An ecological and behavioural study of the pig-tailed macaque. By J.O. Caldecott. Basel S. Karger 1986. xiv + 262 pp. figures tables. $49код для вставкиСкачать
132 BOOK REVIEWS ent ways percoid and cichlid fish are able to protrude their jaws. Does this mean that the structures, the suspensorium and the maxilla, which are involved in the two types of jaw protrusion, are really unassociated (“mechanically decoupled”), since cichlid fish can protrude their jaw without utilizing the suspensorium mechanical pathway, or that fish jaws function in different ways with some fish possessing the ability to protrude their jaw in several ways and others in only one? Whether one structure exerts influence on another is a matter of functional analysis, but is this the same as a network of interacting constraints? Yes, organisms have constraints imposed on them by history, ontogeny, body size, optimal design for a given fimction or functions, and environmental constraints (e.g., convergence for movement in aquatic environments); yet, are the mechanical limits or the limits in biological materials in morphological design the same as networks of interacting constraints imposed on structure A by structure B? I think not. Biological constraints affect the whole organism and thus biological structures are composites of adaptation. Furthermore, biological structures may not be optimally designed but only “good enough” to accomplish the function(s) a t hand. Besides these minor criticisms, Functional Vertebrate Morphology is a book that achieves its goal as a n advanced level textbook on functional morphology. Although I for one hope that morphologists will continue to occupy a center stage in modern biology, I think that molecular biologists may well have something to say about this prophecy. AN ECOLOGICAL AND BEHAVIOURAL STUDY OF THE PIG-TAILED MACAQUE. By J.O. Caldecott. Basel: S. Karger, 1986. xiv 262 pp., figures, tables. $49.50 (cloth). social behavior, and the report ends with a chapter on conclusions, suggestions for future research, and extensive appendices giving a thorough listing of floral elements in the study areas and food sources for the pigtailed macaques. For anyone who has worked with primates in relatively accessible areas, which allow the observer to follow and see most of the animals in the group most of the time, the difficulties of observations in the full tropical forest as exemplified by the dipterocarp forests involved in this study seem to preclude any fully adequate study of social behavior. On the other hand, it affords the opportunity to observe a n ecology with a multitude of elements in operation and the position of the primates in that rich complexity. Caldecott has made the most of his opportunities in gathering the data and presenting a full picture of the ecological setting in which pigtailed macaques must survive, and he does a careful analysis of their maintenance activities in relation to the ecology. One finishes the chapter on the habitat with the setting for a discussion of pig-tailed macaque adaptation well established. He proceeds to a thorough analysis of the maintenance activities of the species. He shows the differences in support use through the branches by age and size classes of monkeys as well as the size of the home ranges. He charts the pro- + Caldecott reports on 29 months of field research during 1979-1981 on pig-tailed macaques. He includes a thorough analysis of the habitat a t three localities where the study was conducted: two with unlogged forest and one logged. Transects of the forests at Pasoh and Limas Belas in the Malay Peninsula were used to evaluate the forest composition and production as related to the needs of the macaques. The changing food abundance throughout the annual cycle was assessed and related to the activities of the monkeys. A long chapter is devoted to feeding and ranging patterns, activity, and energy budgets. It includes a thorough comparison with other species of macaques and attempts to put the information in a n evolutionary perspective which relates degree of arboreality, food resource density, and phylogenetic history. The subgroup foraging of several related species of macaques (Macaca silenus, M. nemestrina, M. pagensis, and M. nigra) in spite of differences in habitat is taken as evidence that those species have retained a common ancestral foraging pattern in spite of moving into somewhat different ecologies. Shorter chapters cover vocal behavior and DANIELL. GEBO Department of Anthropology Duke University Durham, North Carolina 133 BOOK REVIEWS portion of movement in the various levels of the forest through the day and relates their movements to the food production of the forest. He compares pig-tailed macaques to the activities of the sympatric species (Presbytis obscura, P metalophus, Hylobates lar, and M. fascicularis). He concludes that pig-tailed macaques move quickly over wider ranges than their competing frugivores and skim off the better quality food. Since Caldecott describes his techniques of observation as including focal animal sampling, one suspects that there are data on individuals that could be included. But the social interactions are reported more on the basis of categories of animals: juveniles, adolescent males, adult females, and adult males. The analysis is very interesting, showing that pig-tailed macaques are quite different than the other species of macaques that have been the model for “the macaque” for so long. Social groups approach the harem condition of hamadryas baboons, being made up of subgroups of one adult male to five to eight adult females, and these subgroups forage rather independently of other subgroups with the whole group widely dispersed in clumped subgroups. SEXAND FRIENDSHIP IN BABOONS. By Barbara Boardman Smuts. New York: Aldine Publishing Company. xvi + 303 pp., figures, tables, appendices, index. $34.95 (cloth). The contrasts between pig-tailed macaques and other macaque species reported here emphasize a point evolutionary anthropologists and primatologists need to keep in mind: A genus, like Macaca, can be extremely diverse in its adaptations; therefore, assumptions about the genus based on Japanese macaques, rhesus macaques, and bonnet macaque in this case strongly bias the picture of the genus as a whole. While another 10 years of field work would improve the social section of this study considerably, it stands as another milestone in our understanding of primate diversity and adaptation. Caldecott’s book is suitable as a case study for upper division and graduate courses in primatology, but its price will probably relegate it to use as a source for professional primatologists. PAULE. SIMONDS Department of Anthropology University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon not simply historical accidents or idiosyncratic expressions of baboon psychology, but rather that they are products of evolution analogous to phenomena with more obvious adaptive value, such as maternal care or predator avoidance. (p. 7) The ten chapters of Sex and Friendship in Baboons explore the intratroop social dynamics of a troop of olive baboons (Papio cynocephalus anubis) known as the Eburru Cliffs (EC) troop. In chapter 1 Smuts outlines A general overview of the taxonomy, habiher focus and theoretical perspective and tat, reproduction, and social behavior of satakes a sociobiological approach to the question “what role does male-female friendship vannah baboons (i.e., olive, yellow, and play in the life of a baboon?” She writes: chacma baboons) is presented in the beginning of chapter 2. The later part of chapter 2 provides a description of the EC troop, which Has natural selection favored is one of several troops that inhabit the Kekfriendship among baboons? Speopey cattle ranch near the town of Gilgil, cifically, does having a friend of Kenya. At the beginning of the study there the opposite sex help a n individwere 115 baboons in the troop of which 40 ual to maximize his or her genetic adult and adolescent females and 18 adult contribution to future generaand subadult males were the subjects of this tions? These questions assume study. The main research period was bethat male-female friendships are tween September 1977 and December 1978.