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An ecological and behavioural study of the pig-tailed macaque. By J.O. Caldecott. Basel S. Karger 1986. xiv + 262 pp. figures tables. $49

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ent ways percoid and cichlid fish are able to
protrude their jaws. Does this mean that the
structures, the suspensorium and the maxilla, which are involved in the two types of
jaw protrusion, are really unassociated (“mechanically decoupled”), since cichlid fish can
protrude their jaw without utilizing the suspensorium mechanical pathway, or that fish
jaws function in different ways with some
fish possessing the ability to protrude their
jaw in several ways and others in only one?
Whether one structure exerts influence on
another is a matter of functional analysis,
but is this the same as a network of interacting constraints? Yes, organisms have constraints imposed on them by history,
ontogeny, body size, optimal design for a
given fimction or functions, and environmental constraints (e.g., convergence for movement in aquatic environments); yet, are the
mechanical limits or the limits in biological
materials in morphological design the same
as networks of interacting constraints imposed on structure A by structure B? I think
not. Biological constraints affect the whole
organism and thus biological structures are
composites of adaptation. Furthermore, biological structures may not be optimally designed but only “good enough” to accomplish
the function(s) a t hand.
Besides these minor criticisms, Functional
Vertebrate Morphology is a book that achieves
its goal as a n advanced level textbook on
functional morphology. Although I for one
hope that morphologists will continue to occupy a center stage in modern biology, I think
that molecular biologists may well have
something to say about this prophecy.
By J.O. Caldecott. Basel: S. Karger, 1986. xiv 262 pp.,
figures, tables. $49.50 (cloth).
social behavior, and the report ends with a
chapter on conclusions, suggestions for future research, and extensive appendices giving a thorough listing of floral elements in
the study areas and food sources for the pigtailed macaques.
For anyone who has worked with primates
in relatively accessible areas, which allow
the observer to follow and see most of the
animals in the group most of the time, the
difficulties of observations in the full tropical
forest as exemplified by the dipterocarp forests involved in this study seem to preclude
any fully adequate study of social behavior.
On the other hand, it affords the opportunity
to observe a n ecology with a multitude of
elements in operation and the position of the
primates in that rich complexity. Caldecott
has made the most of his opportunities in
gathering the data and presenting a full picture of the ecological setting in which pigtailed macaques must survive, and he does a
careful analysis of their maintenance activities in relation to the ecology. One finishes
the chapter on the habitat with the setting
for a discussion of pig-tailed macaque adaptation well established. He proceeds to a
thorough analysis of the maintenance activities of the species. He shows the differences
in support use through the branches by age
and size classes of monkeys as well as the
size of the home ranges. He charts the pro-
Caldecott reports on 29 months of field research during 1979-1981 on pig-tailed macaques. He includes a thorough analysis of
the habitat a t three localities where the study
was conducted: two with unlogged forest and
one logged. Transects of the forests at Pasoh
and Limas Belas in the Malay Peninsula
were used to evaluate the forest composition
and production as related to the needs of the
macaques. The changing food abundance
throughout the annual cycle was assessed
and related to the activities of the monkeys.
A long chapter is devoted to feeding and
ranging patterns, activity, and energy budgets. It includes a thorough comparison with
other species of macaques and attempts to
put the information in a n evolutionary perspective which relates degree of arboreality,
food resource density, and phylogenetic history. The subgroup foraging of several related species of macaques (Macaca silenus,
M. nemestrina, M. pagensis, and M. nigra) in
spite of differences in habitat is taken as
evidence that those species have retained a
common ancestral foraging pattern in spite
of moving into somewhat different ecologies.
Shorter chapters cover vocal behavior and
Department of Anthropology
Duke University
Durham, North Carolina
portion of movement in the various levels of
the forest through the day and relates their
movements to the food production of the forest. He compares pig-tailed macaques to the
activities of the sympatric species (Presbytis
obscura, P metalophus, Hylobates lar, and
M. fascicularis). He concludes that pig-tailed
macaques move quickly over wider ranges
than their competing frugivores and skim off
the better quality food.
Since Caldecott describes his techniques of
observation as including focal animal sampling, one suspects that there are data on
individuals that could be included. But the
social interactions are reported more on the
basis of categories of animals: juveniles, adolescent males, adult females, and adult
males. The analysis is very interesting,
showing that pig-tailed macaques are quite
different than the other species of macaques
that have been the model for “the macaque”
for so long. Social groups approach the harem condition of hamadryas baboons, being
made up of subgroups of one adult male to
five to eight adult females, and these
subgroups forage rather independently of
other subgroups with the whole group widely
dispersed in clumped subgroups.
By Barbara Boardman Smuts. New York: Aldine
Publishing Company. xvi + 303 pp., figures, tables, appendices, index. $34.95
The contrasts between pig-tailed macaques
and other macaque species reported here emphasize a point evolutionary anthropologists
and primatologists need to keep in mind: A
genus, like Macaca, can be extremely diverse in its adaptations; therefore, assumptions about the genus based on Japanese
macaques, rhesus macaques, and bonnet macaque in this case strongly bias the picture of
the genus as a whole. While another 10 years
of field work would improve the social section
of this study considerably, it stands as another milestone in our understanding of primate diversity and adaptation.
Caldecott’s book is suitable as a case study
for upper division and graduate courses in
primatology, but its price will probably relegate it to use as a source for professional
Department of Anthropology
University of Oregon
Eugene, Oregon
not simply historical accidents or
idiosyncratic expressions of baboon psychology, but rather that
they are products of evolution
analogous to phenomena with
more obvious adaptive value, such
as maternal care or predator
avoidance. (p. 7)
The ten chapters of Sex and Friendship in
Baboons explore the intratroop social dynamics of a troop of olive baboons (Papio cynocephalus anubis) known as the Eburru
Cliffs (EC) troop. In chapter 1 Smuts outlines
A general overview of the taxonomy, habiher focus and theoretical perspective and
reproduction, and social behavior of satakes a sociobiological approach to the question “what role does male-female friendship vannah baboons (i.e., olive, yellow, and
play in the life of a baboon?” She writes: chacma baboons) is presented in the beginning of chapter 2. The later part of chapter 2
provides a description of the EC troop, which
Has natural selection favored
is one of several troops that inhabit the Kekfriendship among baboons? Speopey cattle ranch near the town of Gilgil,
cifically, does having a friend of
Kenya. At the beginning of the study there
the opposite sex help a n individwere 115 baboons in the troop of which 40
ual to maximize his or her genetic
adult and adolescent females and 18 adult
contribution to future generaand subadult males were the subjects of this
tions? These questions assume
study. The main research period was bethat male-female friendships are
tween September 1977 and December 1978.
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karger, caldecott, figuren, macaque, pig, tailed, ecological, 1986, 262, base, xiv, behaviour, stud, tablet
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