main-line formula
It is recognized that right and left hands show unequal frequencies of the three characteristic main-line formulae, which
is natural, considering that the formula of a single palm is
simply a collective statement of the positions of its main
lines. In Wilder’s usage ( ’22), here followed in the compilation of table 8, line A is not considered, hence its bimanual
distinctions do not appear. I n all, 209 right palms of this
series carry the characteristic formulae, as do 205 lefts. The
remainder of the series, both right and left palms, is made up
of varied formulae which are excluded by the criteria of
assortment. As has been demonstrated repeatedly in racial
collections, the characteristic formulae show distinctive bimanual differences of frequency, which, however, are of minor
importance in this inquiry, being dependent upon the variations of the single lines.
213
BIMANUAL VARIATION
No attempt has been made to apply the method of comparing main-line formulae recently published by Valsik ( '28 b),
which is clearly invalid. Valsik interprets the main lines
according to Wilder's original procedure, and by adding the
four numerical symbols composing the complete formula,
arrives at a figure which he assumes to be a quantitative
value. The practice is open to the serious objection that the
main-line formula is a pictorial expression and not a dimensional value. Dimensional significance is to be associated
with the symbols only when the main lines are treated singly,
and even here the application is limited (see the discussions
of the lines, above). The significance which attaches to the
TABLE 8
Main-line formalae : percentile occurrence of each of the three characteristic
formulae
I
11.9.7.9.7.5.7.5.5.-
RIQHT
40.3
20.7
5.3
I
LEFT
21.7
31.7
15.0
individual lines is canceled by the addition of symbols. Configurations which are actually closely related may reduce to
dissimilar totals, while quite different topographic relationships may yield equal totals. To supply concrete illustrations,
it is obvious that the formulae 11.9.7.4 and 11.0.7.4 represent
configurations which are essentially alike, the absence of
line C in the second formula being irrelevant to the picturing
of generalized ridge courses. Yet the loss of 9 points in the
second formula, occasioned by the insignificant discrepancy
in the configurations themselves, renders the total equal to
those of such distinctive configurations as 7.5.5.5 o r 9.7.5.1 !
I n passing, it may be mentioned that Valsik ('28a) has
applied the method to comparisons of a group composed of
left-handed and ambidextrous individuals with another from
the general population, reporting the absence of differences
associated with handedness.
214
HAROLD CUMMINS, S. LECHE, AND K. MCCLURE
AXIAL TRIRADII
Grouping of the axial triradii (table 9) into two natural
classes, comprising the extremes of proximal and distal posit’ it’ and tt” t’t” +tt’t”) fails to
tion (respectively t
disclose a. significant distinction, barring the possibility of a
slight excess in right hands of the higher class, which may
be associated with the greater incidence of hypothenar patterns on this side. Only two collections have been studied
with reference to this feature since the appearance of the
revised methods which admit their more precise formulation ;
the two racial series (negroes and Maya Indians) agree in
the want of demonstrable bimanual distinctions.
+
+ +
TABLE 9
Axial triradii: percentile occurrence of their formulae grouped in classes
I
{z:: II
I
Right
Female
t + t’ + tt’
I
tt” + t’t” + tt’t“
92.0
94.7
88.6
91.3
90.3
93.0
I
I
8.0
5.3
11.4
8.7
9.7
7.0
Based on 149 palms.
2Based on 299 palms.
The formulation of the axial triradii is a relatively rough
statement of their heights on the longitudinal axis of the
palm, and it provides no indication of shifting with reference to the transverse axis. It is desirable, therefore, to
approach the question of bimanual variation of this feature
by measurements, so planned as to record the position of the
most proximal triradius on each palm. When only one triradius occurs, that triradius is practically invariably a t or t’;
in the event that two or more triradii appear, the one most
proximal is selected as the point of reference. One of the
two measurements is the length of a vertical dropped from
the axial triradius to line a-d (fig. l),recording the amount
of proximal shifting of the triradius in the long axis. The
second measurement is designed to show the shifting of the
BIMANUAL VARIATION
215
axial triradius in the transverse axis of the palm. Digital
triradius a is chosen as the reference point, so that the measurement represents the distance from its axis to the axial
triradius along a parallel to line a-d; this measurement provides an expression of what may be called the ulnar shift of
the axial triradius.
The frequency distributions of these two dimensions and
the statistical constants are shown in figures 3 and 4 and
tables 10 and 11. Though the proximal shifting is apparently
not significantly different in the two hands, it will be interesting to secure measurements from a larger series, which
may show that differences here observed in the means of the
proximal shift are, after all, indicative of an actual bimanual
difference. The ulnar shifting, on the contrary, appears to
be differential, the axial triradius being situated more ulnarward in right hands. Keith writes, in this connection:
The author’s previous study [apparently not yet published] of
handedness and ambi-dexterity in relation to the papillary line systems yielded an important principle of interpretation that has interesting confirmation in the present study. The characteristics of the
dextrous hand become an index of racial achievement. Chief among
these characteristics is the position of the carpal ‘Tri-radius’ (to use
Wilder’s term). It is nearer to the thumb in the dextrous hand, suggesting a broader development of the ulnar system of the lines.
Our finding is at variance with Keith’s statement. The
present measurements of ulnarward shifting of the axial triradius (which is Wilder’s carpal triradius) show that the
triradius in right hands is farther from the thumb, though the
actual difference is slight.
Another point of bimanual comparison relating to the axial
triradii has to do with the course of their distal radiants,
which are directed through the central area of the palm to
terminations in positions 11, 12, and 13, most frequently 13.
In keeping with the nomenclature of the palmar main lines,
which are designated by the same letters as their triradii of
origin (the symbols for main lines being written as capital
letters and for triradii, small letters), the distal radiant of
THE AMERICAN JOUENAL OF ANATOMY, VOL. 48, NO.
1
216
HAROLD CUMMINS, S. LECHE, AND K. MCCLURE
45
1
Class centers, millimeters.
Fig. 3 Frequency distribution of the ‘proximal shifting’ of the most proximal axial triradius in 299 right palms and 299 lefts, the measurement indicating
the vertical distance of this triradius from the line a-d. Common distribution
of right and left, solid black; right alone, // // ; left alone, \\ \\.
TABLE 10
T h e distance (proximal s h i f t i n g ) of the most proximal axial triradius f r o m line
a - d , measured as a vertical t o that line (fig. 1 )
1
NUMBER
I
MEAN’ ’Ix.
1
STANDARD
DEVIATION
I
COEFFICIENT O F
VARIATION
Absolute measurements
Female
{
{
Bothsexes
{
Male
Male
Female
Both sexes
I
71.562.529
73.042.459
61.9 &.577
62.362.513
66.752.434
67.722.402
9.6042.374
8.3422.324
10.4542.408
9.29 k . 3 6 3
11.1372.307
10.3142.484
13.4202.531
11.4212.450
16.8932.678
14.8972.594
16.6842.472
15.2302.429
1 1
98.002.585
99.09 2.687
98542.451
10.6192.413
12.4482.486
11.5792.319
10.8352.426
12.5622.498
11.7502.328
R
I
150
150
149
149
299
299
150
317
BIMANUAL VARIATION
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
x
2a 35
m
30
25
20
15
Class centers, millimeters.
Fig. 4 Frequency distribution of the ‘ulnar shifting’ of the most proximal
axial triradius in 299 right palms and 299 lefts, the measurement indicating the
displacement ulnarward of this triradius from a vertical erected to line a-d from
triradius a. Common distribution of right and left, solid black; right alone, // // ;
left alone, \\ \\.
TABLE 11
T h e distance (ulnar shifting) of the most proximal axial t r i r a d k ulnarward from
a vertical erected t o line u-d f r o m triradizts a (fig. 1 )
{
Female
{
Both sexes {
Nale
Male
Female
Both sexes
R
150
150
149
149
299
299
46.022.292
44.522.269
42.57k.247
41.512.244
44.302.203
43.022.191
5.3162.207
4.8832.190
4.478f.174
4.4322.173
5.2092.143
4.9012.135
11.551k.455
10.9682.432
10.519k.415
10.6762.421
11.758k.328
11.392 2.318
1 1
103.752.620
102.88 2.599
103.312.431
11.2552.438
10.847 2 .423
11.0612.305
10.8482.427
10.5432.416
10.7062.298
150
218
HAROLD CUMMINS, S. LECHE, AND K. MCCLURE
the axial triradius may be referred to as line T. Keith (’24)
was the first t o direct attention to the bimanual distinctions
in the relations of this line, which she calls ‘Y.’ Keith writes :
The Main Line in the palm that is the most invariably indicative
of unidexterity emanates from the triradial center in the carpal
region of the palm, where the transverse lines of the wrist meet the
thenar and hypothenar lines a t their point of confluence. Sometimes
this point is so f a r down on the wrist as not to appear on the palmprint, but is represented by a parting or divergence of the thenar
and hypothenar line-systems. From this point, a line traverses the
palm running parallel to the thenar system of lines, and ending in the
first interdigital space (usually). This line is mentioned by Wilder,
but is not included in his palm formula. I n the dextrous hand, it
runs nearer t o the thumb than in the non-dextrous hand. I have
labeled this line, ‘1”. I n comparing the right and left hands, it is
convenient to note the distance between the marginal terminus of ‘Y’
and that of the short radiant ‘ T ’ running from the Tri-radial center
of the index-finger. This distance is greater in the dextrous hand.
Our procedure in tracing line T, which ordinarily is not
recorded in the palmar formula and thus is omitted in the
revised methods, follows precisely the technique employed in
tracing a main line. Characteristically there is a single axial
triradius at or near the proximal border of the palm; it is
from this triradius that line T takes origin. Instances of
more than one triradius require that the one situated most
proximal be selected for the tracing of the line. Having
traced the line, the next step is concerned with a measurement which determines its distance from a point of reference.
Triradius a is chosen as the point of reference, since the
terminal extent of line T is so closely related to this feature.
The aim in measurement is to determine the extent of the
proximal shifting of line T from triradius a,a measurement
which compares directly with Keith’s description : ‘‘it rims
nearer to the thumb” in the dextrous hand. Figure 1 illustrates the line of measurement. A vertical is erected to line
a-d from triradius a; the distance between triradius a and the
point where line T crosses the vertical is measured with the
caliper. When line T enters the point of reference, triradius
a, the measurement is recorded as zero. Occasionally line T
219
BIMANUAL VARIATION
Measurement, miilimeters.
Fig. 5 Frequency distribution of the proximal displacement of the termination of line T from triradius a in 299 right palms and 299 lefts. Common distribution of right and left, solid black; right alone, // // ; left alone, \\ \\.
STANDARD
DZVIATION
Male
Female
Bothsexes
Male
Female
Both sexes
{
:
R
150
150
149
149
299
299
1 i.: I
150
12.9662
8.2532
11.644+
7.0262
12.311+
7.6422
.242
.279
.272
.264
.183
.193
282.83219.495
262.43216.91
274.33212.906
COEPPICIENT O F
VARIATION
.171
.197
.192
.187
.130
.137
33.896+1.463
61.45623.170
42.33021.927
68.16123.699
38.29021.200
65.04822.438
353.777213.777
306.011211.958
331.0422 9.132
125.08424.896
116.60628.787
120.67226.584
4.3952
5.072+
4.929+
4.7892
4.714+
4.971%
220
HAROLD CUMMINS, S. LECHE, A N D K. MCCLURE
may even extend on the ulnar side of triradius a, to terminate
in position 11, in which case there is no means of erecting an
axis of measurement comparable to that described above.
Since the dimensions are thus not subject to an adequate
measurement, it becomes necessary to record such terminations also as zero. But it must not be overlooked that the
combination of all cases in which line T enters triradius a,
which are logically entered as zero measurements, with the
terminations on its uliiar side reduces the actual metric differences in right and left hands. It happens that the bimanual
distinctions in the proximal shift of line T are beyond question, but had it been possible to extend the measurements to
the lines terminating in position 11, these differences would
have been accentuated. The frequency distribution and statistical constants are presented in figure 5 and table 12. As
will be seen in these tables, the bimanual distinction is marked.
and wholly confirmatory of Keith’s finding.
INTERTRIRADIAL MEASUREMENTS
The four digital triradii are adapted to as many intertriradial measurements, taken from triradius to triradius as
shown in figure 1: a-b, b-c, c-d, and a-d. Frequency distributions of these measurements are shown in figures 6 to 9 ;
statistical constants derived from them are assembled in
tables 13 to 16, inclusive.
Excluding a-d, which is not a measurement between consecutive triradii, it may be noted that the order of ascending
values of the intertriradial dimensions is : b-c, c-d, and a-b,
and that the greatest variability is associated with the
smallest one, b-c. The aimension a-b shows a slight bimanual difference, being greater in the left hand. Apparently no
significant differences exist in the b-c, c-d, and a-d
dimensions.
PATTERNS
The palm bears five configuration areas which are sepa
rately formulated : hypothenar, thenar/first interdigital, second, third, and fourth interdigitals. The configurations are
221
B I M A N U A L VARIATION
formulated by symbols describing their character. It is thus
possible to arrive at the frequencies of particular configurations by summating the lists of symbols. Only the distinction
of patterns and open fields is presented in table 17.
Moaaursmnt. millimeters.
Fig. 6 Frequency distribution of the intertriradial dimension a-b in 300 right
palms and 300 lefts. Common distribution of right and left, solid black; right
alone, // // ; left alone, \\ \\.
TABLE 13
Intertriradial measurenients: a-b
J R
Male
1 L
Female
J R
( L
R
Both sexes
{
150
150
150
150
300
300
2.8212.109
3.0632.119
2.4 +.093
2.694A.104
2.7192.074
3.044k.083
23.02k.155
24.38k.168
21.642.132
22.43+.148
22.342.105
23.40k.118
12.254f.484
12.5632.496
11.09 2 . 4 3 6
12.01 +-.474
12.17 k . 3 3 9
13.0052.363
R/L index
Male
Female
95.1 2 . 5 8 1
96.56k.513
I
10.5442.410
9.31 2 . 3 6 2
9.9732.274
I
11.087+.436
9.6412.378
10.4062.289
222
HAROLD CUMMINS, S. LECHE, AND K. MCCLURE
The hypothenat- area shows great diversity of the configuration types ; in all, twenty-four symbols are required in the
formulation of the 600 palms. Due to the scattering of the
configurations among varied types, it becomes necessary to
1
45
1
40
35
30
5
2 25
m
0-
2 20
15
10
5
basurernent, millimeters.
Fig. 7 Frequency distribution of the intertriradial dimension b-c in 290 right
palms and 284 lefts. Common distribution of right and left, solid black; right
alone, // // ; left alone, \\ \\.
TABLE 14
Intertriradial measurements : b-e
I
NUMBER
I
MEAN'
I
STANDARD
DEVIATION
I
COEFFICIENT O F
VARIATION
Absolute measurements
Male
G
R
Female
Both sexes
Male
Female
Both sexes
{
R
L
147
148
143
136
290
284
f .187
& .185
2 .160
k .150
2 .124
-C .121
3.363f.132
3.3522.131
2.843k.113
2.5982.106
3.1382.087
3.0264.085
103.204k1.091
102.32 21.088
102.78 & .771
19.6072.771
18.677t.769
19.1742.545
14.78
14.50
14.07
13.98
14.43
14.26
22.75
23.11
20.2
18.58
21.74
21.22
2.940
5.953
2.837
2.785
f.637
2.626
18.998 2 . 7 7 4
18.253k.776
18.655f.548
223
BIMANUAL VARIATION
combine them into classes; the grouping which suggests itself
as of primary importance is a separation of the true patterns,
coiitrasting with open field configurations. The total percentile occurrences of patterns are contained in table 17 ; the
incidences there recorded denote a significant excess of pat45
40
35
30
15
10
5
Ueasurement, millimeters.
Fig.8 Frequency distribution of the intertriradial dimension c-d in 290 right
palms and 284 lefts. Common distribution of right and left, solid black; right
alone, ////; left alone, \\\\.
TABLE 15
Intertriradial measurements : c-d
I
I
I
MEAN’
STANDARD
DEVIATION
I
COEFFICIENT O F
VARIATION
Absolute measurements
Female
{
{
Bothsexes
/
Male
R
147
148
143
136
290
284
-
13.80
14.24
15.39
13.61
14.87
14.44
2.923k.115
3.0562.119
3.0712.122
2.7182.111
3.059f.085
2.9952.084
21.182.162
21.462.169
19.95f.173
19.962.157
20.57f.121
20.742.119
k.552
2.569
2.627
+.566
2.425
2.417
R/L index
Male
Female
Both sexes
I :;8 I
147
99.475759
100.98f.708
100.19+.522
1
13.650f.537
12.1652.501
12.985k.369
I
13.722+.549
12.046k.503
12.9602.374
224
HAROLD CUMMINS, S. LECHE, A N D K. MCCLURE
terns in right hands-a finding which accords with the bimanual occurrence in the European-American series previously reported (Cummins and Midlo, '26) both in the total
40
1
35
30
25
20
5
)Lssmrrmsnt, millimeters.
Fig. 9 Frequency distribution of the intertriradial dimension a-d in 300 right
palms and 300 lefts. Common distribution of right and left, solid black; right
alone, // // ; left alone, \\ \\.
TABLE 16
Intertriradial measurements: a-d
I
NUMBER
I
M E A N , MM.
I
STANDARD
DEVIATION
I
COEFFICIENT O F
VARIATION
Absolute measurements
Yale
Female
{
R
Both sexes
{
R
Male
Female
Both sexes
150
150
150
150
300
ROO
I 1:3; 1
150
54.27 k .238
55.362.248
50.71k.213
50.802.219
52.49k.174
53.08k.187
4.331k.168
4.5002.175
3.8822.151
3.9782.154
4.481iz.123
4.8212.132
7.98 2.312
8.129k.318
7.6552.299
7.830k.306
8.5362.236
9.0822.252
97.96k.250
99.642.250
98.8 e . 1 7 9
4.548rfr.177
4.5422.176
4.622&.127
4.6422.181
4.5582.177
4.6782.129
225
BIMANUAL VARIATION
hands share equally in the possession of true patterns. In
the Chinese (Wilder, '22) and Maya Indians, where hypothenar patterns are still more infrequent, the bimanual difference either reverses to a superiority of the left hand
(Cummins, '30) or an equality of the two hands (Keith,
'24). Keith's figures ( '24, table IV) based on several racial
groups display further racial unlikenesses in the right-left
distribution, which, it must be pointed out, are not invariably
associated with differences of total frequency of the pattern.
The therzar/first irzterdigital pattern is more frequent in
left hands, in accord with the findings in various racial studies
thus f a r reported.
TABLE 17
Percentile occzirrences of true patterns (all pattern types combined) in each of
the five pattern areas of the palm. (The percentages zndicate the palms in each
series which bear patterns: the understood percentile remainders are ckaracterized b y patternless configurations)
HYPOTHENAR
Male
R
Bothsexes j R
(300)
1,
35.3
29.3
45.3
38.7
40.3
34.0
TRENAR /FIRST
- INTERDIGITAL
4.7
8.0
4.0
5.3
4.3
6.7
SECOND
INTERDIGITAL
THIRD
[NTERDIGITAL
FOURTH
INTERDIGITAL
11.3
2.7
2.7
0.0
7.0
1.3
58.0
27.3
50.7
27.3
54.3
27.3
36.0
55.3
45.3
59.3
40.7
57.3
The second and third interdigital patterns are markedly
more frequent in right hands, while the fourth ittterdigital
shows a reversal to excess in the left hand.
It should be noticed that the regional distribution of pattern frequencies is distinctively opposite in the two hands.
I n the instance of the distal series the right hand leads in the
incidence of those patterns which are situated more radially
(second and third interdigitals), while the left hand dominates
the ulnarward zone (fourth interdigital). A reversal of the
relationship holds for the proximal group of patterns, where
it is the left hand which bears more patterns radialward
(thenar/first interdigital) and the right hand ulnarward
(hypothenar).
226
HAROLD CUMMINS, S. LECHE, AND K. MCCLURE
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
The palmar dermatoglyphics of 300 individuals (150 males
and 150 females) are analyzed for bimanual differences, the
comparisons embracing not only the variants described in
formulae (topography of main lines and patterns), but also
measurements of selected features as noted below. I n its
racial composition the collection is essentially equivalent to
previously published European-American series (Wilder,
Cummins and hlidlo) ; it is a random sample of handedness
distribution ; the individuals are of the age of university
students or older; no members of the same family are included ; the palm prints are of unexceptionable quality.
Incidences of the features described by formula (characteristics of main lines and patterns) correspond very closely
t o previous findings in European-Americans. The figures
therefore add the weight of observations on 300 individuals,
made by the improved methods, to the available records of
racial characters in this mixed population.
The ficdings, sexes combined, are as follows:
1. Line A terminates within the lower extent of the ulnar
border (positions 1, 2, and 3) much more frequently in left
hands (62.1 per cent) than in rights (35.1 per cent), while
terminations in the upper levels of the ulnar border (5’ and
5”) are more frequent in right hands (46.6 per cent vs. 22.7
per cent) ; terminations within the midlevel (position 4) are
approximately equal in frequency (right, 17.8 per cent; left,
15.4 per cent).
2. Line D likewise shows a pronounced difference in the
two hands. Modal type 7 (positions 6, 7, and 8 combined) is
slightly less frequent in right hands (12.0 per cent vs. 19.4
per cent) ; modal type 9 (positions 9 and 10) is also less frequent in right hands (36.8 per cent vs. 54.1 per cent), while
type 11 (positions 11, 12, and 13) is favored in right hands
(51.5 per cent vs. 26.7 per cent).
3. The line-D index, which expresses the radial extent of
line D as a proportionate value of the distance between triradii a and d, has a mean value of 64.65 .731 in right hands,
BIMANUAL VARIATION
*
227
55.80 .771 in lefts. The right-left indices of the line-D
index yield a mean value of 133.06 -+ 3.665.
4. The relations of lines A and D, as enumerated above,
indicate that right hands are characterized by transverse
alignments extending farther both radially and proximally
than in lefts, in which the contrast is exhibited by configurations which are more inclined toward the longitudinal. The
relations of lines B and C (tables 3 and 4) also exhibit
bimanual differences of the same character, though these lines
are not so well qualified to demonstrate the topography of
generalized configurations, being commonly involved in interdigital pat terns.
5. Line C is less frequently abortive or missing in right
hands (X, x, and 0 combined occur in 14.7 per cent of the
right hands, 25.4 per cent of the lefts).
6. The frequencies of the three characteristic main-line
formulae (11.9.7.-, 9.7.5.-, and 7.5.5.-) reflect the bimanual
differences observed in the separate lines, omitting line A.
7. The occurrences of axial triradii do not exhibit bimanual
differences, within the limits of description admitted by
formulation.
8. When the most proximal axial triradius present on each
palm is taken as a point of measurement, and its vertical distance from line a-d is determined, measurements ranging
from 24 to 87 mm. are obtained, with a mean distance of
66.75 +- .434 mm. in right hands, 67.72 .402 in lefts. While
the slight superiority of the left hands indicates a greater
‘shift proximally,’ it is apparently not statistically significant.
9. The ‘shift ulnarward’ of this most proximal axial triradius is significantly larger in right hands, with a mean
measurement (from a vertical erected to line a-d from triradius a; see fig. 1) of 44.3 -c .203 mm. as compared with
43.02+ .191 mm. in left hands. The range is from 27
to 69 mm.
10. Line T is traced from the distal radiant of the most
proximal axial triradius, and the distance of the terminal portion of the line from triradius a is measured (fig. 1); fusions
228
HAROLD CUMMINS, S. LECHE, AND K. McCLURE
with triradius a and entrances into position 11 are entered
as zero measurements. The measurements range from 0 to
27 mm. A very pronounced bimanual distinction is evident,
the mean in right hands being 12.31 k .183 mm.; in lefts,
7.64 2 .193 mm.
11. The maximum intertriradial dimension is a-b (fig. 1);
it ranges from 14 to 34 mm., with a mean of 22.34 t .lo5 mm.
in right hands; 23.40 2 .118 mm. in lefts. The superiorit)of the left hand is significant.
12. Intertriradial measurement b-c is the smallest of the
series, ranging from 6 to 27 mm., as well as the most variable
of the measurements between consecutive triradii. The mean
in right hands is 14.43 k .124 mm. ; in lefts, 14.26 f .I21 mm.,
there being no bimanual distinction.
13. Intertriradial measurement c-d ranges from 9 to 30
mm., with a mean in right hands of 20.57 .121 mm., and in
lefts, 20.74 k .119 mm. Again there is no demonstrable bimanual difference.
14. Dimension a-d ranges from 40 to 68 mm., and has a
mean value of 52.49 -+ A74 mm. in right hands and 53.08
.187 mm. in lefts, with apparently no significant bimanual
difference.
15. The five palmar configuration areas show noteworthy
birnanual differences in the proportion of true patterns and
open fields. The right hand leads in the frequency of true
patterns in the hypothenar, second interdigital and third
interdigital areas, while the left hand bears more thenar/first
interdigital and fourth interdigital patterns.
16. The variabilities of the dimensional characters, as indicated by their coefficients of variation, present striking
differences.
Coefficients of the right-left indices are enormous in the
instance of several features. Coefficients of variation of the
right-left indices of the eight dimensions measured give the
following order of increasing variability, the coefficients
stated in the nearest whole numbers; a-d, 5 ; a-b, 10; shift
ulnarward of axial triradius, 11 ; shift proximally of axial
BIMANUAL VARIATION
229
triradius, 12 ; c-d, 13; b-c, 19 ; line-D index, 71 ; shift of line T
from triradius a, 121.
The order of ascending magnitude in the coefficients of variation of the absolute values of the measurements is as follows, the coefficients being again given in the nearest whole
number, that of the right hand preceding the left in each
instance : a-d, 9/9 ; shift ulnarward of axial triradius, 12/11 ;
a-b, 12/13; c-d, 15/14; shift proximally of axial triradius,
17/15; b-c, 22/21; line-D index, 29/36; shift of line T from
triradius a, 38/65. These figures would suggest that modification is in process, and marked bimanual differences in
variation of the same features may indicate that the modifications are in some way causally associated with differential
bimanual progress in such modification. The line-D index
and shift of line T certainly merit attention in this regard,
not only because the range of variation is great in both hands,
but also in view of the bimanual difference in magnitude of
variation. In the case of dimension a-b, for instance, where
a bimanual difference in actual value is noted, but with
neither a pronounced nor significantly different coefficient of
variation in the two hands, it may be assumed that the modification has reached a relative stability.
17. Sexual differences in the occurrences of main lines and
patterns may possibly exist, but large collections would be
necessary for proof of the significance of such differential
incidences as are shown in the tables, Dimensional values are
throughout smaller in females, in keeping with the sexual difference in hand size. This finding, however, is less a matter
of dermatoglyphic variation than of hand size. If the rightleft indices of the eight measurements be compared in the two
sexes, it will be found that in every instance except one (c-d)
the female indices approach equality more closely than those
of the male. The consistency of the relationship may, notwithstanding the absence of statistical proof, be indicative of
an actual sexual difference.
230
HAROLD CUMMINS, S. LECHE, AND K. McCLURE
L I T E R A T U R E CITED
CUMMINS,H. 1930 Dermatoglyphics in negroes of West Africa (Liberia and
Sierra Leone). Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., vol. 14.
1930 Dermatoglyphics in Indians of Southern Mexico and Central
America. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., vol. 15.
CUMMINS, H., AND C. MIDLO 1926 Palmar and plantar epidermal ridge configurations (dermatoglyphics) in European-Americans. Am. J. Phys.
Anthrop., vol. 9.
CUXXIXS, H., AND C. MIDLO 1927 Dermatoglgphics in Jews. Am. J. Phys.
Anthrop., vol. 10.
H. H. WILDER,AND
CUMNINS,H., H. H. KEITH,C. MIDLO,R. B. MONTGOMERY,
I. W. WILDER 1928 Study of error in interpretation and formulation of palmar dermatoglyphics. Am. J. Phgs. Anthrop., vol. 11.
1929 Revised methods of interpreting and formulating palmar
dermatoglyphics. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., vol. 12.
KEITH,H. H. 1924 Racial differences in t h e papillary lines of the palm. Am.
J. Phys. Anthrop., vol. 7.
I. D. 1929 Palmar dermatoglyphics in negro-white crosses. CarSTEGGERDA,
negie Inst. of Washington, pub. no. 395.
STRONG,
A. McI. 1929 An improved method of palm-printing. Science, vol. 69,
no. 1783.
VALSIK,5. A. 1928a The problem of right- and left-handedness in the light
of epidermal configurations of the palm of the hand. Casopis lekaru
Ceskych, vol. 67. ( I n Czech, with summary in English.)
__- - 1928b An essay on a new expression of the epidermic formulas
of the human palm. Casopis lekaru Ceskych, vol. 67. ( I n Czech, with
summary in English.)
WILDER,H. H. 1904 Racial differences i n palm and sole configuration. Amer.
Anthrop., vol. 6.
1916 Palm and sole studies. Biol. Bull., vol. 30.
1922 Racial differences in palm and sole configuration. Palm and
sole prints of Japanese and Chinese. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., vol. 5.
WILDER,H. H., AND B. WENTWORTH1918 Personal identification. Badger,
New York.
(Since the manuscript of this paper was submitted f o r publication there has
appeared a n account by H. H. Newman (Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., vol. 14, no. 3,
1930), dealing with the palmar dermatoglyphs of one hundred pairs of twins.
I n his p ar t 11, Newniaii treats the “ statistical differences between the dermatoglyphics of right and left hands” i n the series of 200 individuals, with reference
to the topography of main lines and occurrences of patterns, comparable with
the results shown in tables 1 t o 6, inclusive, and table 17 of the present account.)
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