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An introduction to human evolutionary anatomy. By Leslie C. Aiello and Christopher Dean. San Diego Academic Press. 1990. x + 596 pp. $49.95 (paper)

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being explicit about what it means to be
human, it is easy for Schroeder to throw out
lines like “. . . neither Neanderthal nor CroMagnon evolved into human beings.” Nothing else is said about the hominid fossil
record so it is im ossible to know what he
thinks the Cro-dagnon
fossils are if not
Homo sapiens.
Whereas critical concerJts like “life” and
“human”are never definGd, many terms get
defined in the glossary that have no relevance to the text. In several cases these
gratuitous definitions reveal a lack of famil-
iarity with current biology. The definition of
ontogeny (misspelled ‘ontogony’)completely
recapitulates classic recapitulationism without ualification.
Sc roeder’s exe esis ends with Adam. Presumably he takes oah‘s saga with a grain of
Department of Anatomy
Dalhousie University
Hal ifax, Nova Scotia
to 1)phylogenetic reconstruction, 2) anatomANATOMY.
By Leslie C. Aiello and Christo- ical terminology, and 3) the microanatomy of
pher Dean. San Diego: Academic Press. muscle and bone. Each is brief and yet intel1990. x + 596 pp. $49.95 (paper).
ligible. The chapter on microanatomy is particularly noteworthy, as it doesn’t get
bogged-down in minutiae (e. ., arrangeAt first glance, this might seem to be just ments of muscle fibres), but $oes include
another anatomy text-perhaps
an ex- additional sections on issues such as muscle
panded version of the recent textbook by contraction and lever systems.
Cartmill et al. (1987). However, closer examThe next ten chapters focus on the head
ination reveals that it is somethin very and neck. The first two of these are introducdifferent: a human evolution textboo writ- tory surveys of 1)the bones of the skull, and
ten from an anatomical perspective. Thus, 2) the comparative morpholo of the homiwhile it probably cannot be used as a text in noid mandible and cranium. R e s e chapters
medical school anatomy courses, its unique set the stage for subsequent discussions of a
blend of anatomy and paleontology will be diverse range of topics including mastication
extremely useful for a wide range of students and tooth morphology. Given the research
and researchers in anthropology, anatomy, interests of the authors, some of the topics
and paleontolo .
(microanatomy and development of teeth,
The book is ivided into 23 chapters, most the cervical spine, and su port of the
of which cover specific anatomical re ‘ons. head) represent very usefu summaries/
Throu hout the text, new terms are igh- expansions of previously-published work or
lightejin bold. A thorough list of references thesis work. Other discussions, such as that
(generally through 1988) is presented at the of the intracranial region, are welcome surend of the book, as is a very useful index. One prises that have never been effectively suminteresting feature of the index is the inclu- marized in textbooks. Finally, the authors
sion of paleontologxal sites and museum are to be congratulated for their evens ecimen numbers and the exclusion of au- handed discussion of topics within the head
t ors’ names-a welcome change in this age and neck that have previously been the subof distracting, instant publicity.
ject of emotional discussion and debate (e. .,
The anatomical regions covered in this the interpretation of endocasts, and t e
book are dictated by the hominid fossil anatomy of the vocal tract).
record. Thus, the overwhelming emphasis is
Not sur risingly, the remaining chapters
on bony anatomy, and certain regions are focus on t e postcranial skeleton. A chapter
either not covered (e.g., the ear), or are cov- on bipedal locomotion uses comparisons beered in more detail than might normally be tween apes and humans to outline the genfound in anatom texts (e.g., teeth). Still, the eral anatomical requirements for bipedaldiscussions are goth thorough and insight- ism. This chapter also provides useful
ful, and the illustrations are extremely use- discussions of body proportions and various
forms of size estimation including some of
The first three chapters are introductions Aiello’s previously-unpublished material.
While it would have been nice to see Ruffs
recent work on cross-sectional dia hyseal
properties (e.g., Ruff, 1987) include in the
discussion, this chapter will still be an extremely useful summary of information for
most workers. The next chapter, on the vertebral column and thorax, is another indication of 1) growing awareness of the functional importance of this re ’on (e.g.,
Shapiro, 1990; Ward, 1990) an 2) better
samples of fossil material from this anatomical iegion.
Discussion of each limb begins with a
chapter on the bones, muscles, and movements of that particular limb. Repeated comparisons between modern a es and humans
provide a good backgroun from which t o
continue into the more detailed comparisons
presented in the other chapters. Since the
anatomical changes associated with the evolution of bipedalism have focused more on
the lower limb than the u per, there are four
additional cha ters for t?
eIlower limb but
only two for t e u per. Each chapter proceeds from detaile morphological comparisons of modern hominoids into discussions of
fossil hominids grounded by taxa. Again, the
authors seem to give a very even-handed
presentation to such hot topics as Lucy’s ait
and the fingersofParanthropus. Part oft is,
however, is due to the lack of summaries in
these chapters. While a great deal of infor-
{ z
mation is presented in this portion of the
text, it is never pulled together into a coherent icture for each taxon. As a result, many
realers will have difficulty weighing the
locomotor alternatives for each taxon, and
the authors are never really forced to summarize their views. Perhaps this is intentional. The net effect is to leave many topics
o en for discussion for years to come-with
tl! is text as the starting point for many of
those discussions. After readin throu h the
vast array of to ics covered by t is boo ,one
can’t help but Ipeel that the authors and the
illustrator have done us a great service.
8. i
Department of Cell Biology and Anatom
The Johns HoDkins Universitv School o r
Baltimore, Maryland 21205
Cartmill M, Hylander WL, and Shafland J (1987) Human Structure. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Ruff CB (1987) Structural allometry of the femur and
tibia in Hominoidea and Macaca. Folia Primatol.
Shapiro, LJ (1990) Vertebral morphology in the Hominoidea. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 81:294.
Ward CV (1990) The lumbar region of the Miocene
hominoid Proconsul nyanzae. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.
2nd ed. covered on an individual basis. Here a map is
By Clark Spencer Larsen, Robert M. Mat- included with a listing of the pertinent fossil
ter, and Daniel L. Gebo. Prospect Heights, sites.
IL: Waveland Press. 1991. xii + 207 pp.
For each specimen discussed, the reader is
$14.95 (paper).
given taxonomic affiliation, site, a proximate age, provenance and a general escripThis illustrated introduction to the human tion of the specimen. In this description one
fossil record is intended as a supplementary will find information on who found the specguide to human evolution for undergradu- imen, when it was found, its historical signifates. It is organized chronologically into icance and a synopsis of morpholo
eight sections, including an introductory sec- ings accompany each description, o tenDrawwith
tion which covers skeletal and dental mor- more than one view of the fossil. Accompanyghp’ofy, comparative anatomy, and very ing each fossil is a thorough listing of pertirief iscussions of paleoecology,bone chem- nent references, which serve to redirect the
istry, and fossilization. The bulk of the vol- reader to the most important works on the
ume is divided into seven sections which particular specimen.
The quality of drawings is uneven: some
serve as a “Cliffs Notes” to the fossil record,
beginning with “Dawn Apes” and culminat- are excellent reproductions, a few are uning with “Modern Homo sapiens.” Each of clear in critical details. The authors have
these sections begins with an overview of the striven for brevity in their general descriptime period and fossils that are subsequently tions, most of these consist of one or two
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diego, paper, 1990, lesli, 596, academic, human, dean, introduction, anatomy, christopher, evolutionary, san, pres, aiello
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