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Anatomy behavior and diseases of chimpanzees. Vol. I. Edited by G. H. Bourne. 458 pp. 207 figs. and 11 tables. S. Karger Basel. 1969. $27

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152
BOOK REVIEWS
ANATOMY, BEHAVIOR,AND DISEASESOF
CHIMPANZEES.Vol. I. Edited by G. H.
Bourne. 458 pp., 207 figs. and 11 tables. S. Karger, Basel. 1969. $27.60.
As the first in a series of volumes to be
published on the chimpanzee, this book
presents an historical account of the discovery of Pan, a review of its taxonomic
classification, studies on the skeletal and
soft anatomy as well as on behavior and
infections, and finally research on the effects of radiation.
On first glance it appears that a large
part of the book deals with the anatomy
and cytoarchitecture of the chimpanzee
brain. Indeed, about 40% of the book
(180 out of 458 pages) is devoted to this
subject. This is perhaps justifiable because of the vast amount of interest in
limits and ranges of ape intelligence. The
sample studied included three adult, one
infant, and two fetal brains. Shantha and
Manocha have done a tremendous amount
of work on the neurological aspects of
Pan. They should be praised for the quality of their photographs and diagrams as
well as for the information they have
made available. However, i t is regrettable
that after the lengthy and detailed descriptions, they did not include an interpretive analysis of their findings.
Hill’s sections on the discovery, taxonomy, and present distribution of Pan enable us to quickly place the chimpanzee
in an historical and modern day perspective. Finding all this information in one
volume is useful to those of us teaching
physical anthropology courses.
Schultz’ contribution on the skeletal
biology of Pan is, as he mentions, not intended to be a complete, systematic osteological description of the chimpanzee.
It is instead concerned with skeletal specializations, variability, and changes with
age. As a summary of much of his earlier
work, with the addition of information
from the research of other workers,
Schultz’ paper is, as usual, a valuable
source of information. Krogman continues
with skeletal biology in discussing growth
changes in the skull. This is primarily a
summary of much of the information
available in this area, and as such is useful as a reference source.
Kelemen’s anatomical study of the
larynx shows us that we must consider
other anatomical limitations in addition
to those of the brain when studying pongid vocal performance. It has often been
suggested that chimpanzees cannot vocalize or learn human language because
the brain is not highly enough developed
for language. On the basis of his research
of the larynx, Kelmen says (p. 184) that
“. . . it can be shown that on sheer anatomical basis the chimpanzee must be incapable of reproducing human voice. . . .”
notwithstanding neuroanatomical limit ations.
Two papers each on behavior and infections provide the reader with a summary of ape-rearing experiments (Kellog), nest building behavior (Bernstein),
malaria (Bray), and intestinal infections
(Rewell).
Finally, the article on radiation by
Rothberg deserves some comment. This
research was carried out at the Walter
Reed Army Institute of Research. The
study reports the results of whole body
radiation of at least eight young chimpanzees (ages 3 to 7 years). Each of the
animals was exposed to heavy doses of
radiation (900r to 1200r). The progressive
degeneration of body functions and the
subsequent death of each of the eight
animals was studied and described. One
wonders if the results of the study were
worth the death of such a large number
of apes?
The chief value of the book appears to
be in its usefulness as a research tool.
The cost of the book (U.S. $27.60) will
probably limit its purchase to those people
doing research on the chimpanzees or
other primates in those particular areas
that are covered in this first volume.
B. A. SIGMON
U niv e r s ity of Toronto
CRANEOSDEFORMADOS
DE
LA ISLADE SACRIFICIOS,VERACRUZ,MEXICO. By Juan
Comas and Paulette Marquer. 47 pp.,
54 plates, 14 figs. Cuadernos: Sene
Antropologica, Numero 23. Instituto de
Investigaciones, Historicas, Universidad
Nacional Aut6noma de Mexico. Mexico.
1969. n.p.
Although the title refers only to cranial
material from Isla de Sacrificios near Veracruz, Mexico, this study includes crania
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karger, figs, 1969, disease, 458, base, anatomy, behavior, bourne, chimpanzee, 207, edited, tablet, vol
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