close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Anthropological studies among Libyans.

код для вставкиСкачать
Anthropological Studies among Libyans. Erythrocyte
Genetic Factors, Serum Haptoglobin Phenotypes
and Anthropometry
K. KAMEL,’J M. ’UMAR,* W. IBRAHIM,’ A. MANSOUR,2 F. GABALLAH?.’
0. SELIM,’ A. AZIM,’ S. HAMZA,’ F. SABRY,’ N . MOAFY,’
A. EL-NAGGAR AND K. HOERMAN
1 Clinical Pathology Department, Ain-Shams University Medical
School,
Cairo, The Arab Republic of Egypt; 3Anatomy Department, Cairo University Medical School, Cairo; 2 Ministry of Health, Tripoli, The Libyan
Arab Republic; and 4 Division of Biophysics, American Dental Association,
Chicago, lllinois
’
KEY WORDS
6-PGD . AK
.
Libya . Hbvariants . G6-PD
AP . Hp . Anthropometry.
.
ABOandRh
1
ABSTRACT
Anthropological studies were done on 1276 Libyans from the
Mediterranean cities of Tripoli and Benghazi, and from Sabha southward in The
Sahara. The incidences of hemoglobin (Hb)-S and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency were low in the coastal areas and significantly high
in Sabha. Hb-C occurred sporadically in Tripoli and Sabha, and was absent from
Benghazi in the east. One case of Hb-J Benghazi was noted. There were no significant differences in the ABO blood group and Rho (D) type distributions in the
three localities. GB-PD gene GdAfrequency was significantly high in Sabha. The
lowest value of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD) gene PGDA frequency and highest value of the gene PGDC were in Sabha. Adenylate kinase
(AK) gene AKZ was only detectable in Tripoli. Acid phosphatase (AP) gene Pa
frequency in Sabha was more than twice that in Tripoli and Benghazi, while P‘
was distinctly lower in Sabha than in the northern cities. Haptoglobin gene Hp’
frequency was almost identical in all areas. Anthropometric measurements revealed overall homogeneity of the three samples, closer similarity in the coastal
region to adjacent North African populations, and Negroid influence in the Saharan Libyans. Anthropometry substantiated findings from blood markers.
The name “Libya” came from the Ancient Egyptian. Egyptian inscriptions of
the second millenium B.C. described the
tribes of the desert west of the Nile Valley
as “Lebu” or “Rebu” (Wright, ’69). The
Libyan Arab Republic (Libya) is located
on the southern shores of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central coast of
Africa occupying an area of 680,000 square
miles (Wright, ’69). The country has traditionally been composed of three provinces : Tripolitania, Cyrenaica and Fazzan,
whose capitals are, respectively, Tripoli
and Benghazi on the coast, and Sabha
southward in The Sahara (fig. 1 ) .
By the end of the Old Stone Age, about
10,000 years ago, the Libyans were memAM. J. PHYS. ANTHROP.,43: 103-112,
bers of a “Mediterranean” stock (Wright,
’69). Neolithic farmers may have drifted
into North Africa from Caucasia, southern
Arabia and Palestine (Copeland, ’67). Contacts with Old Kingdom Egypt not long
after 3000 B.C. (Wright, ’69) must have
exerted early genetic influences on “The
Libyans.” Further biologic impressions
were made by Phoenicians, Carthaginians,
Greeks, Romans, Vandals, Byzantines and
Turks (Wright, ’69). Masses of pure Arab
migrants from the Arabian peninsula came
5 Dr. K. Kamel‘s present address: The Military Hospital, P. 0. Box 309, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
6 Dr. F. Gaballah undertook the
anthropometric
studies. His present address is: Department of Anatomy, Benghazi Faculty of Medicine, The Libyan Arab
Republic.
103
32
26
I
LIBYA
0
- BOUNDARIES
CAPITALS
20
_ _ _ _ M- E R I D I A N S
rm
ROADS
'
I
Fig. 1
Map of The Libyan Arab Republic. Cities of sampling are marked by arrows.
0
!
I%rn
I
in waves over the centuries (Khadduri, '63;
Wright, '69) and have left the northern
part of the country, especially Cyrenaica,
(culturally) one of the most genuinely
Arab countries outside the Arabian peninsula (Wright, '69).
In 1971, the estimated population of
Libya was 2 million with 90% living on
the coast. The population of Tripoli and
Benghazi are 247,000 (1968 estimate) and
I -2
137,000 (1964 estimate), respectively (Department of State, '72). The whole province of Fazzan in the South has barely
70,000 inhabitants (Wright, '69). The
northern population share common Mediterranean, Arab features, while southern
people have a darker complexion and some
show negroid features.
Upon the announcement of the Confederation of Arab Republics in 1971 and the
105
BLOOD MARKERS AND ANTHROPOMETRY AMONG LIBYANS
expected merger of Egypt and Libya, it
became of interest to obtain some anthropological data on the Libyans before the
anticipated commixture.
6
Y E
E1"
'P
223
8
O m 0
no0
5 0 0
18
r(
u
MATERIAL AND METHODS
School children (boys and girls) between the ages of 6 and 12 years made
up the study population from Tripoli, Benghazi and Sabha, Heparinized I.V. blood
specimens, 1276 in all, were collected and
transferred by air to Ain-Shams University
Medical School Laboratories in Cairo with
minimal delay. The following tests were
performed: Hemoglobin (Hb) variants, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase ( G-6-PD )
deficiency screening, ABO blood groups
and Rho (D) types, and electrophoretic
types of erythrocyte G-GPD, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD), adenylate
kinase (AK), acid phosphatase (AP) and
serum haptoglobins (Hp). Anthropometric
measurements were made on 324 adult
males from the same localities and unrelated to the children. Methods adopted
in these studies are standard ones referred
to elsewhere (Azim et al., '74; Ibrahim et
al., '74; Selim et al., '74).
The numbers of samples tested from
different provinces for specific data are indicated in respective tables. The sex of
tested individuals is specified where necessary. Because the majority of the population live on the sea shores, and due to the
heterogeneity of results obtained from littoral compared to Saharan southern areas,
data on samples from the three groups
were not pooled.
6
8
2
E
k
2
6
ElE
81"
" gu
E
8
2
E
k
2
RESULTS
Results on Hb variants and G-6-PD deficiency are shown in table 1. Table 2 details phenotypes of blood markers and the
gene frequencies are presented in table 3.
Anthropometric measurements are reported in table 4 and their comparative values
obtained by the "t-test" are listed in table 5.
z m m
(D
DISCUSSION
HemogZobin variants
The small incidence of Hb-AS heterozygotes in the Libyan shore dwellers (table
1 ) is still a little more than its frequency
of 0.0038 in the adjacent Egyptian coast
(Sabry, '73), and a little less than its over-
P
3:
IS
(D
2
a
3
%
lnv)
106
K. KAMEL E T AL.
all incidence in Tunisia, Algeria and Mo- dromes from this part of the Mediterrocco (Livingstone, '67). Hb-S has occa- ranean shores.
sionally been reported from the Egyptian
G-6-PD deficiency
Nile Valley (Abbasy, '51), but it was abThe incidence of G-6-PD deficiency was
sent in surveys carried out there (Kamel
et al., '60; Awny et al., '65; Kamel, '68; low on the Libyan coast (table 1). Like
Azim et al., '74). Hb-S incidence thus de- Hb-S, the high incidence of G-6-PD deficreases in North Africa from the west east- ciency in Sabha undoubtedly reflects conward. The higher incidence of Hb-AS in tact influence from countries further to the
the southern province of Fazzan (Sabha) south such as Nigeria and Ghana where
is due to its adjacency to the Central Sa- the deficiency is high (Livingstone, '67).
haran areas where Hb-S frequency reaches The observed incidences of G-6-PD defi0.278 (Cabannes and Ruffi6, '61). The ciency in Cyrenaica and Tripolitania is
same trend of increasing rates of Hb-AS similar to the values of 0.0232 (Kamal et
as one moves southward, exists in the al., '67) and 0.049 (McCaffrey and Awny,
rest of North Africa west of Libya (Ben- '70) noted in Egypt. Favism has sporadiabadji et al., '69). In some Western Desert cally been reported from Tunisia and MoEgyptian oases with close contact to sub- rocco, and in the whole of Algeria, G-6-PD
Saharan caravan routes, Hb-AS ranges deficiency is 0.03 (Benabadji et al., '69).
from 0.054 (Selim et al., '74) to 0.2217 The occurrence of the enzyme deficiency
(Ibrahim et al., '74). Hb-S is found in var- among Arabs and Europeans from various
iable numbers in other Arab and Mediter- localities is extremely variable (Livingranean communities.
stone, '67).
The scarcity of Hb-AC in Libya follows
ABO blood groups and Rh, types
the same pattern of the rest of North Africa
west of the country (Benabadji et al., '69).
There were no significant differences in
The absence of Hb-C in people from the the gene frequencies of both systems reeastern city of Benghazi is worthy of note. spectively among the three localities (taReports of only two families with Hb-C bles 2, 3).
have come from Egypt: one was from Siwa
( a ) ABO Blood Groups : Gene frequency
oasis near the Libyan border (Ibrahim et 0 was commonest, followed by A then B .
al., '74), and the other was from Upper In Egypt the following ranges have been
Egypt (Kamel et al., '67). Only occasional reported on the frequency of these genes:
instances of Hb-C were reported from the 0 = 0.6001-0.6959, A = 0.1892-0.2505,
Eastern Mediterranean and from other and B = 0.095G0.1723 (Awny and Kamel,
Caucasians (Kamel et al., '67; Livingstone, '59; Awny et al., '65; Azim et al., '74; Ibra'67). Thus Hb-C extension from the Volta him et al., '74; Selim et al., '74). In Alregion in West Africa northward and east- geria, Tunisia, and Morocco, 0, A and
ward is minimal and gradually fading B genes ranges respectively are: 0.626(Lehmann and Nwokolo, '59; Cabannes 0.688; 0.193-0.253; and 0.117-0.118 (Benand RuffiC, '6 1) .
abadji and Chamla, '71). The similarity
A fast Hb designated Hb-J Benghazi was between these values is striking. There is
found in the heterozygous form in one sub- a large difference, however, in gene freject (table 1). From the Mediterranean quencies of this system from various parts
basin, Hb-J had been detected only in Al- of the Mediterranean basin, Europe, and
geria and Italy (Benabadji et al., '69). Africa (Mourant, '54).
Amino acid analyses, however, are not
(b) Rho Types: Mansour ('73) had obavailable for the identification of all these served a mildly higher frequency than the
cases of Hb-J.
present one for r in Tripoli ranging from
The absence of p-thalassemia, and prob- 0.30-0.35. In isolated communities of
ably of a-thalassemia as may be indicated Egypt r has ranged from 0-0.3321 (Azim
by the absence of Hb-H, demonstrated in et al., '74; Ibrahim et al., '74; Selim et al.,
this work and in a previous one (Weather- '74), and in Egyptians in general it ranges
all et al., '71) points to the extreme rarity, from 0.1590 (El-Dewi, '49) to 0.243 (Doneif not absence, of the thalassemia syn- gagni et al., '50). In Tunisians r varies
107
BLOOD MARKERS AND ANTHROPOMETRY AMONG LIBYANS
TABLE 2
Libyan phenotypes of some blood markers
Benghazi
Tripoli
Sabha
Number
Frequency
Number
Frequency
Number
Frequency
ABO
A
B
AB
0
Total
235
113
34
341
723
0.3250
0.1563
0.0470
0.4716
0.9999
102
61
11
144
318
0.3208
0.1918
0.0346
0.4528
1.0000
50
29
8
86
173
0.2890
0.1676
0.0462
0.4971
0.9999
Rh
Rho +
RhoTotal
677
46
723
0.9364
0.0636
1.0000
304
14
318
0.9560
1.0000
166
7
173
0.9595
0.0405
1.oooo
A+
B+
Total
5
139
144
0.0347
0.9653
1.0000
7
135
142
0.0493
0.9507
1.0000
18
92
110
0.1636
0.8364
1.0000
AA
AC
0.9110
0.0822
0.0068
1.0000
123
18
0.8723
0.1277
Total
133
12
1
146
141
1.0000
81
20
2
103
0.7864
0.1942
0.0194
1.0000
AK 1
AK 2-1
Total
97
1
98
0.9898
0.0102
1.0000
100
1.0000
-
-
87
1.oooo
100
1.0000
87
1.0000
AA
BB
9
71
1
8
0.0989
0.7802
0.0110
0.0879
1
69
4
23
21
50
1
9
-
0.2593
0.6173
2
91
0.0220
1.0000
-
0.0102
0.7041
0.0408
0.2347
0.0102
98
1.0000
1
81
0.0123
1.0000
24
64
45
133
0.1805
0.4812
0.3383
1.oooo
17
51
34
102
0.1667
0.5000
0.3333
1.0000
18
42
31
91
0.1978
0.4615
0.3407
1.0000
G-SPD
(males)
6-PGD
cc
AK
AP
cc
AB
AC
BC
Total
-
1-1
2-1
2-2
Total
HP
-
TABLE 3
-
-
0.0440
-
-
-
-
0.1111
Tripoli
Benghazi
Sabha
ABO
A
B
0
0.2074
0.1074
0.6852
0.1980
0.1211
0.6809
0.1843
0.1131
0.7026
from 0.261-0.292, in Algerians from 0.228
-0.420, and in Moroccans from 0.2340.547 (Benabadji and Chamla, '71). European and Negro ranges of r are respectively 0.1972-0.6500, and 0.1803-0.41 77
(Mourant, '54).
Rh
r
0.2522
0.2098
0.2010
G-6-PDelectrophoretic types
GdA
GdB
0.0347
0.9653
0.0493
0.9507
0.1636
0.8364
6-PGD
PGDA
PGDC
0.9521
0.0479
0.9362
0.0638
0.8835
0.1165
AK
AKz
0.0510
0.1428
0.8352
0.0220
0.1326
0.8215
0.0459
0.3148
0.6791
0.0061
0.4211
0.5789
0.4167
0.5833
0.4285
0.5715
Libyan gene frequencies
G-6-PD
(males)
HP
HP'
Hp2
GdA gene frequency was low in Tripoli
and Benghazi, and high in Sabha (tables
2, 3). Gd" incidence in the two parts of
coastal Libya, in itself homogeneous, is
close to its 0.02-0.05 values in some parts
of the Nile Valley (Azim et al., '74). Gd"
in Saharan Sabha is similar to that in
El-Dakhla Egyptian Saharan oasis (0.16)
(Selim et al., '74). In sub-Saharan Africa
this gene reaches 0.22 (Harris, '71). The
local G-6-PD deficiency in The Arabian
peninsula is believed to be mostly the Cau-
108
K. KAMEL ET AL.
casian type (Gelpi, '65), and the Mediterranean G-6-PD has the B electrophoretic
mobility (Harris, '71 ).
6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase types
The frequencies of PGDC gene in Tripoli,
Benghazi, and Sabha show divergence in
the last locality (tables 2, 3). Figures from
the coastal cities are similar to those in the
southern part of the Egyptian Nile Valley
(0.068) (Azim et al., '74) and in The
Western Desert oases of El-Kharga (0.055)
and El-Dakhla (0.062) (Selim et al., '74).
The higher PGDC in Sabha is closer to that
of 0.160 in the Egyptian Siwa oasis (Ibrahim et al., '74). The following ranges
of PGDC have been reported: Europeans
0.0086-0.0392, Negroes 0.0062-0.1550,
Asians 0.0250-0.2305, Arabs (South Arabians, Jordanians and Palestinians) 0.0645
-0.1098 (Tills et al., '71a). Libyan values
are closer to Arab, African and Asian
levels.
Adenylate kinase
All persons were found to have AK' gene
except one from Tripoli who was AK2-1
bringing the AKZ gene frequency there to
0.051 (tables 2, 3). This rare gene has
not been detected in isolated Egyptian regions where it was looked for (Azim et al.,
'74; Ibrahim et al., '74; Selim et al., '74).
Among South Arabian, Jordanian and
Palestinian Arabs, AK2 ranges from 0.0252
-0.0349. Its frequencies in European and
Negro populations vary from 0.00490.0566 and 0-0.0152 respectively (Tills
et al., '71b).
Red cell acid phosphatase
Since p" gene is the commonest, we will
compare the other two (tables 2, 3).
( a ) P" gene frequency in Sabha was
more than twice that in Tripoli and in Benghazi. Pa in some parts of Egypt where it
was studied (Azim et al., '74; Ibrahim et
al., '74; Selim et al., '74) has varied from
0.0667-0.1475. Among Europeans and
Subsaharan Africans Pa ranges are 0.220.37 and 0.14-0.28, respectively (Hopkins
and Harris, '69).
(b) P" gene frequency was distinctly
lower in Sabha than in Tripoli and Benghazi. In Egyptian localities where it has
been tested, the P" gene has ranged from
0-0.0244 (Azim et al., '74; Ibrahim et al.,
'74; Selim et al., '74). European values for
this gene are 0.01-0.07 while the African
levels range from 0-0.02 (Hopkins and
Harris, '69).
Serum haptoglobin types
Hp0-0, not uncommon in Black Africans, was not detected in any sample (tables 2, 3). Hp' values in Tripoli, Benghazi,
and Sabha were almost identical. Hp' in
Libyans are very close to those of Egyptians in El-Kharga oasis (0.4415) (Selim
et al., '74), in Aswan City (0.4300), and
in The New Nubia (0.4000) (Azim et al.,
'74). They are higher than the average for
those in the whole Egyptian Nile Valley,
0.2123 (Hashem et al., '66) and 0.3510
(Ibrahim, '72). In European countries, Hpl
values range from 0.32-0.52 (Giblett, '69),
and in Northern parts of Black Africa they
vary from 0.40-0.87 (Giblett, '69).
Anthropometry
Comparison of the Tripoli and Benghazi samples reveals their close similarity in most measurements (table 4). However, the Benghazi inhabitants tend to be
slightly shorter in stature and to have a
broader nose and a more mesocephalic
head due to increase in breadth. Sabhans
are characterized by lighter weight, smaller
facial and nasal heights, broader nose and
a higher nasal index than the two other
groups (table 5). Nasal features of Sabhans
indicate a notable Negroid element. However, in contradistinction to these mixed
facial features, the measurements of the
head together with the facial and bigonial
breadths were very close to, although less
than, those of Liioyans in Tripoli and Benghazi.
Published data have been used for comparison with the present results. The confidence interval (mean 3. S.E.) of the
facial, nasal and cephalic indices of the
Libyan groups was used comparatively and
a group was considered to differ significantly in an anthropometric trait if its
mean fell outside the confidence limits of
the corresponding character in our Libyan
sample. ( a ) Comparison of the Benghazi
data with those on Egyptians from Salloum
and Sidi Barrany, an area contiguous with
Libyan shores (Batrawi, '62), demonstrated
*
90.16
66.11
139
140
140
139
139
140
140
139 67.15- 86.19
139 79.56105.65
140 51.72- 84.78
Head breadth
Bizygomatic
breadth
Bigonial
breadth
Total facial
height
Nasal height
Nasal breadth
Cephalic index
Total facial
index
Nasal index
74.54
117 51.67- 94.00
7.03 10.64
31- 50
68
68 79.56 99.21
68 60.66-100.00
7.96 11.82
67.36
68 69.80- 84.15
45- 61
108-132
90-114
122-148
68
68
67
68
134-158
178-210
68
68
154-184
67
40- 92
Range
5.74
4.12
8.54
7.23
4.71
5.52
3.80
3.41
3.12
3.56
68
N
5.14
3.11
3.16
3.98
5.81
5.80
5.18
5.01
6.04
5.93
19.78
C.V.2
S.D.1 C.V.2
5.17
4.11
9.53
7.94
4.64
4.96
3.61
74.25 9.94 13.38
88.85 4.60
74.80 3.08
38.56 3.67
52.61 4.14
120.56 5.60
103.58 5.14
135.40 4.89
3.58
145.31 5.21
3.85
3.46
6.43
193.15 6.69
167.01
60.00 7.38 12.29
Mean
Sabha
89.60
75.50
36.96
55.00
4 6 65
105.11
136.53
146.72
193.60
166.26
123.19
30- 47
S.D.1
65.22 12.90
Mean
110-138
93-124
125-148
135-158
180-210
151-182
43-112
Range
117 66.67- 84.53
117
117
116
115
116
117
117
114
117
N
116 77.55-107.09
4.65
8.65
7.14
5.16
5.36
3.54
3.30
3.30
3.33
19.56
C.V.2
Benghazi
5.70
5.14
3.47
3.10
3.86
54.07
35.81
6.39
5.63
4.84
4.80
6.41
123.87
105.07
136.91
145.41
194.19
5.59
Measurements are in m m except when otherwise stated.
1 S.D. = Standard deviation.
2 C.V. = Coefficient of variation.
29- 44
48- 67
109-140
88-120
123-150
136-160
180-209
167.84
Head length
150-1 84
S.D.1
63.54 12.43
Mean
139
-
Stature (Cm)
41- 97
Range
139
N
Weight ( K g )
Character
Tripoli
TABLE 4
Anthropometry of adult Libyan males
110
K. KAMEL ET AL
TABLE 5
Values of the t-test between the corresponding
means for the Libyan series
Character
Weight
Stature
Head length
Head breadth
Bizygomatic
breadth
Bigonial
breadth
Total facial
height
Nasal height
Nasal breadth
Cephalic index
Total facial
index
Nasal index
1
2
Tripoli
Benghazi
Tripoli
and
Sabha
1.06
2.16
0.46
2.12 i
2.56
0.29
1.07
0.13
’
3.50
0.87
0.45
1.80
0.60
2.10 I
1.48
0.06
1.89
1.85
0.89
1.89
2.93
2.33
4.18 2
3.19 2
5.33 2
0.55
3.03
4.56
3.01
1.48
0.87
1.32
1.85
5.90 2
1.02
4.88
and
Benghazi
and
Sabha
Significant (at 0.05 level).
Highly significant (at 0.01 level).
the basic similarity in the cranial and
facial features of both populations. The
people of Benghazi, however, have greater
bigonial and nasal breadths and a slightly
longer face. This indicates that the inhabitants of the North African Coast from
Sidi Barrany in The Egyptian Western
Desert inclusive, to Tripoli at least, belong
to the same physical type. Differences,
however, had been pointed out between
Batrawi’s results and those of some other
contemporary Egyptian groups available
then. (b) Anthropometric data on Northwest African groups and on others from
south of The Sahara (Cline, ’32)have also
been compared with the current studies.
The Libyan cephalic index was similar to
that of about 40% of the North African
groups, and to 25 to 50% of the series
south of The Sahara. The facial index was
similar to that of 40% of the North African populations studied and to 80% of the
Nilotic tribes. The nasal index indicated no
resemblances between the Libyan groups
and people south of The Sahara (Western
and Central Sudan and Nilotic tribes).
CONCLUSIONS
Anthropological studies demonstrated
similarity of the coastal inhabitants of
Libya to other North Africans eastward
and westward. Saharan populations in
southern Libya manifest Negroid influences from adjacent sub-Saharan Africa.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This research was supported in part by
the Office of Naval Research under Contract no. N00014-70-C-0192, NR 108-885
with Ain-Shams University in Cairo. The
staff of the Libyan Ministry of Health
offered much of their facilities toward the
accomplishment of this work. Professors
N. El-Mehallawy and A. El-Mofty of AinShams University, Dr. A. E. Mourant and
Mr. D. Tills of Saint Bartholomew’s Hospital in London, and Dr. 0. Kadeeky of
Benghazi Faculty of Medicine gave various
assistances.
LITERATURE CITED
Abbasy, A. S. 1951 Sickle cell anemia; first
case reported from Egypt. Blood, 6 : 555-558.
Awny, A., and K. Kame1 1959 The relation between ABO system of blood groups and the incidence of certain diseases. Bull. Clin. scient.
SOC., Abbassiah Fac. Med., 10: 61-64.
Awny, A., K. Kamel and K. Hoerman 1965 ABO
blood groups and hemoglobin variants among
Nubians in Egypt, U.A.R. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., 23: 81-82.
Azim, A., K. Kamel, F. Gaballah, F. Sabry, W.
Ibrahim, 0. Selim and N. Moafy 1974 Genetic blood markers and anthropometry of the
populations in Aswan governorate, Egypt. Human Heredity, 24: 12-23.
Batrawi, A.
1962 The physical traits of the
present day population of Salloum, Sidi Barrany and Siwah in the Egyptian Western Desert. Publications of the Joint Arabic-Polish Anthropological Expedition, part 11, pp. 1-29.
Benabadji, M., and M-C. Chamla
1971 Les
groupes sanguins ABO et Rh des AlgBriens.
L’anthropologie, 75: 427442.
Benabadji, M., J. Ruffib and Ph. Lefevre-Witier
1969 Les grandes donnBes de l’hbmatypologie
des populations Sahariennes. In: “Biologie des
populations Sahariennes” International Symposium. October 1969. Institut de Santb Publique,
Alger, pp. 51-74.
Cabannes, R., and J. Ruffib 1961 Les types hbmoglobiniques des populations i n d i g h e s du
Tibesti. C. R. SOC.biol., 155: 2449-2451.
Cline, W. 1932 Anthropometric notes on the
natives of Siwah oasis. Harvard African Studies, vol. X,varia Africana V part 111, Cambridge,
Mass., U S A .
Copeland, P. W. 1967 The Land and People of
Libya. J. B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, New
York, p. 3.
Department of State 1972 Background notes.
Libyan Arab Republic. p. 1.
Donegani, J., K. Ibrahim, E. Ikin and A. E. Mourant 1950 The blood groups of the people of
Egypt. Heredity, 4: 377-382.
El-Dewi, S. 1949 The Rh groups among Egyptians. J. Roy. Egypt. Med. Assoc., 32: 883-894.
Gelpi, A. P. 1965 Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Saudi Arabia: A survey.
Blood, 25: 486493.
BLOOD MARKERS AND ANTHI;LOPOMETRY AMONG LIBYANS
Giblett, E. R. 1969 Genetic Markers in Human
Blood. F. A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, Pa.,
pp. 94-95.
Harris, H. 1971 The Principles of Human Biochemical Genetics. North-Holland/American
Elsevier, Amsterdam-London, pp. 124-125.
Hashem, N., K. Kamel and E. Hammoud 1966
Haptoglobin phenotypes among Egyptians. J.
Med. Genet., 3: 279-280.
Hopkins, D., and H. Harris 1969 Red cell acid
phosphatase, phosphoglucomutase and adenylate kinase. In: Biochemical Methods i n Red Cell
Genetics. J. J. Yunis, ed. Academic Press, New
York and London, pp. 346-347.
Ibrahim, W. 1972 Haptoglobin phenotypes i n
normal Eevutians and in reticuloses. Ain-Shams
Med. J., Zr247-250.
Ibrahim, W., K. Kamel, 0. Selim, A. Azim, F.
Gaballah, F. Sabry, A. El-Naggar and K. Hoerman 1974 Hereditary blood factors and anthropometry of the inhabitants of the Egyptian
Siwa oasis. Human Biology, 46: 57-68.
Kamal, I., M. Gabr, 0. Mohyeldin and M. Talaat
1967 Frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Egyptian infants. Acta
Genet., 17: 321-327.
Kamel, K. 1968 Hemoglobin variants in U.A.R.
J. Egypt. Publ. Hlth. ASSOC.,XLIII Suppl.: 111117.
Kamel, K., K. Hoerman, A. Miale and A. Awny
1960 L‘incidence d’hkmoglobines congknitalement anormales chez les enfants a n Caire,
R.A.U. Le Sang, 31: 307-310.
Kamel, K., K. Hoerman, A. Awny, W. Naguib and
K. Mourad 1967 Haemoglobin C disease in
Egyptian twins. Trop. Geogr. Med., 19: 286288.
Khadduri, M. 1963 Modern Libya. A Study i n
Political Development. The Johns Hopkins
Press, Baltimore, p. 5.
Lehmann, H., and C. Nwokolo 1959 The river
Niger a s a barrier in the spread eastwards of
haemoglobin C: A survey of haemoglobins in
the Ibo. Nature, 183: 1587-1588.
111
Livingstone, F. B. 1967 Abnormal Hemoglobins
in Human Populations. A Summary and Interpretation. Aldine Publishing Co., Chicago, pp.
230-265, 286-309, 312-317, 340-348, 421.
Mansour, A. 1973 Director Blood Transfusion
Service, Tripoli. Personal communication.
McCaffrey, R., and A. Awny 1970 Glucose-6phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency i n Egypt:
With a note on the methemoglobin reduction
test. Blood, 36: 793-796.
Mourant, A. E. 1954 The Distribution of The
Human Blood Groups. Blackwell Scientific publications, Oxford, pp. 6, 181, 339-342, 370-373.
Sabry, F. 1973 Hemoglobin variants in Egypt.
Unpublished D.M.S. Thesis, Ain-Shams Medical
School, Cairo.
Selim, O., K. Kamel, A. Azim, F. Gaballah, F.
Sabry, W. Ibrahim, N. Moafy and K. Hoerman
1974 Genetic markers and anthropometry in
the populations of the Egyptian oases of ElKharga and El-Dakhla. Human Heredity, 24:
259-272.
Tills, D., J . L. V a n den Branden, V. R. Clements
and A. E. Mourant 1970 The world distribution of electrophoretic variants of the red cell
adenylate kinase. Human Heredity, 20: 517522.
Tills, D., J. L. Van den Branden, V. R. Clements
and A. R. Mourant 1971a The distribution in
man of genetic variants of 6-phosphogluconate
dehydrogenase. Human Heredity, 21 : 305-308.
1971b The world distribution of electrophoretic variants of the red cell enzyme
adenylate kinase. Human Heredity, 21: 302304.
Weatherall, D., H. Gilles, J. Clegg, J. Blankson,
D. Mustafa, F. Boi-Doku and D. S. Chaudhury
1971 Preliminary surveys for the prevalence
of the thalassaemia genes in some African populations. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasit., 65: 253-265.
Wright. J. 1969 Libya. Frederick A. Praeeer.
N%York, Washington, pp. 21, 23-25, 28, 5032, 34, 36, 39, 51, 67, 92.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
2
Размер файла
611 Кб
Теги
anthropological, libyan, among, studies
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа