ANTHROPOLOGICAL WORK I N THE U.S.S.R. I N 1938 AND 1939 I. STUDY OF HUMAN RACES I N THE U.S.S.R. Work on the study of human races in the U.S.S.R. is conducted by : (1) The Sub-Department of Race Studies of the Scientific Research Institute of Anthropology of the Moscow State University (headed by Prof. Y. Y. Roginsky). (2) The Department of Anthropology of the Museum of Ethnography, the Academy of Sciences, Leningrad (headed by V. V. Ginsburg). (3) The Chair of Anthropology of the Central Asiatic State University, Tashkent (headed by Prof. L. V. Oshanin). W o r k of the Institute of Anthropology During 1938-9 and the years preceding, the Institute of Anthropology conducted its studies of the human races in the following four directions : (1) Study of the race composition of the modern population of the U.S.S.R. in connection with problems of ethnogenesis (history of the peoples of the U.S.S.R.). Attention in this domain was concentrated on the anthropology of the nationalities of the North-Nentsi, Ostyaks (Hante), Voguls (Mansi), Selkups. The work was conducted by T. A. Trofimova, G. F. Debets, N. N. Cheboksarov, and S. A. Shluger. Craniological investigations among the Ostyaks and Chukchi were conducted by M. G. Levin. The results of the following field work served as the basic material for the investigation of the anthropology of the peoples of the North: IData furnished t o the Editor by the U.S.S.R. Society for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries. 155 156 ANTHROPOLOGICAL WORK I N THE U.S.S.R. ( a ) Nentsi from the mouth of the Pechora River up to the Tazov Bay; 850 persons, of which 450 adult men (by N. N. Cheboksarov and S. A. Shluger, '38-'39). (b) Hante (Ostyaks) Vakh River, right tributary of the Ob River ; 160 persons, of which 125 adult men (by G. F. Debets, '39). ( c ) Selkups-Narim Area; 100 persons, of which 70 adult men (by G. F. Debets, '39). (d) Mansi-(Voguls) Central Urals; 160 adult men (by N. N. Cheboksarov and T. A. Trofimova, '39). The program of work of these expeditions was a s follows: the height, measurements and descriptive signs of the head and face, the blood groups, the tactile designs of the palms and fingers, reaction on phenyl-thio-carbamide. Among the Nentsi, besides, a test for colour-blindness. (2) Study of the ancient fossil remains of the population of the U.S.S.R., conducted conjointly with archeological researches. Work was conducted on the Slavs (by T. A. Trofimova and G. E'. Debets), on the Crimean Goths, on the ancient population of the Minusinsk Territory (by G. F. Debets) and of the Tatar Republic (by T. A. Trofimova). ( 3 ) Analysis of individual race signs of man from the riewpoint of the laws of their variability. ( a ) The variability of the cranial s i g n s - o f the relief of the medium part of the facial skeleton (by B. M. Shapkin), comparative individual and group variability of the cranio-facial indices of man and other mammals-apes, semi-simians, seals and marmots (by Y. Y. Roginsky). ( b ) Certain effects of ultra-violet rays upon the skin in connection with its colo~ation(by Y. Y. Roginsky). ( c ) Study of the laws of distribution of dactyloscopic designs in the territory of the U.S.S.R. (by M. V. Volotskaya). (4) Application' of mathematical methods in the problems of race analysis. An investigation was coiiducted pertaining to the influence of mutations on the distribution of signs among the human population (X. V. Ignatyev). ANTHEOPOLOGICAL WORK I N T H E U.S.S.R. Publicatiom based 012 157 this work Science of races and the race theory. A Symposium. Works of the Institute of Anthropology of the Moscow State University, Issue IV. Materials on anthropology of Eastern Europe, A Symposium. Works of the Institute of Anthropology of the Moscow State University, Issue V (in press). N. N. Anthropological types of Komi-Zyryans. ( I n prep.) CHEBOKSAROV, Mongoloid elements among the population of Central Europe. ( I n prep.) DEBETS,G. F. Palaeo-anthropology of the U.S.S.R. (from the Palaeolithic Age up to the Eighteenth Century). An exhaustive r6sum6 of the results of many years of work of the author and of other research workers. ( I n prep.) IONATYEV, M. V. On the influence of mutations on the distribution of signs among the human population. (In prep.) LEVIN,M. G. Craniological investigations of the peoples of the North (issues devoted to the Ostyaks and Chukchi). ( I n prep.) PLISETZKY, M. 5. History of the science of races. ( I n prep.) ROOINSKY,1’. Y. Laws of distribution of blood groups throughout the globe. (In prep.) Variations of crailio-facial indices of man and of other mammals. ( I n prep.) TROFIMOVA, T. A. Anthropological types of Tatars of the Volga region. ( I n prep.) Skulls from the Nikolsk Burial mound (Russians of the Sixteenth Century). ( I n prep.) VOLOTSKAYA, M. V. Distribution of types of tactile designs of fingers throughout the globe. ( I n prep.) -- Also, a section devoted to the races of man in the “Course of Anthropology’’ for universities under the editorship of V. V. Bunak (author Y. Y. Roginsky) is now in press. Work of other institutions The Department of Anthropology of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences elaborated mainly a number of problems connected with the ancient population of the Soviet Union. The most interesting work is being conducted by Zhirov on the study of skeletons from the neolithic burial mound on the Oleny Ostrov (Deer Island) on Lake Onega, and by V. V. Ginsberg, on the laws of variations of the race signs according to epochs. The Chair of Anthropology of the Central Asiatic State University is engaged in compiling a general resume on the anthropology of Central Asia, which represents a summary ‘This listing is by no means exhaustive. 158 ANTHROPOLOGICAL WORK IN THE U.S.S.R. of the many years of research work by L. V. Oshanin and his collaborators on the race composition of the Iranian, Turkish and Semitic peoples of Central Asia. 11. WORKS ON THE MORPHOLOGY OF MAN Works of the Institute on anthropomorphology, closest in their themes to general problems of anthropology, are conducted in the U.S.S.R. by the Laboratory of the Morphology of Man, at the Scientific Research Institute of Anthropology, under the Moscow State University (Director, Prof. V. V. Bunak). The basic theme of the Laboratory is the study of factors of the genesis of forms by means of analyzing ( a ) the correlation of individual macro-, micro- and hemo-structural signs ; (b) ontogenesis mainly post-natal. I n these connections the following works were conducted in the Laboratory during 1938 and 1939.3 (1) Analysis o f the curves of increase of t h e total stature of t h e body. Comparison of complete stature curves from 0 to 20 years, of seven different groups demonstrated that they are equalized in the best and simplest manner by the parabola of the IV order. Groups differing in their final size show a noticeable parallelism of the curves of growth. During the whole period of post-natal development is preserved a certain, uniform level of velocity which is determined at the earliest stages of development. The established facts supply indications for understanding the mechanism of growth and compel one to reject decidedly the conceptions of Robertson, Fischer, Brody and others. This work, compiled by Professor Bunak, is in press.* (2) A g e variations of the proportiow of the body. The growth of all partial dimensions of the body is subordinated to * For the results of the work of the preceding years, see “ Transactious of the Scientific Research Institute of the Institute of Anthropology of the Moscow State University,” Issue 111, and “Scientific Notes of the Moscow State University, ” Vol. X, 1937. ‘Bunak (V.)-Typology of growth curves of the human body. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., 1940, XXVI, 69-85. ANTHROPOLOGICAL W O R K I N THE U.S.S.R. 159 the laws of the parabola of the IV order. The theory on isogonism of J. Huxley requires more exact definition and as a whole is insufficient. The distribution of the rate of growth in various groups is very similar. The initial caudal direction of the gradient of growth is replaced by an opposite in the post-natal period, and only once. The ontogenesis of anthropomorphous apes does not give any grounds for explaining the age dynamics of the proportions of the body in the light of the theory of recapitulation. This work has been completed by Professor Bunak and is now in press. ( 3 ) Investigations o f the factors of the formation of the large bones (tibia). (Parts I11 and IV.) The dependence between the forms of epiphysis, its mechanical properties and the dimensions of the bones has been established. The principle of Roux requires a corrective-on account of the hemostructural peculiarities. The above work has been completed by lecturer Zenkevich and is now in press. (4) Variations o f the dimensions of muscular filaments. Certain types of the direct muscle of the abdomen were selected in accordance with the composition of their filaments and variations in their dimensions. The differences of the perimeter of the muscular abdomen are connected with the differences in the number of filaments as well as with their dimensions and hemostructure (content of water). This work has been compiled by post-graduate student Kuzbleva and is in press. ( 5 ) Variations o f the hair pigment in connection with the coZou.ration of the hair. This work is being conducted by post-graduate student Stroykova. ( 6 ) Variations i.n the specific weight of the human body in connection with the specific features of its corzstitution. This work is being conducted by post-graduate student Bashkirov. ( 7 ) Types of deportment of man. This work is being conducted by post-graduate student Alekseyeva. 160 ANTHROPOLOGICAL WORK IN THE U.S.S.R. of the lingual muscles. This work is being conducted by post-graduate student Khodess. Works on anthropomorphology (besides descriptive anatomy) are being conducted also in a number of other subdepartment s. Besides special publications of individual institutes, some researches appeared in the ‘‘Archives of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology’’ and in the “Reports of the Lesgaft Scientific Institute”, in Leningrad. ( 8 ) l ’ k e g r o w t h of t h e filaments 111. WORKS ON ANTHROPOGENESIS During recent years the scientific research work on anthropogenesis was concentrated in the scientific institutes of the U.S.S.R. mainly around the most important problems of comparative anatomy, physiology and comparative psychology (connected with the problem of the origin of man, on problems from the spheres of palaeo-anthropology, history of material culture and of the development of society), and finally, around general theoretical problems of the process of evolution of man (of the factors of evolution of man, of Darwin’s theory on anthropogenesis) and on the methodological principles of the study of anthropogenesis in the light of the theory of dialectical materialism. I. I n the field of comparative-anatomical study of problems of anthropogenesis, the main attention of anthropologists and anatomists was devoted to the cerebrum and the system of the organs of locomotion and also to the corporeal proportions of man and ape. The results of investigations of the cyto-architectonic peculiarities of the brain of man, chimpanzee, orang-utan, gibbon, and of the lower narrow-nosed apes, in the State Brain Institute in Moscow (by Shevchenko) and in the U.S.S.R. Institute of Experimental Medicine (by Kurepina) brought the research workers, in particular, to the conclusion of the cardinal similarity of the cerebrum of the large anthropoids with that of man; also of the relatively very low level of ANTHROPOLOGICAL WORK IN THE U.S.S.R. 161 development of the cerebrum of the small anthropoids, as for instance, the gibbon, which brings them rather closer to the marmoset-like apes. Several years ’ works conducted at the Institute of Anthropology (by Deshin) resulted in the preparation for press of a large monograph on the evolution of the macro-structural morphological peculiarities of the cortex of the cerebral hemispheres of man and of other primates. The Institute of Anthropology also studied the muscles of the extremities of man and of the higher apes (Deshin), main attention being paid to differences connected with various means of locomotion. A special work was devoted to the subcutaneous muscles of the neck of primates and of other mammals (by Yatsuta). I n studying the skeleton, works were continued on investigating the micro-structure of the larger bones of man and apes. This resulted in the establishment of the radical similarity in the structure of the compact lamella of the hip of modern man and the Pithecanthropus (by Sinelnikov). An interesting method f o r studying the arterial system of the bones of the human skeleton was submitted (by Anserov), and a study was conducted of the intra-osseous blood supply (by Wokken) as well as of the vessels of the cerebrum of apes (by Yatsuta). Variations of the occipital bone in the area of the large foramen (Schneider) as well as of the metopic suture (Uryson) were studied on the collections of the State Museum of AnthroPologY. A special work was devoted to the study of the 0s frontalis of apes (by Yatsuta). The study of the extremity proportions of apes in the process of age development was conducted on living hamadryad baboons in the Sub-Tropical Branch of the U.S.S.R. Institute of Experimental Medicine in Sukhumi (by Yakimov). I n the field of comparative physiology mention should be made of the works on the daily periodics (by Scherbakova) and on the menstrual cycle of apes and humans which were 162 ANTHROPOLOQICAL WORK I N THE U.S.S.R. conducted in Sukhumi. Works on comparative pathology of apes were conducted in Sukhumi (by Vadova and Konikova) and in the Moscow Zoological Garden (Shtefko: “A case of eclampsia in pregnancy of a chimpanzee at premature delivery of twins of unlike sex”). Works also were conducted in Sukhumi, in the sphere of comparative psychology; namely, on the behaviour of apes (baboons and macaques) by means of conditioned reflexes (by Raminsky, Mayorov, and S. J. Roginsky). The results of other experiments with chimpanzees were elaborated in E. P. Pavlov ’s Laboratory in Koltushi. A philogenetic approach was realized in the vestigations conducted on the characteristic peculiarities of the behaviour of apes in connection with the problem of the origin of the human intellect and of the origin of labor actions (by Voytonis). Mention should likewise be made of the concluding volume of the work (preparing for press) dealing with the results of observations and experiments on the behaviour of a chimpanzee offspring and a human child in the Darwin Museum, stressing the point of similarity between them (by LadyginKots). 11. Of great interest are the finds of fossil hominidae in the territory of the U.S.S.R. One of the most ancient is the previous discovery of a skeleton of a hand and foot of a Neanderthal man in the cave Kiik-Koba, Crimea, the monograph on which is now in press (by Bonch-Osmolovsky). A discovery of world-wide importance was that made in the summer of 1938 of an incomplete skeleton of a Neanderthal child, of about 8 years of age, in the cave Teshik-Tash, near the town of Baysun, Uzbekistan, in a layer of cultural relics of the later .Mousterian (by Okladnikov). The skull has a large brain case (about 1,490 cub. e m ) , and the lower jaw lacks a chin protuberance, possessing at the same time a cynadont tooth structure. These, as well as the other parts of the skeleton are being studied in the Institute of Anthropology ( Gremyatsky, Debets and Rokhlin) . ANTHROPOLOGICAL WORK IN THE U.S.S.R. 163 Much attention was also attracted by three ancient skulls with the Neanderthal Man's traits found previously in Pyatigorsk (by Gremyatsky) in Khvalinsk, on the Volga River, and near the Skhodnya River near Moscow (by Badder). The geological antiquity of these, unfortunately, has not been precisely established. By their morphological peculiarities, however, they bear the character of an intermediate type between the Neanderthal Man and the type of modern man, being rather closer related to the latter type. It is necessary specially to mention the arrival in the U.S.S.R., in 1939, of the outstanding American anthropologist, Alei HrdliEka, who studied the large collections of skulls in the State Museum of Anthropology and in the Irkutsk Museum in connection with the problem of the origin of Indians. Hrdli6ka delivered some interesting reports in the Institute of Anthropology on the evolution of man. His opinion on the origin of the type of modern man from the Neanderthal man coincides in general with the opinion of Soviet anthropologists and this has been fully elucidated in works taking account of the influence of biological and social factors in the process of this transition. (Gremyatsky and Y. Y. Roginsky). The most ancient stage of the evolution of mankind (the epoch of ape-men) was also a subject of study (by Nesturkh) ; as well as the Javan-thropus (by Zalkind), one of the most important and most ancient forms of Neanderthal Man. The natural environment of the fossil remains of man also was studied (Gromov). It is necessary to mention in this connection that the works of Soviet geologists (Gromov), and investigations in the sphere of the early and later palaeolithic age (Voyevodsky), resulted in the fact that Soviet geologists and archaeologists recognize the correctness of the monoglacial theory. I n the field of study of the palaeolithic age mention must be made of the discovery of early palaeolithic sites in Abkhazia (Zamyatin) and of later palaeolithic age images of oxen, deer, rapacious beasts and the mammoth in the Azov Sea re,'wion. (Badder) . 164 ANTHROPOLOGICAL W O R K Il(l THE U.S.S.R. A t the mouth of the Chusovaya River the most northern palaeolithic Magdalenian site in Europe was explored (Talitsky). A fine collection of typical Mousterian implements of classical forms was obtained during excavations in the Wolf Grotto in Crimea (Badder). Early Mousterian (or late Ashel) deposits were investigated on the Desna River which, in connection with their occurrence under a Riss moraine (Gromov) testifies to the existence of human habitats in the North of Europe, in the pre-Riss age (Voyevodsky). The results of these and of other investigations of the old stone age and of the geology of the Quaternary period on the territory of the U.S.S.R. were reported at the Conference F o r the Study of the Quaternary Period, in Kiev, in 1939 (Badder, Voyevodsky, Gromov and others). A large work of a collated character was published on the problem of cultural stages in the development of primitive society (by Yefimenko). Works on the palaeolithic age were also reflected in scientific literature abroad. (Golomshtok, E. A., 1938. The Old Stone Age in European Russia. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, vol. XXIX. pp. 191-468). 111. Special papers were read at memorial conferences held in the Moscow State University (reporter Gremyatsky) and the Academy of Sciences (reporter Roginsky) in connection with the 80th anniversary of the appearance of Charles Darwin’s basic work ‘‘Origin of the Species By Means of Natural Selection”. These reports stressed in particular the point that all the subsequent development of biology confirmed the basic theory of Darwin on the origin of man from the manlike ape of the type of Dryopithecus, the common ancestor of man, chimpanzee and gorilla. A new translation (by Nekrasov and Nesturkh) of Charles Darwin’s “Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex” is ready for press. I n the light of Darwin’s theory, anthropologists conducted a critical review of the idealistic hypotheses of anthropogenesis-of Wood-Jones ’ tarsial hypothesis and of Osborne’s ANTHROPOLOGICAL WORK I N T H E U.S.S.R. 165 . hypothesis of aristogenesis (by Nesturkh) The theory of polygenesis was refuted in connection with the struggle against the “race theory” (Gremyatsky). The problem of anthropogenesis is viewed by the absolute majority of Soviet anthropologists as a problem distinct in quality from the evolution of the entire animal kingdom; labor is considered the basic factor of evolving man. This is mirrored not only in scientific research work, but also in the popular scientific literature (Gremyatsky, Nesturkh, Plisetzky, Yusefovich) and in school textbooks (textbook on anthropology by Bunak, Nesturkh and Roginsky) ; it is also reflected in the exposition and popularization activity of the State Museum of Anthropology in Moscow and of a number of other museums and institutes of the U.S.S.R. ANSEROV, N. E. Arterial system of the human skeleton. Transactions of the Third Moscow Medical Institute, Second Issue, 142 pp., 87 illustrations, Moscow, 1939. Published by the Third Moscow Medical Institute. BUNAK,V. V., M. F. NESTIJRKR AND Y. Y. RWINSKY Anthropology (Brief Course) MOSCOW, Text and School Books Publishing House. In press). EFIMENKO,P. P. Primitive society. State Publishing House, Moscow-Leningrad, 1938, 530 pp., 199 illustrations and photo tables. GREMYATSKY, M. A. How man originated. Seeond edition, Moscow, 1938, 112 pp., 55 illustrations. Signs of “higher” and “lower” races and anthropogenesis. I n the Symposium “Science on Races and the Race Theory.” Transactions of the Institute of Anthropology of the Moscow State University, I V Issue, pp. 47-80, with 5 tables, Moscow-Leningrad, 1938. Published by the Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R. KAMINSKY, S. D. Sub-tropic branch of the U.S.S.R. Institute of experimental medicine (Sukhumi). I n the “Report on the Scientific Research Work of the U.S.S.R.,A. M. Gorky Institute of Experimental Medicine for the years 1933-1937”, pp. 525-530, with 2 photo tables and a complete list of works. KAIEINSKY, S. D. F. P. MAYOROVOn the dynamic-stereotype among apes. Physiological Jour. of the U.S.S.R.,1939, XXVII, Issue 6, 701-710. KUPERINA, M. M. The structure and philogenetic development of thalami optici among primates. Archives Biol. Sc’s., 1937, XLIX, Issue I, pp. 108-124, with 3 illustrations; 1938, 11. pp. 139-161, with 10 illustrations and 1 table and Issue 3, PP. 116-133, with 5 illustrations and 2 tables. 166 ANTHROPOLOGICAL WORK I N T H E U.S.S.R. NESTTJRKH, M. F. Fossil anthropoids and archaic hominidae (According to latest data). Successes of Modern Biology, IX, Issue 2, pp. 161-212 with 16 illustrations. OKLADNIKOV,A. P. Discovery of a Neanderthal man in Uzbekistan. Bull. of Ancient History, No. I (6), pp. 256-257. ROQINSKY,8. G. Formation of habits among lower apes. Comparative psychological observations of apes. Psychological Observations (Transactions of the Bekhterev State Institute for Study of the Brain, Volume 9). Edited by B. G. Ananyev, pp. 185-288, With 23 illustrations, Leningrad, 1939. Published by, the Brain Institute. ROQINSKY,Y. Y. The problem of the origin of homo sapiens (According to the data of the works of the last twenty years). Successes of Modern Biology, 1938, IX, Issue 1, pp. 115-135. SCHIE~EWXOVA, 0. P. Materials for studying the daily periodics of physiological processes of the higher mammals. Paper 11, Bull. Experimental Biol. &I Med.. V. 1938. Issue 2, up. 167-170, with 2 illustrations. (Report No. 1, ibid., 1937. IV, Issue 4). SHEVOHENKO, Y. G. Variability in tho structure of the cerebral cortex. "he lower parietal are& Paper by Shevchenko. The lower parietal area in the intermediate group of apes. Trans. the Brain Inst., Issues 3 and 4 With an Atlas of micro-photographs, pp. 363-392with 18 illustr. (and 6 tables-Nos. 67-72, in the Atlas) MOSCOW, Published by the State Brain Inst., 1938. YATSUTA, K. Z. (1) Sub-cutaneous muscles of the neck of mammals; (2) Subcutaneous muscles of the neck of primates; (3) Arteries of the circle of Willis of some primates; (4) On the morphology of the 0s frontalis. Scientific Notes of the Biol. Scientific & Res. Inst. of the V. M. Yolotov Rostov-on-Don State University, Issue 2, Trans. of the Chair of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, pp. 49-124, with 48 illustr.; pp. 125-156, with 15 illustr.; pp. 157-170 with 19 illustr.; and pp. 171-189 with 2 illustr. Rostov-on-Don, Rostov Publishing House, 1938.