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An X-ray atlas of the royal mummies. Edited by J.E. Harris and E.F. Wente. The University of Chicago Press Chicago 1980. xxviii + 403 pp references figures tables index microfiche. $60

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loom large in current debates about the
selective process. Any evolutionary change
must occur somewhere along the life history
trajectory of an organism, and we should not
be fooled by a seeming overemphasis on adult
forms. Paleoanthropology has had an unfortunate role to play in our view of evolution as
concerning adults only. Craig’s volume is a
useful reminder that the evolutionary play
involves all the ages recited by Jacques in As
You Like It.
As an anthropologist, what I find lacking in
Human Development is the sense of mystery
and passion that confronts students of development. The cross-cultural data have been
stripped of their flesh and made to fit into current psychological models. There is no effort to
compare and contrast developmental models
except as differences arise within Western
psychology. All societies develop taxonomies
of human development. What accounts for this
cross-cultural variation? This is not considered
an important question, nor as mentioned, are
questions of life history strategies broached.
As an educator, I believe that a more proper
placement for Craig’s book is a t the secondary
education level. The data contained in the book
should be made known to all our children and
not the select few who make it to a psychology
class in university. The language is simple and
the format appropriate. In a very real sense
Craig has written a life-history ethnography
that is catholic and vivid in its portrayal of
Western societies’ beliefs about development.
Being as it is eclectic, most sides of controversial issues - e.g. pregnancy, medication,
treatment of old people - are dealt with
evenhandedly. The important point is that
many sides are exposed, many theories, many
perceptions, many differences. The problem of
variation is more properly dealt with at the
university level and requires a text that
engages the student in mental exercises other
than rote learning.
MUMMIES. Edited by J. E. Harris and E. F.
Wente. The University of Chicago Press,
Chicago, 1980. xxviii 4-403 pp, references,
figures, tables, index, microfiche. $60.00
the radiologic techniques and findings and determinations of age a t death from radiologic
evidence and historical sources. The text concludes with an assessment of relationships
among the pharaohs based on consideration of
craniofacial variations. Almost a postscript,
placed after the index, is the actual “Atlas” of
the title, consisting of a microfiche file of 266
radiographs of the 34 mummies, computer-derived cephalometric tracings of all but one of
the mummies, and 57 color slides. Little of this
material, 4 of the slides and fewer than 20 of
the X-rays, has been previously published.
The major strength of the book is the expertise of the 12 authors in their various fields of
dentistry, Egyptology, medicine and medical
history, radiology, and forensic anthropology.
The chapters are essentially self-contained
entities that cover these areas thoroughly.
Multiple authorship is not without risks and
potential weaknesses, however, even if the
inevitable stylistic variation of this approach
is discounted. The very self-sufficiency of the
chapters is a disappointment, in that
correlation between obviously related chapters
is lacking. For example, there is no single chart
comparing the ages of the mummies derived
from X-ray data and historical sources. The
potential value of these two chapters, which
This book has been eagerly awaited since
Harris and Weeks’ 1973 publication of
X-Raying the Pharaohs, which was aimed at a
broader, more general readership. The University of Michigan group directed by James E.
Harris, Chairman of the Department of Orthodontics, was presented with a priceless
opportunity to examine the mummies of New
Kingdom royalty in the Cairo Museum. Invasive techniques are inappropriate for this collection, and Harris’ group has been remarkably
successful in deriving the maximum amount of
information from technically difficult and
often technologically ingenious radiologic
The ten chapters include thorough reviews
of current knowledge of ancient Egyptian
mummification, medicine, dentistry and royal
genealogy. The results of the study are
presented in great detail in chapters covering
University of Calgary
together constitute a quarter of the book, is
thus not quite realized.
Lack of correlation among chapters is also
seen in the occasional repetition of information
and illustrations, There are three lateral
X-rays of the head of Ramessess 11, with only
one, incorrect, index entry under “Ramessess
11, X-rays of.” Many of the references are unavoidably repetitive as well, such as the six
listings of the 1973 Harris and Weeks book.
Editorial shortcomings are also seen in the
frequent typographical errors. I counted eight,
unacceptable in a book in this price range.
Tighter editing might have helped lower the
price; at $60 most readers would consider this
purchase carefully. From the point of view of
the physical anthropologist, I found much of
the historical information, particularly on the
royal genealogy, to be confusingly detailed, although it may well be elementary to sophisticates in Egyptology. On the other hand, the
physical anthropologist or paleopathologist
must decide whether the new information and
superb illustrations justify the expense. My
concern is with value received much of the
information is available in the easily read and
much less expensive 1973 book, and the new
information is available in the periodical
In the Preface the editors suggest that the
reader draw his own conclusions from the illustrations. I would have appreciated more insight into the editor’s conclusions. In this vein,
I would recommend the purchase of this book
only to those directly involved in Egyptian
paleopathology, although a reading would be
of benefit to anyone interested in the general
study of paleopathology or ancient Egypt.
Hahnemann Medical College Hospital
University of Pennsylvania
Harris,J.E., and Weeks, K.R. (1973)X-Raying the Pharaohs,
New York: Scribner’s.
Astrom, P., and S.A. Eriksson (1981) Fingerprints and Archaeology. Atlantic Highlands:
Humanities Press. Pp. 88. $42.00 (paper).
Cavalli-Sforza,L.L., and M.W. Feldman (1981)
Cultural Transmission and Evolution: A
Quantitative Approach. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Pp. 388. $25.00 (cloth).
Erwin, J., and T.L. Maple (eds) (1981) American Journal of Primatology, Volume 1,
Number 1. New York: Alan R. Liss. Pp. 123.
$70.00 U.S.; $80.00 Europe, the Middle East,
Africa; $77.00 other countries.
Flynn, J.R. (1980)Race, I Q and Jensen. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Pp. 313.
$27.50 (cloth).
Gregory, J.T., J.A. Bacskai, and G.V.
Shkurkin (1981) Bibliography of Fossil Vertebrates 1978. Falls Church: The American
Geological Institute. Pp. 380. $50.00 (paper).
Hanson, E.D. (1981) Understanding Evolution.
New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 556.
$21.95 (cloth).
Harris, D.R. (1980) Human Ecology in Sauannu Environments. New York: Academic
Press. Pp. 522. $52.50 (cloth).
Jurmain, R., H. Nelson, H. Kurashina, and
W.A. Turnbaugh (1981) Understanding
Physical Anthropology and Archeology. St.
Paul: West Publishing Company. Pp. 511.
$16.95 (paper).
Jurmain, R., H. Nelson, H. Kurashina, and
W.A. Turnbaugh (1981) Instructor’s Manual
to Accompany Understanding Physical A n thropology and Archaeology. St. Paul: West
Publishing Company, Pp. 135. $7.95 (paper).
Morbeck, M.E., H. Preuschoft, and N. Gomberg (1979)Environment, Behavior and Morphology. New York: Gustav Fischer. Pp.
424. $29.50 (cloth).
Weiss, M.L., and A.E. Mann (1981)Human Biology and Behavior (3rd ed). Boston: Little,
Brown and Company. Pp. 559. $17.95 (cloth).
Wilbert, J., and M. Layrisse (eds)(1980)Demographic and Biological Studies of the Warao
Indians. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Centre Publications. Pp. 252. $29.50
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