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Blood stream in the labyrinth of the ear of dog and of man.

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ABBTRACT O F T R 1 8 P A P E R IBBUED
BY T H E B I B L I O Q R I P A I C S E R V I C E , S E P P E M B E R 10
AUTHOR’B
BLOOD STREAM I N THE LABYRINTH O F THE EAR
OF DOG ,4ND OF MAN
GEORGE E. SHAMBAUGH
Chicago, Illinois
SIX FIGURES
Some years ago I worked out the blood supply in its minutest
details for the labyrinth of the domestic pig.1 Later I worked
out the blood vessels in the labyrinth of the sheep and the calf.2
I also published a report on the communications of the blood
vessels in the internal ear and those in the bony capsule for the
labyrinth of the calf.$
In each of the species, I found that the sole arterial supply
for the internal ear came through a single vessel which found
its entrance to the labyrinth by way of the meatus acusticus
internus. There was a single exception where as an anatomical
variation in the calf, an arterial trunk penetrated the capsule
to supply the crus commune and the adjoining crurae of the
superior and posterior canals. In each of these species, the
venous blood drained through a single vessel which left the
labyrinth along with the aquaeductus cochleae. A single
exception was found, again in the labyrinth of the calf, where
as an anatomical variation the vein of the crus commune was
occasionally found to leave the labyrinth along the aquaeductus
vestibuli.
This arrangement of the venous system was quite different
from that which Siebenmann4 had described for the human ear.
Decennial Publications, University of Chicago Press, 1003.
Zeitschrift fur Ohrenhcilkunde, Bd. 43, 1904.
3 Zeitschrift fur Ohrenheillrunde, Bd. 50, S. 327-336.
Die Blutgefiisse in Labyrinthe des menschlichen Ohres. F. I?. Bergmann,
Wiesbnden, 1804.
189
1
2
T H E ANERICdN JOLTRNIL OF .4NATOMY, YOL.
32.
NO
2
,
190
GEORGE E. SHAMBAUGH
This investigator found regularly three veins leaving the labyrinth, one through the aquaeductus cochleae, the second through
the aquaeductus vestibuli and a third through the meatus
,~
under Professor
acusticus internus. I n 1908 K. A ~ a i working
Siebenmann, published the results of a study of the blood vessels
in the labyrinth of the rat and the dog. I n both of these species,
hsai described practically the identical distribution of the
venous trunks leaving the labyrinth as Siebenmann had found
for the human ear.
I n 1910, I worked out the blood supply of the labyrinth of
the dog and for man. I completed the drawings of the same
but did not publish the results except in a brief report before the
American Otological Society.6 I n the meantime, Denjira Nabeya,
under my direction, worked out the blood supply for the labyrinth
of the guinea-pig, the rabbit, and the
I n each of these
species, a single arterial trunk constituted the sole arterial supply
for the entire labyrinth. Special interest attaches to his findings
regarding the venous trunks leaving the labyrinth. His results
were in accord with the observations I had previously made.
I n both the guinea-pig and the cat, all the veins draining the
labyrinth are collected into a single trunk which leaves along
the aquaeductus cochleae. I n the rabbit, he found in addition
to this vein, another draining the vestibule and the semicircular
canals which left the labyrinth along the aquaeductus vestibuli.
I n the cat d o n e was he able to distinguish a vein in the meatus
internus which, however, he does not believe drained blood
from the internal ear.
I n this report I present the drawings of the blood vessels of
the labyrinth of the dog and of man.
5Anatomische Hefte, Bd. 36, 1908.
The Venous System of the Labyrinth. Trans. American Otological Society,
1910.
' The Anatomical Record, vol. 22, no. 3, Oct., 1921.
BLOOD VESSELS I N DOG AND MAN
191
THE DOG (fig. 1)
The work on the dog was carried out on two litters of pups,
fifteen in all. I n this series, I succeeded in getting a number of
quite perfect injections in which all of the arteries and capillaries as well as the veins were practically filled. I n all of these
the arterial supply came through the single vessel which entered
the labyrinth through the internal meatus. I n some of the
specimens I found a small artery which made its way to the
labyrinth along the aquaeductus cochleae and was distributed
to a small area of the perlosteum along the under surface of the
scala tympani.
The first branch given off from the labyrinthine artery is a
vessel which follows the ramus utriculus ampullaris and supplies
the macula acustica of the utricule, the cristae of the horizontal
and superior canals and the anterior crurae of these canals.
This is the anterior vestibular artery. The second branch supplies the crista of the posterior canal, the posterior crurae of the
posterior and horizontal canals, as well as the crus commune.
This is the posterior vestibular artery. A small branch from
this vessel ran out along the aquaeductus vestibuli.
The venous blood from the labyrinth of the dog was collected
into two trunks, the larger one leaving along the aquaeductus
cochleae, the lesser along the aquaeductus vestibuli. The
first of these collects all the blood from the cochlea, as well as
most of the blood from the capillaries supplied by the anterior
and posterior vestibular arteries. The usual arrangement was
that shown in the drawing, and was as follows: 1) A venous
trunk following the course of the anterior vestibular artery, the
anterior vestibular vein. This vessel drains the crista and the
anterior crus of the superior canal and receives branches from
the anterior crus of the horizontal canal. 2 ) A venous trunk
following the course of the posterior vestibular artery, the
posterior vestibular vein. This vessel drains the posterior crus
of the posterior canal and is joined by a vein from the anterior
crus of the horizontal canal which crosses the posterior aspect
of the vestibule passing under the aquaeductus vestibuli. 3) A
192
GEORGE E. SHAMBAUGH
rather large trunk which leaves along the aquaeductus vestibuli
and which drains blood from the crus commune, the posterior
crus of the horizontal canal with veins from the macula acustica
of the utricle, and the ampulla of the superior canal.
HUMAN ESR (figs. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)
It was more difficult to secure suitable material for the study
of the human labyrinth, especially since it is important in order
to make satisfactory injections that the material be as fresh
as possible. I succeeded in securing a few preparations showing
the complete arterial tree. More difficulty was experienced
in securing complete injections of the venous system. I n some
of the preparations, all of the veins were not completely injected.
Where drawings were made of such preparations, only those
veins which mere injected perfectly were illustrated. No effort
was made to fill out the drawings even when the deficiency
seemed quite obvious. Figure 2 shows a perfect injection of
the arterial tree. The trunk of the labyrinthine artery in the
internal meatus is preserved before any of its branches have
been given off. I n this preparation the first branch of the
labyrinthine artery is a substantial vessel which near the beginning of the basal coil of the cochlea separates into two divisions.
One of these supplies the proximal end of the basal coil, anastoniosing with the artery of the cochlea at about the junction
of the middle with the distal third of the basal coil. The other
division turns back across the vestibule and becomes the posterior
vestibular artery. From this vessels are given off to supply
the niacula acustica of the saccule. One branch passes directly
:icross the posterior aspect of the vestibule toward the macula
acustica of the utricle. This vessel lies in the periosteum and
does not supply the capillaries of the mncula acustica. The
posterior vestibular artery supplies the crista acustica of the
posterior semicircular canal, the posterior crus of this canal and
of the horizontal canal as well as the crus commune.
The labyrinthine artery after giving off this first branch cont'inuev but n short distance when it divides into two trunks,
BLOOD VESSELS I N DOG AND MAN
193
one becoming the artery of the cochlea, the other following the
ramus utriculus ampullaris, constitutes the anterior vestibular
artery. From the latter vessel branches are given off to supply
the macular acustica of the utrkle, the crista acustica of the
superior and horizontal canals and the anterior crurae of these
canals.
From this arrangement of the arterial tree of the labyrinth,
it is apparent that disturbances of the circulation such as would
be produced by emboli are capable of destroying the function
of the several end organs as follows. An embolus lodging in
the trunk of the labyrinthine artery would suppress the function
of all the end organs, both in the cochlea as well as in the vestibule and semicircular canals. This phenomenon has been
repeatedly observed as the result of air emboli among caisson
workers. An embolus lodging in the first branch of the labyrinthine artery would destroy the blood supply for the proximal
two-thirds of the basal coil together with that of the macula
acustica of the saccule and the crista acustica of the posterior
canal. I n the same a-ay an embolus lodging in either of the
two divisions of this vessel would suppress the function of the
part of the basal coil supplied by it or the function of the macula
acustica of the saccule and the crista of the posterior canal.
Again, an embolus lodging in the labyrinthine artery after the
first trunk has been given off would suppress the organ of
Corti in all but the proximal two-thirds of the basal coil, the
macula acustica of the utricle and the crista acustica of the superior and horizontal canals. An embolus lodging in one of the two
divisions of this vessel would suppress the function of that part
of Corti’s organ described above or the function of the macula
acustica of the utricle with that of the crista acustica of the
horizontal and superior canals.
The venous system of the human labyrinth is more like that
of the dog than it is of the pig, the sheep, or the calf. Two
veins are always found leaving the labyrinth, one a t the aquaeductus cochleae, the other a t the aquaeductus vestibuli. The
vein of the aquaeductus cochleae, as in other species studied,
constitutes the main vessel draining the labyrinth. This vein
194
GEORGE E. SHAMBAUGH
drains the entire cochlea as well as part of the vestibule and semicircular canals. Figure 3 shows an injection of the entire venous
system of the labyrinth. The vein of the aquaeductus cochleae
in addition to carrying off the blood from the entire cochlea
drains the macula acustica of the saccule and through the anterior vestibular vein drains the macula acustica of the utricle
and the crista acustica of the superior and horizontal canals.
The anterior crurae of these canals are drained by a vessel which
escapes along the aquaeductus vestibuli. The crista acustica
of the posterior canal as well as the posterior crus of this and of
the horizontal canal also drain through the vein of the aquaeductus vestibuli. Practically an identical venous system is
shown in figure 5. I n figure 4, on the other hand, only a very
small part of the venous blood from the semicircular canals
leaves along the aquaeductus vestibuli. I n this preparation
the typical anterior and posterior vestibular were present, both
draining into the vein of the aquaeductus cochleae. The posterior vestibular vein drained the crista of the posterior canal,
the posterior crus of this and of the horizontal canal, as well
as a part of the crus commune. The anterior vestibular vein
drained the cristae of the superior and horizontal canals, the
veins of the anterior crurae of the horizontal and superior canals
form separate vessels which apparently join the vein of the
aquaeductus vestibuli. The injection of these vessels was not
complete so that it could not be determined definitely whether
they emptied into the vein of the aquaeductus vestibuli or
crossed the vestibule t o the vein of the aquaeductus cochleae.
Figure 6 shows the horizontal canal of the human labyrinth
with a complete injection of all the blood vessels, arteries, capillaries and veins.
195
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