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An unusual distribution for height among males in a Warao Indian village A possible case of lineal effect.

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AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 53:397-405(1980)
An Unusual Distribution for Height Among Males in a
Warao Indian Village: A Possible Case of Lineal Effect
MARK L. FLEISCHMAN
Anthropology Department, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 1321 0
KEY WORDS Founder effect, Lineal effect, Height
distribution, Genetic and social isolation, Village budding
(fission)
ABSTRACT
The Warao Indian village of Jobure has two modes for height
within its adult male population. One mode is at 158 cm and the second occurs a t
169 cm. Mean height for adult males and females for this village is significantly
higher ( a 5 0.05) than for the other Warao villages studied. Examination of the
males involved shows that all unusually tall males, except two, are siblings or first
cousins and are related to a taller than average village patriarch who is married to
the tallest woman in the village.
The Warao possess a social system that encourages the formation of small
enclaves that are biased samples of the general population and consist of closely
related individuals. The physical environment is such that villages only short
distances apart may be socially isolated, thus inhibiting gene flow from adjacent
settlements. The height distribution observed in the village of Jobure is considered
to be the result of repetitive sampling along kinship lines and has been preserved
by the physical and social environment.
Fieldwork among the Warao Indians of
North East Venezuela has resulted in an observation of what appears to be a lineal effect involving height for one of seven villages studied.
Founder effect in small human populations has
been analyzed and documented since 1964 by
Neel and his co-workers at the University of
Michigan (Neel et al., 1964;Arends et al., 1967;
Neel and Salzano, 1967; Roberts, 1968; Chagnon et al., 1970; Spielman et al., 1972; Ward,
1972; Spielman, 1973; Thompson and Neel
1978).D.F. Roberts in 1968demonstrated varying generational contributions to the island
population of Tristan da Cuna. These publications have laid to rest any doubts about the
presence of founder effect as an active microevolutionary force in living human populations. The results of this stochastic process
are expected to be documented most readily
among single gene traits within a population as
their frequencies shift around the mean over
generations. Populations that are broken into
small enclaves are known to be susceptible to
this effect.
Neel and Salzano in 1967 differentiated between founder effect as a n occasional small,
random draw from a population, and lineal effect which results from consistent and repeti0002-948318015303-0397$02.000 1980 ALAN R.LISS, INC
tive sampling along kinship lines in those
societies that demonstrate a process of village
fission or budding. Founder effect usually is
associated with a n occasional accident in which
a relatively small random sample of a village,
band, tribe, etc., buds off or survives and, due to
its size,does not accurately reflect the gene pool
from which it came. If the effects of this random
draw are to be sustained, the bud or survivors
must either remain autonomous or join another
subpopulation with a similarly biased representation of its own. The result of founder effect
is a genetic sample that could occur a t random
from any very unequal division of a population.
Lineal effect cannot actually be detected unless repetitive schisms take place. The biased
sample (bud) does not represent the effect of
small numbers so much as an over representation of particular kin lines. Melding of the sample back into the population does not necessarily result in loss of the genetic effect since other
local populations also demonstrate lineal
biases that may be augmented by fusion (Ward,
1972).The most important distinction between
lineal and founder effect is the lack of random
sampling in the former.
Received March 30, 1979; accepted April 25, 1980.
398
MARK L. FLEISCHMAN
The results of these two types of gene pool
sampling can be hypothesized as follows: in
founder effect the genetic sample (bud) may be
represented in a new, autonomous village,
band, or tribe and thus sustained as a new gene
pool or a local variation, or the bud may rejoin a
larger representative segment of the population with a resultant masking of the initial
sampling effect. A lesser possibility is the joining of the bud with another similarly biased
population segment. This would sustain the
sampling error, but since social survival necessitates considering that there is a low incidence
of traumatic division the probability of this occurrance at random is low. With lineal effect,
once again a new autonomous village, etc., may
be formed sustaining the results of the initial
draw, or fusion into another subpopulation may
occur. However, in this case we are considering
a social situation in which sampling is a regular occurrence over time and takes place along
kinship lines. It becomes muchmore likely that
population segments will not genetically represent the general population to begin with. As a
result the probability of fusion with a local
group whose gene pool will sustain the sampling effect already present in the bud is increased.
The Warao exhibit village fission and recall
previous village ties when requested to do so.
Warao villages and society are organized along
lineal relationships that result in biologically
close, socially related males marrying into the
same preferentially endogamous enclaves. A
larger village is able to supply acceptable
spouses to more of its own males. Smaller villages and recent buds lose their males to associated enclaves. Socially related males follow
one another in their search for mates and thus
become part of the same village and, a t times,
the same family. This leads to a situation in
which certain families and certain villages become the regular recipients for males from another enclave. There are some households
where several brothers have married several
sisters. Sons-in-law in a household tend to be
related biologically, bilineally , and are usually
from the same natal village. The same can be
said for males coming into a village from the
outside. Males marrying within their natal village tend to follow their close male relatives by
marrying into the same households or families.
Thus, close biological ties are represented between males whether within or between extended families in any village. When settlements bud off from one another these biolog-
ical and social ties strongly affect the results of
the subdivision of the original group giving the
lineal effect of Neel and Salzano.
An initial or individual genetic result of village budding would appear to be the same as
founder effect. However, as the budding continues over time with sampling along genetic
lines instead of cross cutting various relationships, the result is perpetuation of characteristics that run in certain family groups and
their localization in specific villages. This
would appear to be the case for an unusual
aggregation of much taller than average males
in the Warao village of Jobure.
The Warao Indians reside principally in the
section of Venezuala along the Caribbean coast
near the (British) Guiana border. The major
portion of this area is covered by the delta of the
Orinoco River. In physical character the land is
harsh, providing little support for human survival. The forest floor is mud, most of which is
covered by water to varying depths. Travel by
foot, except for a few yards a t a time, is impossible, making travel by navigable waterways a
necessity. The serpentine wandering of the
channels and lack of firm, dry land act as isolating mechanisms. Two enclaves a short distance
apart, but on different streams, are often members of separate local groups in spite of their
proximity.
Genetic isolation of villages is further encouraged by the Warao social system in which
village endogamy is preferred and residence is
matriuxorilocal (Heinen, 1972). Various enclaves may be related lineally through the
process of budding or fission-the process described by Neel and his fellow workers in their
studies on the Xavante and Yanomama Indians. Fission occurs often enough among the
Warao to keep village size small but there is no
lack of sources for marriage partners among
related enclaves. A bud may be related either
directly to ego's village by lineal derivation or
may be a homologously derived bud (related
through a common settlement).
The Warao have historically isolated themselves from strangers and neighbors in order to
survive. Small breeding groups composed of related village buds characterize the populational distribution in a physical area where
long-distance travel is prohibitive. Informants
are unable with one recent exception to recall
the fusion of two villages, or the entry of a
village bud into a n established settlement.' Be'Oral communication from Heinen 1967
399
AN UNUSUAL DISTRIBUTION FOR HEIGHT AMONG MALES
liefs in black magic among the Warao further
discourage village fusion. One type of shaman
is said to protect the inhabitants by detecting
evil spells being cast by others and by casting
such spells in return. This individual does not
practice his art on close relatives but feels no
such moral compunction about strangers or
more distant relatives. People entering a village might be subject to evil spells by the shaman unless they are close relatives of the practitioner or are marrying into the group (Wilbert, 1972). This joint effect between the social
and physical environment brings about a state
of affairs in which metric traits can form erratic
clusters around the population mean.
METHOD AND DATA
The data in this study is part of a sample
gathered in the two areas of the Orinoco Delta
(Fleischman, 1975, 1976, 1980). Within each
area a number of related villages were visited
and all healthy adults (individuals 17+ years)
available were subjected to measurement.
Genealogies already gathered and used in pre-
vious field study by Wilbert and Layrisse2
served as check lists in an attempt to ensure
full participation. In villages not studied previously, genealogies were gathered but should be
considered as incomplete. Seven villages were
visited and a total of 340 individuals were
measured. Measurements were in no way based
on consanguinity.
The two areas of the delta from which samples were drawn are separated socially, linguistically (dialectical differences),and genetically
(Fig. 1).During the course of this study only one
person from the Winikina area was found living in the Jobure-Sacupana complex of settlements. The mission village of Guayo was the
only settlement with a mixture of people from
either complex of settlements. Informants from
both areas emphasized the differences between
the “sub-cultures.” Villages in the JobureSacupana area were larger and allowed first
cousin marriage. In Winikina the villages were
smaller and preferred to avoid first cousin mar2Copies ofpersonally obtained genealogies were given to the author.
VllldqQs
hanokoida
2 mariusa
3 espaRa
4 kuberuna
5 a. bisi
6 sacupana
1 winikind
7Jobure
Fig. 1. Map of portion of Orincco Delta where the villages of Winikina, Sacupana, and Jobure are found. Scale: 1 cm
13.34 kilometers.
=
400
RilARK L. FLEISCHMAN
riage (Heinen, 1972). Of the seven villages
studied, four were from the Winikina area, but
one of these was a more recent settlement by
people from the less acculturated Mariusa section of the delta (Hanakahamana). The other
three settlements were: Winikina (Yaruara
Okoho), Espana, and Kuberuna. Jobure, Sacupana, and Aruguaibisi represent the second
cultural area of the delta. Jobure and Sacupana
are near one another while Aruguaibisi is
halfway between these two and the Winikina
complex.
In the villages of Winikina and Espana combined, 115 adults were measured composing a
6Wo sample of those adults recorded in the
genealogy. In Hanakahamana 32 adults
formed a 25% sample; for Kuberuna 20 adults
formed a 16% sample. In the second area of the
delta, 61 adults in Sacupana formed a 40%
sample, 51 in Jobure gave a 35% sample, and 60
in Aruaibisi gave a 45% sample. Genealogies
were incomplete for Aruaibisi, Hanakahamana, and Kuberuna; therefore, the present
samples are estimates based on the size of
known villages. This writer made all the measurements excluding the possibility of interpersonal error.
The hypothesis being considered as H, is
that the average village height of the Jobure
males is significantly different (P 5 0.05) from
the average male height among the other
Warao villages and that this height is due to a
contribution by a single family line and is not
due to assortative mating for height. Means
and variances were calculated on the measurements for each village and compared to each
other by a one-way anova using a P of 0.05 or
less as significant (Table 1)as well as a paired t
test, again P 5 0.05 (Table 2). A Pearson
product-moment correlation coefficient was determined for a sample of married couples from
Jobure to test for assortative mating by height
the hypothesis being that r is not significantly
different from zero. The anova was based on the
SPSS program “Oneway” (Nie et al., 1975). A
posteriori least significant difference (LSD)
test was requested along with the anova. The
program “Oneway” was used to determine the
overall level of significance (a s; 0.05) of the
village differences for height. The paired t test
was run as suggested by Fisher (1958)but was
not applicable for the demonstration of significance of overall village differences, only for individual comparisons (Table 2). The LSD test
requested along with the anova is very sensitive to experiment error and its results can only
be considered if high significance has been
shown during the analysis of variance. Basi-
cally, the LSD resembles the Student’s t between group means; however, as the number of
compared groups increases so does the
probability of some pair showing a significant
difference. In this study, however, the LSD test
has an advantage because it is exact for unequal group sizes and the Warao villages vary
in this respect. The test was usable because the
anova demonstrated a high degree of significance.
RESULTS
In Jobure, if the males are unusually taller
than the males in the other Warao villages
measured in this study, the anova should demonstrate this difference. Using an alpha of 0.05
we will reject the hypothesis (Ho)that Jobure is
no different from the other Warao villages if
P 5 0.05. This will mean the Jobure males are
significantly taller than those in the other
measured villages. Fifty one adults were measured in Jobure, 27 females and 24 males. The
sample was taken from a possible total of 90
adults as estimated from the genealogy. The
probability (P) obtained by running the anova
was less than 0.0001 when the Jobure males
were included with the males of the other villages. However, if they were left out, P dropped
to 0.02 (see Table 1). It would appear from this
result that the Jobure meanmale height should
not even be placed under the same curve as the
rest of the male population. The removal of the
Jobure males still leaves a probability lower
than the chosen alpha, but the posteriori LSD
test shows that this is now due to a second
village, Hanakahamana, which is shorter on
the average than the rest of the male population. For the females, the anova showed a P of
0.0001 when Jobure was included and a P of
0.002 when Jobure was dropped. Once again,
the P remaining lower than the chosen alpha
was shown to be due to Hanakahamana and its
shorter population (Table 1).Pooled means and
standard deviations for stature among the
Warao males and females including the village
of Jobure were: 155.34 cm with a SD of 5.02 for
the males and 144.72 cm with a SD of 4.26 for
the females. Excluding Jobure from the calculations, mean height for Warao males was
154.52 cm, SD 4.07; 144.05 cm, SD 4.04 for the
females. In the village of Jobure the mean
height for the females was 148.34cm with a SD
of 3.53 (Table 1). The standard error of the
mean as calculated for Jobure males and
females was 1.45 and 0.68, respectively. The
95% confidence interval for the mean of the
Jobure males was 157.28cm to 163.27cm while
the interval for the females was 146.95 cm to
AN UNUSUAL DISTRIBUTION FOR HEIGHT AMONG MALES
40 I
TABLE 1. Means, Variances, and Anoua’s for Both Sexes in Seven W a r m Villages
Village
W
E
K
N
40
17
10
Males
Mean (cm)
SD
3.45
3.88
4.95
4.48
4.21
7.09
3.67
H
16
A
J
S
28
24
32
154.22
154.58
157.59
151.87
155.19
160.27
154.70
total
with J
total
without J
168
155.34
5.02
144
154.52
4.07
Females
Mean (cm)
SD
44
14
10
16
32
27
29
145.07
143.84
146.67
140.82
143.91
148.34
143.63
3.84
3.48
2.40
5.09
3.70
3.53
3.82
172
144.72
4.26
145
144.05
4.04
N
total
with J
total
without J
ANOVA with J: F ratio 7.42
d.f. 6,161 highly significant
0.0001
ANOVA with J: F ratio 8.14
d.f. 6,165 highly significant
0.0001
ANOVA without J: F ratio 2.98
d.f. 5,138 significant
0.02
ANOVA without J: F ratio 3.88
d.f. 5,139 significant
0.002
TABLE 2 . Paired t Test for Stature Between Villages
Males
W-J
Pooled variance
t Score
Degrees of freedom
54.78
2.7334*
79
WJ
Pooled variance
t Score
Degrees of freedom
26.33
0.6612
83
K-J
A-J
65.84
1.8159
50
129.91
2.5687*
32
S-J
58.29
2.4871*
54
HJ
89.65
3.5625*
39
AJ
73.16
1.6441
57
Females
K-J
78.75
2.1736*
35
S-J
38.50
2.6544*
54
HJ
59.66
4.5581*
41
*Significance at 0.05 or better using a one-tailed test rejects the hypothesis that there
149.74 cm. Any mean falling outside these
limits can be considered as significant a t the 5%
level. This same confidence interval for the
males of all the villages including Jobure was
154.57 cm to 156.10 cm. If the village of Jobure
was excluded, the interval became 153.84 cm to
155.19 cm. As can be seen from the histogram
(Fig. 2), the range for height among the Jobure
males was greater than for any other village.
On the other hand, the range for the Jobure
females was slightly less than that for the other
villages but started 7.6 cm higher.
The large range and variance as well as the
significance of the mean for male stature in
Jobure led to an examination of the data in
terms of specific individuals. Looking a t the
male population of Jobure (Fig. 21, 17 out of 24
individuals are 154.51 cm or taller. Thirteen
individuals fall outside one standard deviation
calculated for the pooled mean of all the villages, and seven fall outside two standard de-
is
no difference between village heights
viations. The number of individuals from Jobure who fall outside one and two standard
deviations as calculated for the other villages is
large. Twenty-three out of 27 measured
females were also above average height as calculated for the other villages. Of these 23,
twelve were outside the range of one standard
deviation as calculated from the pooled variance for the other villages, four more were
outside of two standard deviations.
The hypothesis that average male height in
Jobure is the same as for each of the other
villages is rejected by the paired t test with an
alpha of 0.05 (Table 2).Table 2 shows the pooled
variance, the t score, and the degrees of freedom
for each pair of villages tested. The t scores for
the males of Jobure rejected Ho a t a n alpha of
0.05 for each village comparison, the villages
being identified by first initial. The consistent
rejection of Ho for every comparison is unique
to the Jobure males.
402
MARK L. FLEISCHMAN
K
a
n
A
S
143-147.9
148-152.9
153-157.9
158-162.9 163-167.9
168-172.9
1 7 3 177.9
Fig. 2 . Number of individuals by height class in 6* village groups.
*Villages W and E have been combined here since they intermarry and show no statistical significance for stature.
For the females, the table for the paired t test
shows that three out of five comparisons reject
Ho a t an alpha of 0.05, not as extreme a situation as for the males. The calculation for the t
score, pooled variance and degrees of freedom
were done according to Fisher, '58.
Using the total sample of 24 adult males from
Jobure, the village mean for the stature is
160.27 cm (Table 1). The two tallest males are
the two brothers who have entered from outside
the village. These two men are the tallest in the
total sample of all Warao males for all villages.
They are not members of any village known in
the ancestry of Juan de la Cruz, the founder of
Jobure. If we exclude them from the sample, we
have 22 males with a mean height of 159.02 cm
and a SD of 6.03. This mean is still significantly
different from the population mean using a
403
AN UNUSUAL DISTRIBUTION FOR HEIGHT AMONG MALES
one-tailed t test with an alpha of 0.05. If we now
remove Juan, his sons, and his full sister’s sons
from the sample, N becomes 14 and the village
mean becomes 155.62 cm, with a SD of 3.70
which is not significantly different from the
overall population mean of 155.34 cm using an
alpha of 0.01 (Table 1).
Examination of the relationships of the tall
males shows that all except two are closely related. Five are full sibs, the sons of a taller than
average patriarch who married a woman who is
the tallest in the village. Two more tall males
are sons of this man’s sister and thus first
cousins to the five brothers (Table 3). Two half
sibs of the founder, both having the same father
as he but different mothers, had tall sons accounting for two more above average males.
The other children of these half sibs fall closer
to or within the range of one standard deviation
of the pooled mean for the Warao. The last two
males to be accounted for are the tallest and are
brothers but are not related at all to the above
family. The males in the Jobure village of Juan
de la Cruz have the following consanguineal
relationships t o Juan: sons, 5; brothers, 1;
nephews, 6; first cousins, 2; second cousins, 3.
The following males are affinally related to
Juan: six brothers-in-law, a father and son
married to the daughters of Juan’s half sisters,
and one other male married to a daughter of the
brother of Juan’s wife. These afflnes come from
families that lived in the same village as Juan’s
parents. The two very tall brothers who are the
same age as Juan’s sons, have entered the village recently and have an untraced ancestry.
One is married to a sister of Juan’s wife and the
second is married to a daughter of one of Juan’s
sisters. It can be stated that 11 of the males
beyond + 2 standard deviations all belong to
two families, one of which can be accounted for
through two generations. The parents of Juan
de la Cruz are dead, as are the parents of the
two brothers, thus preventing any further
analysis of family lines since the offspring of
the present generation have not yet reached
full growth. With the exception of Juan’s wife,
the females related to Juan’s family fall within
the midrange of height for the village of Jobure.
However, midrange height for the females of
this village is significantly taller (P 5 0.02,
alpha 0.05) than for any of the other villages
studied.
With the exception of the two migrant
brothers, the tallest males in Jobure are the
lineal descendants of Juan de la Cruz or his full
sister. Since Juan’s wife is the tallest woman in
the village and Juan was tall for his generation
or for the Warao population in general, the
TABLE 3. Height of the Indiuidwls in an Unusually Tall
Family: Village Jobure
Males
Sons 170.4cm
170.0 cm
161.6 cm
161.4 cm
159.2 cm
Two more are dead
and are not recorded
Father 166.4 cm
Nephews (SiSo) 169.7 cm
163.2 cm
Females
Mother 154.3 cm
Daughters 148.4 cm
Two are dead and
are not recorded.
Nieces all are midrange for Jobure but are taller than the average for
the other villages.
See Table 1 for village means.
question of assortative mating by height becomes pertinent. Using the hypothesis that r =
0 (no correlation for height among married
couples), a sample of 12 couples was obtained
from Jobure and a Pearson product-moment
correlation was run on their heights (Hays,
1973). The correlation coefficient r = -0.13
shows a weak negative correlation for height
between spouses and a two tailed t test shows
no significance at 0.05 alpha. This result does
not support a hypothesis of assortative mating
for height. Juan’s marriage to a tall woman
does not reflect a pattern of marital preference
with tall individuals marrying each other.
The observations of height for males in the
village of Jobure appear to support a hypothesis
of lineal effect. For Jobure, it was seen previously that the sample was sufficiently large t o
make sampling error a questionable explanation for the observation under discussion. Differences in diet and geographical location are
also possible explanations. However, both seem
unlikely hypotheses here. The founder of Jobure and his wife both grew up on the traditional Warao diet of sago, fish, and palm fruit in
years before mission influence reached the
area. When mission influence became effective,
there was a change in diet. Taro was added to
the sago as a new staple; fish of two different
types were caught in the main rivers instead of
the streams; occasional meat from large mammals became more common; sugar cane and
maize were grown in small quantity in clearings along the river banks. These changes,
however, did not affect Jobure alone. All the
villages in the effective range of the mission
were introduced to these changes. The only settlement recently exposed to the new dietary
404
MARK L. FLEISCHMAN
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AN UNUSUAL DISTRIBUTION FOR HEIGHT AMONG MALES
405
additions was Hanakahamana and the whole Mathematics Department of Syracuse Univerpopulation of Hanakahamana is smaller in sity aided me in my choice of statistics for this
stature (Fig. 3).
study on height; Dr. Michael Freedman and Dr.
As for the possible effect of geographic loca- Thomas Neumann of the Anthropology Detion on height, the villages do not appear to partment offered suggestions and corrections.
followany specific trend. The scattergram (Fig. Any errors or misuse of data or theory, if pres3) shows where various means for village ent, are mine alone.
measurements lie in relation to the population
LITERATURE CITED
mean. A series of body lengths has been included to demonstrate that: 1) males and Arends, T, Berwer, G, Chagnon, N, Gallango, ML, Gershowitz, H, Layrisse, M, Neel, J, Shreffler, D, Tashian, R,
females from the same village tend to appear in
and Weitkamp, L (1967)Intratribal genetic differentiation
the same location for the same measurement
among the Yanomamo Indians of Southern Venezuela.
which would not be expected in the case of samProc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 57:1252-1259.
pling error; and 2) the major contribution to the Chagnon, N, Neel, J, Weitkamp, L, Gershowitz, H, and
Ayres, M (1970) The influence of cultural factors on the
unusual height in Jobure appears to lie in the
demography and pattern of gene flow from the Makiritare
lower segment of the leg (knee height) not in
to the Yanomama Indians. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.,
the torso (sit. height) for both males and
32.339-349.
females. For Winikina the effect would seem to Fisher, R (1958) Statistical Methods for Research Workers
(13th ed. revised), Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, England.
be the opposite. The expected correlation of
M (1975) The Warao: A Study in Microevolulower arm length (L. arm length) with total Fleischman,
tion. Univ. Microfilm, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
height (ht.) and lower leg segment (knee ht.) Fleischman, M (1976) Drifting of measurement means beappears in all villages except Aruaibisi, but
tween villages in an anthropometric study of the Warao
Indians of Venezuela. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 44:178
there is no easily observable reason for these
(abstract).
deviations in metric pattern. Jobure is found Fleischman,
M (1980)Anthropometrics of the Warao in Denear Sacupana, a village which shows some
mographic and Biological Studies of the Warao Indians. J
physical resemblances to the Winikina group.
Wilbert and M Layrisse, eds. University of California
Press, U.C.L.A.
Hanakahamana, which is situated in the
W (1973) Statistics for the Social Sciences (2nd ed.)
Winikina area, is in a different ecological zone Hays,
Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, N.Y.
from Jobure and Sacupana. The villages of Heinen, H (1972) Adaptive Changes in a Tribal Economy: A
Winikina all demonstrate a lower average
Case Study of the Winikinia-Warao. Univ. Microfilms,
Ann Arbor, Michigan.
height than Jobure and a higher average
J (1971) The genetic structure of a tribal population,
height than Hanakahamana with whom they Neel,
the yanomama indians. Ann. Hum. Genet. 35:255-259.
are in contact (Fig. 3). These observations tend Neel J, and Salzano, F (1967) Further Studies on the
to weaken any dietary or geographical hypothXavante Indians, X. Some hypotheses, generalizations resulting from these studies. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 19:554eses that could be used to explain the unusual
574.
height for a related group of individuals in the Neel,
J , Salzano, F, Jungeuira, P, Keiter, F, and Mayburyvillage of Jobure.
Lewis, D (1964) Studies on the Xavante Indians of the
CONCLUSIONS
The distribution for height among males of
the village of Jobure does not appear to be
clearly associated either with geographical
area in the Orinoco Delta or with any observable differences in nutrition between the village
groups. Since the major portion of the tall males
were contributed by the founding line of the
village, the hypothesis of a lineal effect appears
to be supported in this particular case despite
the polygenic nature of the trait involved.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I wish to thank the following people for giving me aid in my fieldwork and in the writing of
this article. The kindness of Dr. Johannes Wilbert of the Latin American Studies Center
U.C.L.A. and Doctors Miguel and Zulay
Layrisse will be remembered whenever I write
on'the Warao. Dr. Kenneth Kaminsky of the
Brazilian Mato Grosso. Am. J. Hum. Genet., 16:52-140.
Nie, Hull, Jenkins, Steinbrenner, and Bent (1975) Statistical
Package for the Social Sciences (2nd ed.),McGraw Hill,
New York, N.Y.
Roberts, D (1968) Genetic effects of population size reduction. Nature, 220: 1084-1088.
Salzano, F, Neel, J, and Maybury-Lewis, D (1967) Further
studies on the Xavante Indians. I. Am. J. Hum. Genet.,
19: 463-489.
Spielman, R (1973) Differences among Yanomama Indian
villages: Do t h e patterns of allele frequencies, anthropometrics and map locations correspond? Am. J. Phys.
Anthropol., 39t461-479.
Spielman, R, da Rocha, F, Weitkamp, L, Ward, R, Neel, J,
and Chagnon, N (1972) The genetic structure of a tribal
population, the Yanomama Indians. VII. Anthropometric
differences among Yanomama villages. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 37:345-356.
Thompson, E, and Neel, J (1978)Probability offounder effect
in a tribal population. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA,
75.1442-1445.
Ward. R (1972) The genetic structure of a tribal DoDulation.
._
the Yanomama Indians. V. Comparison of a series of genetic networks. Ann. Hum. Genet., 36t21-43.
Wilbert, J (1972) Survivors of Eldorado, F'raeger, New York,
N.Y.
Y
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