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Anthropology of the Near East female.

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ANTHROPOLOGY O F T H E NEAR EAST F E M A L E ]
WILLIAM M. S H A N K L I N A N D N E J L A IZZEDDIN
Department of Histology, Ameriwn University and American Junior CoUege,
Beirut, Lebanon, Syria
ONE FIOURE
Due to the p e a t difficulty involved in approaching the women
in a Moslem population, anthropological data on the Moslem
female is practically nil. An exception is the study of Izzeddin
('37) on the anthropology of Druse men and women which
was presented to The University of Chicago as a thesis for the
doctor of philosophy degree. Chantre (1895) made some
measurements on 6 Alouite and 60 Kurdish women, and von
Luschan ( '11) included cranial measurements on 15 Alouite
(Ansariyeh) men in his paper on the inhabitants of Western
Asia. Among the Christians anthropological studies have
been reported; on Armenian women by Chantre (1895),
Kappers ('30, I), Krischner and Krischner ( ' 3 2 a ) ; on
Lebanese women by Kappers ('30, 11); on Khaldean women
by Chantre (1895), Kappers ('30, 11), Krischner and
Krischner ( ' 3 2 a ) ; on Suriani women by Krischner and
Krischner ('32 a) ; and on Christian 'Arab' women of Mosul
by Krischner and Krischner ( '32 a). Kappers ( '31, IV) also
made head measurements on thirty-two Samaritan females.
It is the purpose of the writers in this paper to report on
the visual observations and the physical anthropology of
three groups of Moslem women.2 Of these groups data is
This investigation was aided by a grant from the National Research Council.
very grateful t o Mrs. Rrischner and Miss Lyman f o r assisting
in the difficult task of obtaining measurements on the Bedouin women, to Miss
Shannon and students of the American Junior College for help with the Alouite
women, t o Miss Daoud and Mrs. Shanklin f o r assistnnce in securing the Mitwali
measurcmenta, and to Doctor Dodd for suggestions regarding the statistical
treatment of the material.
381
I
* The writers are
AMEICIOAN JOURNAL O F PHYSIOAL ANTEBOPOMGY, V O L XXII, NO.
APRIL-JUNE, 1937
3 AND SUPPLEMENT
382
WILLIAM M. SHANKLIN A N D NEJLA IZZEDDIN
presented on 70 Akeydat females, 100 Alouite females, and
103 Mitwali females. In all cases measurements were made
on individuals 18 years of age or over on the general population. The anthropological data presented in this paper on
the Akeydat female is probably the first that has ever been
reported on the Bedouin female. The Akeydat are Bedouin
nomads of the north Syrian desert, whereas the Alouite and
the Mitwali are agriculturists, the Alouites dwelling in the
Alouite or Nussariyyeh mountains and the Mitwali in the
mountains of Southern Lebanon. Although most Syrians are
Sunni Moslems, both the Alouites and the hlitwali are Shiite
Moslems. Other names used for the Alouites are Ansariyeh,
Ansaries and Nussairiyeh. The hygienic conditions prevailing among the Alouites have been carefully studied by Dodd
( '34).
Observations and a number of measurements were made
on the Akeydat and the Alouite females, but only head length,
head breadth, and the cephalic index are available for the
Mitwali females.
SEROLOGY
The extensive studies by I'arr ( '29, '31), Kappers and Parr
( '34) demonstrate that blood group A is dominant for most of
the settled population of the Near East. For example Parr
('34) gives 42.4% group A and 37.8% group 0 for Syrian
Christians, 36.6%A and 35.0% 0 for Syrian Moslems, 36.2% A
and 33.2% 0 for Druses, 46.2% A and 28.1% 0 for Armenians.
For 101 Mitwali, Parr ( '29) gives the following percentages :
A 43.6, 0 30.7, B 14.9, and AB 10.9.
However, among the settled population there are some exceptions where group 0 is greater than group A. P a r r ( '31)
reports for 83 Samaritans the following: 50.6% 0 and 32.5% A ;
and Younovitch ('33) reports for 108 Samaritans 68.0% 0
and 19.4% A. For 1000 Yemen Jews Younovitch ( '32) gives
56.0% 0 and 26.1% A. Shanklin found for 260 Alouite typings
(males and females) the following percentages : 0 52.7, A 34.6,
B 11.5, AB 1.2.
NEAR EAST FEMALE
383
The serology of the desert Arab forms a striking contrast
to that of the settled population, f o r the serology of the
Bedouin is characterized by a very high percentage of blood
group 0 (Shanklin, '35 a, b, '36 c). For example, the average
for 213 Maualy Bedouin was 89.9% group 0 and 7.5% group A.
I n fact it appears that pure Bedouin entirely lack agglutinogens A and B. The senior writer is of the opinion that the
serology of the old widespread Mediterranean race was exclusively group 0, and that even today isolated groups such
as the desert Arabs, the Samaritans, the Yemenite Jews, and,
perhaps, some of the Greeks studied by Kumaris ('28) retain
the primitive condition.
No explanation will be attempted in this paper for the unexpected finding of such a high percentage of blood group 0
prevailing among the Alouites. However, the high percentage of blood group 0 does not appear to be due to Bedouin
influence, for the physical anthropology of the two groups is
so different. Also puzzling is the extremely low polynuclear
(Arneth) count of the Alouites. Whereas the polynuclear
index of Kennedy's ('33) British normals is 2.62, and the
Iraqqian index reported by Kennedy ('35) is 1.98, the 232
Alouites studied by Shanklin ('36a) only have a mean index
of 1.48, and 214 males from the Bekaii gave a mean index of
1.47 (Shanklin, '37 b).
DESCRIPTIVE OBSERVATIONS
Observations on the Alouite females and the Akeydat
females are given in table 1; also included in the same table
are observations on 75 Alouite school children. For comparative purposes observations are included on the Druse
males studied by Izzeddin ('37), the Rwala males observed
by Shanklin ( '35 c), the Akeydat males by Shanklin ( '36 b),
and the Alouite males by Shanklin ( '37 a). Although the
senior writer has found striking differences between the
serology and the physical anthropology of the nomads and the
settled population, there is a marked similarity in their observable characteristics.
NasaI form:
Straight
Convex
Concavo-convex
Ooncave
Compressed
Medium
Flaring
_.
Zoned
Black
Dark brown
w
Light brown
00
,P
Green brown
Grey brown
Blue brown
Blue
Sclera :
Clear
Blood shot
Opaque
Yellow
Speckled
Iria :
Rayed
Homogeneous
Eye color:
Blond
Hair form :
Straight
Low waves
Deep waves
Hair color:
Black
Dark brown
Light brown
Reddish brown
Gray
24.24
63.64
8.08
3.03
1.00
24
63
8
3
1
0
88
7
1
0
6
73
19
..
..
..
45
5
0
2
1
6.12
74.49
19.39
-
__
91.67
7.29
1.04
-
3.74
1.86
84.90
9.43
9.18
10.20
2.04
4.08
___
74.49
41.00
56.00
-_3.00
Per mn
Number
41
56
3
-
--
Adult females
0
73
0
9
10
2
4
TABLE 1
0.76
56.49
8.40
7.25
13.36
7.63
6.11
56.65
25.10
3.04
2.28
11.79
1.14
79.69
13.01
7.28
__
?er cen
-
226
22
9
5
33
217
12
-
86.26
8.40
3.44
--1.91
12.59
83.05
4.57
-
96.55
252
9
0
-
96.95
254
1.91
5
1.15
3
0
0
-
2
148
22
19
35
20
16
149
66
8
6
31
3
208
34
19
Vumbei
--
Adult males
ALOUITB
6
0
1
21
49
73
1
74
0
0
72
2
0
0
0
0
55
12
1
1
4
2
9
23
37
3
0
3
72
2
1
6.67
-
28.00
65.33
1.33
-_
97.33
1.33
-__
.oo.o
__
97.30
2.70
73.33
16.00
1.33
1.33
5.33
2.67
4.00
__
12.00
30.67
49.33
4.00
96.00
2.67
1.33
~-
Per cen
-
Children
Number
*
8.
33
22
2
6
9
50
2
47
9
60
2
0
0
0
0
1
1
11
12
1
41
14
47
0
1
0
0
45
21
0
--
Number
52.38
34.92
3.17
-9.52
13.43
74.63
11.97
81.03
15.52
3.45
-
-___-__
0
53
2
2
33
12
0
60
32
2
0
0
0
I
78
19
8
78
27
I
7091
17127
69.03
23.89
I 708
I
1
II I1 I1
I
79.61
96
9143
5
4:76
17.47
0.97
0
1.94
3 81
-_
.-~-___
7.00
8;
76:19
80.00
23
21 90
13.00
2
1190
I
0
0
24
22.22
6
5.55
0
_________
1.96
1.96
32.35
11.76
63.83
34.04
90.10
91
10
0
82
18
1
2
7
80
13
--
..
..
..
8
1
79
24
..
4
10
10
1
13
0
17
79
51
58
3
'er cent Number Per cent Numbei
65
64.36
24.75
25
10.89- I-i,
11
-
Vumber
--
94
0
0
0
0
- -
96.77
3.23
1.49
61.19
1.49
1.49
16.42
17.91
1.61
22.58
75.81
68.18
31.82
?er cen'
-
Adult females
Visrlol observationu on the dlouiles, the Akeydot, the Bwa& and Ihs Drilsea
70.54
21.43
0.89
7.14
66.07
3.57
8.93
8.93
0.89
11.61
15.18
70.54
8.04
0.89
5.36
45.54
51.79
2.68
Per cent
TABLE 2
Stajure
AKXYDAT L l Y W
Frequency
134.5-138.4
138.5-140.4
140.5-142.4
142.5-144.4
144.5-146.4
146.5-148.4
148.5-150.4
150.5-152.4
152.5-154.4
154.5-156.4
156.5-158.4
158.5-160.4
160.5-162.4
162.5-168.4
Per cent
2
2
1
0
1
5
6
7
a
13
4
5
4
__
70
153.92 f 0.51
6.28 2 0.36
4.08 2 0.23
135.2
166.9
S m f i c a n c e rotw fw
difference between meam
and i& probable
occurrence by chants'
Ak.m.-Ak.f.
Ak.f.-A1.f.
Ak.f.-Dr.f.
A1.m.-A1.f.
All.-Dr.f.
Dr.m.-Dr.f.
22.81, under 1 in
0.62,
676 h
2.82,
58 in
34.12, under 1 i n
3.11,
36 in
28.55, under 1 in
1
6
2
16
16
16
19
13
6
1.43
7.14
8.57
10.00
17.14
11.43
18.57
5.71
7.14
5.71
12
Mean
S.D.
C.V.
Minimum
Maximum
Frequency
2.86
2.86
1.43
.a
2
100
153.56 2 0.29
4.26 f 0.20
2.77 k 0.13
143.3
165.7
Sign<ficameratio for
&iferenee between S.D8.
and its probabk
occurrence by chance
0.04,
978
4.92, under 1
3.37,
22
6.54, under 1
1.98,
180
3.82,
10
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
in 1000
in 1000
ill 1000
in 1000
in 1000
in 1000
The following abbreviations are used ill these tables:
Dr.m., Druse males
Dr.f Druse females
ALm., Alouite males
Mi.f ., Mitwali females
Al.f., Alouite females
The significance ratio is reported for the difference of the means and the difference
of the standard deviations between the males and the females of the same group,
and the females of each group with those of each of the other groups. The formula
for determining the significance ratio is the observed difference divided by its
probable error. A table of the probability integral may be used to interpret it,
giving the times in 100 that the observed difference might occur by chance due to
sampling fluctuations. A significance ratio of 5 is here taken as indicating a
reliable difference as i t would occur by chance only about once in a thousand times,
or less frequently if greater than 5.
Akm., Akeydat malea
Akf., Akeydat femalea
.,
385
TABLE 9
Bitting height
I
AWUITE FEMALE8
AEEYDAT F E M A L E 8
BbliQPIW~IXYPTIBB
68.5- 72.4
72.5-74.4
74.5-76.4
76.5-78.4
78.5-80.4
80.5-82.4
82.5-84.4
a4.5-88.4
Frequency
Per cent
6
17
18
15
6
1
4.29
5.71
8.57
24.29
25.71
21.43
8.57
1.43
I
i
Mean
6.D.
C.V.
Maximum
2
19
21
23
24
8
2
100
78.78 2 0.26
3.22 f 0.18
4.08 f 0.23
69.6
86.4
I
I
i
I
Minimum
79.06 2 0.20
2.96 2 0.14
3.74 2 0.18
70.7
86.6
S i g n i M a m e ratio and
Sipnipeame ratio and
probability S.Da.
probabiliLu nuana
Ak.m.-Ak.f.
A1.f.-A1.f.
Ak.f.-Dr.f.
A1.m.-Al.f.
Dr.f.-A1.f.
Dr.m.-Dr.f.
Frequency
19.77, under 1
0.85,
566
9.22, under 1
24.21, under 1
9.71, under 1
24.76, under 1
in
in
in
in
in
in
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
3.60,
1.11,
0.39,
4.02,
0.85,
0.28,
14
454
792
6
566
850
in
in
in
in
in
in
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
TABLE 4
Sitting height indez
RANGE IN PER CERT
40.548.4
48.5-50.4
50.5-52.4
52.5-54.4
54.5-55.4
56.5-58.4
Frequency
Per cent
Frequency
2
18
35
10
3
2.86
25.71
2
22
55
19
1
1
100
-
50.00
14.29
4.29
Mean
S.D.
C.V.
Minimum
Maximum
51.49 2 0.11
1.57 2 0.07
3.05 2 0.15
47.91
58.31
Significance ratio and
probability meam
Ak.m.-Akf.
A1.f.-Akf.
ALf.-Al.m.
4.33,
0.34,
2.59,
4 in 1000
818 in 1000
80 in 1000
386
Signillcame ratio and
probability S.Ds.
4.06,
4.45,
0.53,
6 in 1000
2 in 1000
720 in 1000
387
NEAR EAST FEMALE
The hair of the Akeydat and Rwala Bedouin like that of
the Alouite and the Druse is straight or has but low waves.
The hair of all is predominantly dark brown or black, except
for the Alouite children where there is a preponderance of
light brown heads. However, the latter characteristic is to
be expected for in most cases there is a progressive darkening
of the hair from childhood to the adult state.
TABLE 5
Head length
RANQX IN CENTIMETERS
I-
.
15.45-15.84
15.85-16.04
16.05-16.24
16.25-16.44
16.45-16.64
16.65-16.84
16.85-17.04
17.05-17.24
17.25-17.44
17.45-1 7.64
17.65-17.84
17.85-18.04
18.05-18.24
18.25-18.44
18.45-18.64
18.65-19.64
Mean
S.D.
C.V.
Minimum
Maximum
Ak.m.-Akf.
Ak.f .-A1.f.
Ak.f .-Dr.f.
A1.m.-A1.f.
Dr.f.-A1.f.
Dr.m-Dr.f.
Ak.f .-Mif.
A1.f .-Mi.f.
Dr.f .-Mi.f.
AlKEYDAT F E M W
ALOUITE FEMALE0
Frequency Per cent
_ _ _ _ _
1
1.43
2
4
7
12
11
7
12
8
6
70
2.86
5.71
10.00
17.14
15.72
10.00
17.14
11.43
8.57
18.04 & 0.40
4.90 2 0.28
2.71 2 0.15
16.8
19.5
Frequency
~
1
5
1
10
6
14
13
11
17
7
4
10
1
I
100
17.04 2 0.38
5.62 f 0.27
3.29 & 0.16
15.4
18.2
YITWALd FRXAIgS
Frequency Per cent
-
4
4
3
9
14
17
11
14
12
5
4
2
2
1
1
3.88
3.88
2.91
8.74
13.59
16.50
10.68
13.59
11.65
4.85
3.88
1.94
1.94
0.97
0.97
103
16.91 -t 0.38
5.76 4 0.27
3.40 4 0.16
15.6
18.6
388
WILLIAM M. SHANKLIN AND NEJLA IZZEDDIN
The dark brown eyes previously noted among the Bedouin
also prevail among the settled population. Where the eyes
are not pure brown they are usually mixtures of brown with
other colors. Pure blue eyes are occasionally found among
the Alouites and the Druses but rarely among the nomads.
The nasal form is predominantly straight or slightly convex.
TABLE 6
Head breadth
U N Q E IN OENTIYETEBS
13.05-13.24
13.25-13.44
13.45-13.64
13.65-13.84
13.85-14.04
14.05-14.24
14.25-14.44
14.45-14.64
14.65-14.84
14.85-15.04
15.05-15.24
15.25-15.44
15.45-15.64
15.65-15.84
15.85-16.24
Mean
S.D.
C.V.
Minimum
Maximum
I
'
1
AKEYDATFELUBS
Frequency
Per cent
2
6
7
19
11
8
14
1
2.86
8.57
10.00
27.14
15.72
11.43
"0.00
1.43
13.92 k 0.30
3.74 2 0.18
2.70 f 0.15
13.1
14.9
Significance ratio and
probability n u a m
Ak.m.-Ak.f.
Al.f .-Ak. f .
Dr.f .-Ak.f.
A1.m.-A1.f.
Dr.f .-A1.f.
Dr.m.-Dr.f.
Mi.f.-Ak.f.
Mi.f .-A1.f.
Dr.f .-Mi.f.
16.50, under
16.36, under
24.41, under
7.34, under
8.34, under
15.76, under
20.31, under
4.13,
4.74,
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
6
1
in 1000
in 1000
in 1000
in 1000
in 1000
in 1000
in 1000
in 1000
in 1000
ALfJUITE FEXALES
Frequency
XITWALI Z%&ALE8
Frequency
I
Per cent
______
I
1
2
6
12
15
17
23
11
7
1
2
2
1
100
14.60 2 0.30
4.40 & 0.21
3.01 2 0.14
13.5
16.0
1
3
2
6
12
12
17
24
12
8
3
2
1
103
0.97
2.91
1.94
5.86
11.65
11.65
16.50
23.30
11.65
7.77
2.91
1.94
0.97
14.78 2 0.31
4.60 f0.22
3.11 k 0.15
13.5
16.1
389
NEAR EAST FEMALE
PHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS
All measurements were carried out in accordance with the
International Agreement as published by HrdliEka ( '20). For
comparatire purposes, tables 22,23 and 24 are included giving
the means, standard deviations, coefficients of variation and
their probable errors. Included in these tables are data on the
TABLE 7
TABLE 8
Head height
Cephalic module
LKEYDAT TEYALES
LKEYDAT TEYA-
PANGE I N OENTIYETEBS
BANQE IN CBNTIMETEBB
reqnenc: ?er cent
9.45-10.24
10.25-10.44
10.45-10.64
10.65-10.84
10.85-11.04
11.05-11.24
11.25-11.44
11.45-11.64
11.65-11.84
11.85-12.04
12.05-12.24
12.25-13.24
Mean
S.D.
C.V.
Minimum
Maximum
5
3
1
2
9
13
11
10
4
4
5
3
70
reqoenej 'er cent
7.14
4.29
1.43
2.86
12.86
18.57
15.72
14.29
5.71
5.71
7.14
4.29
13.45-13.64
13.65-13.84
13.85-14.04
14.05-14.24
14.25-14.44
14.45-14.64
14.65-14.84
14.85-15.04
15.05-15.24
15.25-15.44
1
3
8
9
20
12
9
5
1
2
1.43
4.29
11.43
12.86
28.57
17.14
12.86
7.14
1.43
2.86
-
70
11.30 & 0.52
6.44 -C 0.37
5.70 k 0.32
9.4
13.1
Mean
S.D.
C.V.
Minimum
Maximum
14.41 2 0.30
3.66 & 0.21
2.53 f 0.14
13.5
15.3
Eaod height
S i g n i h n c c ratio and
probability mcam
Ak.m.-Ak.f.
Dr.f.4k.f.
Dr.m.-Dr.f.
16.18, under 1 in 1000
20.82, under 1 in 1000
12.96, under 1 in 1000
Signifianec ratio and
probabSitv S.Ds.
2.65,
0.63,
3.04,
74 in 1000
670 in 1000
40 in 1000
70 Akeydat Bedouin females of this study, the 120 Akeydat
males and 176 Maualy Bedouin males described by Shanklin
( '36 b), and the 270 Rwala Bedouin described by Shanklin
( ' 3 5 ~ ) . From the settled population are included data on
the 100 Alouite females of this study, and measurements made
390
WILLIAM M. SHANRLIN A N D NEJLA IZZEDDIN
by Shanklin ( ’37 a ) on 263 Alouite males; also included in
these tables are the data on 114 Druse females and 181 Druse
males from Matn, described by Izzeddin (’37).
No exhaustive comparative study is attempted in this paper ;
the comparisons are made particularly with other nearby
females and males.
TABLE 9
Cephalic indez
AKEYDAT FEMALE8
-~
RANGE IN PER CENT
‘requency
~
_
_
_
70.5-72.4
72.5-74.4
74.5-76.4
76.5-78.4
78.5-80.4
80.5-82.4
82.5-84.4
84.5-86.4
86.5-88.4
88.5-90.4
90.5-92.4
92.5-94.4
94.5-98.7
____
I
_
Per cent
~
~
2
8
17
22
17
3
1
_
2.86
11.43
24.29
31.43
24.29
4.29
1.43
70
Mean
8.D.
C.V.
Minimum
Maximum
77.14 & 0.19
2.30 2 0.13
2.98 2 0.17
71.28
82.73
mi@aeancc ratio and
p+obabili@ man8
Ak.f.-Ak.m.
A1.f .-Ak.f.
Dr.f .-Ak.f.
Alf.-A1.m.
Dr.f.-A1.f.
Dr.f .-Dr.m.
Mi.f .-Ak.f.
Mi.f .-Al.f.
Mi .f.-Dr .f .
2.97,
44
29.30, under 1
30.42, under 1
6.83, under 1
3.36,
24
2.16,
144
32.14, under 1
4.37,
4
1.10,
458
in 1000
in 1000
in 1000
in 1000
in 1000
in 1000
in 1000
in 1000
in 1000
W U I T E FEYALEE
Frequency
-
YITWALI FEMALES
‘requency
,
Per cent
~
1
1
3
7
25
17
24
15
3
3
1
100
85.96 f 0.23
3.46 & 0.17
4.02 f 0.19
75.41
95.09
0.97
2.91
7.77
13.59
11.65
21.36
19.42
12.62
6.80
2.91
1
3
8
14
12
22
20
13
7
3
103
87.52 f 0.27
4.02 2 0.19
4.59 k 0.22
77.90
98.70
Significance ratio and
yrobabWy 8.Ds.
2.68,
70 in
5.55, under 1 in
8.88, under 1 in
7.34, under 1 in
3.61,
14 in
2.09,
158 in
7.38, under 1 in
2.22,
134 in
1.29,
384 in
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
391
NEAR EAST FEMALE
BODY MEASUREMENTS A N D INDICES
Stature. Burckhardt (1831) states that the females of the
Rw-ala Bedouin appear to be taller than the males. Unfortunately no measurements were secured on the Rwala
females but the females of this tribe do appear to be nearly
of the same height as the males, who have the decidedly low
TABLE 10
Minimum frontal diameter
AKEYDAT FEMALES
RANGE IN CENTILIETEXS
Frequency
Per cent
Frequency
.-
9.25- 9.64
9.65- 9.84
9.85-10.04
10.05-10.24
10.25-10.44
10.45-1 0.64
10.65-10.84
10.85-11.04
11.05-11.24
11.25-11.64
Mean
S.D.
C.V.
Minimum
Maximum
1
1
6
7
14
14
16
6
5
__
70
10.71 k 0.29
3.60 k 0.21
3.07 k 0.17
9.7
11.6
1
Signifiance ratio and
probability nuam
Ak.m.-Ak.f.
Ak.f.-Alf.
Ak.f.-Dr.f.
A1.m.-A1.f.
Dr.f.-A1.f.
Dr.m.-Dr.f.
24.20, under
12.21, under
4.90, under
39.78, under
8.54, under
17.11, under
1.43
1.43
8.57
10.00
20.00
20.00
22.86
8.57
7.14
1
1
1
1
1
1
in
in
in
in
in
in
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
7
14
15
14
19
11
16
4
100
10.22 +- 0.27
4.02 f 0.19
3.93 f 0.19
9.3
11.0
Sionifcancc ratio and
probability S.Ds.
5.30, under 1 in
1.51,
308 in
0.04,
978 in
0.78,
398 in
1.71,
248 in
2.96,
46 in
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
mean stature of 162 cm. The above condition certainly does
not hold true for the stature of the other groups of females
reported in this paper, for the sex difference in favor of the
male is as follows: Akeydat 14.6 cm., Alouite 13.0 cm., and
Druse 13.3 cm.
392
WILLIAM M.
SHANKLIN A N D NEJLA IZZEDDIN
Chantre (1895) reported a mean stature of 159 em. for two
Kurdish women, and a mean of 154 cm. for 44 Armenian
women.
Sitting height. The greatest sitting height for the Near
East females is found among the Druses: the same is true
for the Druse males (table 22). The sex difference for sitting
TABLE 11
Bizygomutic diameter
AKIYDAT ?'BYRANGE IN CENTIMETEBB
Frequency
7
5
13
19
10
10
2
11.45-1 1.84
11.85-12.04
12.05-12.24
12.25-12.44
12.45-12.64
12.65-12.84
12.85-13.04
13.05-13.24
13.25-13.44
13.45-13.84
/
ALOUITK FEMALES
Percent
Frequency
!?
10.00
7.14
18.57
27.14
14.29
14.29
2.86
5.71
4
4
5
10
13
12
16
18
12
8
__
-
100
70
12.84 & 0.32
4.74 t 0.23
3.70 k 0.18
11.5
13.7
Mean
S.D.
C.V.
Minimum
Maximum
~
Sipni)tcConce +&ti0 and
probability nwana
Ak.m.-Ak.f.
Al.f.-Ak.f.
Drf.-Ak.f.
A1.m.-A1.f.
Dr.f.-A1.f.
Dr.m.-Dr.f.
22.57, under
11.01, under
18.55, under
16.38, under
5.97, under
23.52, under
1
1
1
1
1
1
in 1000
in 1000
in 1000
in 1000
in 1000
in 1000
Significance ratio and
probability S.Ds.
6.93, under 1
2.97,
44
0.57,
700
1.85,
212
2.73,
66
2.37,
110
in 1000
in 1000
in
in
in
in
1000
1000
1000
1000
height in favor of the male is as follows: Akeydat 7.2 em.,
Alouite 6.1 cm.. and Druse 6.2 cm.
Sitting height indes. There i s a marked degree of similarity
between the sitting height indices of all the groups reported
in table 22, the lowest being for the Akeydat males and Maualy
males, each having means of 50.5%: the highest is 51.5% for
393
NEAR EAST FEMALE
the Alouite females. The sex difference in favor of the female
is as follows: Akeydat 0.9%, Alouite 0.4, and Druse 0.6.
HEAD AND FACE MEASUREMENTS AND INDICES
Head Zength. From earliest historical times dolichocephalic
and mesocephalic peoples have occupied the Mediterranean
TABLE 12
Bigonial diameter
ALOUITE FF.MALF.8
AKEXDAT FEMALES
U N G E IN OENTIYETEEB
Frequency
Per cent
2
3
4
12
12
6
11
2.86
4.29
5.71
17.14
17.14
8.57
15.72
14.29
10.00
4.29
8.45- 8.64
8.65- 8.84
8.85- 9.04
9.05- 9.24
9.25- 9*.44
9.45- 9.64
9.65- 9.84
9.85-10.04
10.05-10.24
10.25-10.44
10.45-11.04
10
7
3
Frequency
2
4
8
9
14
24
16
10
5
8
100
__
70
9.53 2 0.36
4.50 k 0.26
4.72 2 0.27
8.6
10.4
Mean
S.D.
C.V.
Minimum
Maximum
Rionificancc ratio and
p r o b a b i l a meam
Ak.m.-Ak.f.
A1.f.-Ak.f.
Dr.f.-Ak.f.
A1.m.-M.f.
Dr.f.-A1.f.
Dr.m.-Dr.f.
24.89, under
4.73,
11.08, under
22.69, under
6.67, under
21.05, under
1 in 1000
1 in 1000
1 in 1000
1 in 1000
1 in 1000
1 in 1000
9.76 -C 0.31
4.66 -C 0.22
4.77 -C 0.23
8.6
1.00
SQnificance ratio and
probabilitu S.Ds.
3.69,
14
6.47, under 1
0.18,
902
3.52,
8
0.33,
828
7.08, under 1
in
in
in
in
in
in
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
basin. The investigations on skeletal remains from hlesopotamia by Keith ('27) and Buxton and Rice ( '31) show that
long-headed people were the dominant element in that region
as early as 4000 B.C. Nor has any great change occurred for
the inhabitants of modern Iraq (Mesopotamia) are still
dolichocephalics and mesocephalics (Buxton and Rice, '31 ;
394
WILLIAM M. SHANKLIN AND NEJIA IZZEDDIN
Coon, '31; Field, '35; Shanklin, '36 b). Also the modern
inhabitants of the Syrian desert belong to the same longheaded group (Kappers, '31, I11 ; Shanklin, '35 c, '36 b).
The same is true of the Transjordan Bedouin (Shanklin, '34),
and the Sinai peninsula (Chantre, '04; Seligman, '17). In
TABLE 13
Total facial height
hKEyDAT FEY-
FLANGE I N 0 € 7 K T I M M E M
--
Frequency
9.45-10.44
10.45-10.64
10.65-10.84
10.85-11.04
11.05-11.24
11.25-1 1.44
11.45-11.64
11.65-1 1.84
11.85-12.04
12.05-12.24
12.25-12.44
12.45-13.04
I
7
8
ALOUITE Y E X A I J S
~
Percent
Frequency
2
4
7
5
10
17
15
10
10
5
10.00
11.43
7
8
_100
11.43 2 0.52
6.40 2 0.36
5.60 2 0.32
9.6
12.7
Mean
S.D.
C.V.
Minimum
Maximum
Significance ratio and
probability w a r n
Ak.m.-Ak.f.
A1.f.-Ak.f.
Dr.f.-Ak.f.
A1.m.-A1.f.
A1.f.-Dr.f.
Dr.m.-Dr.f.
12.43, under 1
1.89,
202
0.26,
860
13.31, under 1
2.07,
162
25.15, under 1
in
in
in
in
in
in
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
11.55 2 0.40
5.94 2 0.28
5.14 2 0.25
10.0
13.0
Signifiancc ratio and
probability S.Dn.
3.58,
0.99,
2.40,
2.51,
1.60,
3.77,
16
504
106
90
280
10
in
in
in
in
in
in
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
the valley of the Nile the ancient inhabitants were dolichocephalics and mesocephalics (Smith, 'lo), as are also the
modern Egyptians (Myers, '05, '06, '08 ; Craig, '11 ; HrdliEka,
'12; Orensteen, '15). Not only along the Nile but the inhabitants of the Rif are also almost exclusively long-headed
(Coon, '31).
395
NEAR EAST FEMALE
A survey of table 22 shows that the Bedouin female is also
very long-headed like the Bedouin male. Some of the Transjordan Bedouin males reported by Shanklin ('34) have still
longer heads than the Akeydat, the Maualy or the Rwala:
this is particularly true of the Hajayya (19.4 cm.), the Howeitat
TABLE 14
Upper f o i a l height
AKEYDAT F E M A L E S
ALOUITE FEMALES
EANQE IN CFJNTDLWERS
Frequency
5.05-5.64
5.65-5.84
5.85-6.04
6.05-6.24
6.25-6.44
6.45-6.64
6.65-6.84
6.85-7.04
7.05-7.24
7.25-7.44
7.45-7.64
7.65-8.24
1
1
Mean
14
5
9
5
14
6
5
2
70
C.V.
Minimum
Maximum
b'ignikanee ratio and
probability nuam
Ak.m.-Ak.f.
Ak.f.-A1.f.
Ak.f.-Dr.f.
A1.m.-A1.f.
Dr.f.-A1.f.
Dr.m.-Dr.f.
7.29, under 1
11.81, under 1
11.93, under 1
25.23, under 1
1.13,
444
19.10, under 1
9
11
21
19
16
10
4
5
2
2
__
100
6.80 f 0.41
5.12 k 0.29
7.52 2 0.43
5.7
8.2
8.D.
Frequency
1.43
1.43
11.43
20.00
7.14
12.86
7.14
20.00
8.57
7.14
2.86
a
~
Per oent
in 1000
in 1000
in 1000
in 1000
in 1000
in 1000
6.20 2 0.30
4.50 0.21
7.27 2 0.35
*
5.2
7.6
Significance ratio and
probability S.Ds.
0.05,
972
1.71,
248
4.61,
2
0.95,
520
3.33,
24
5.76, under 1
in
in
in
in
in
in
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
(19.3) and the Beni Sakhr (19.2). The average head length
for 791 Transjordanian males (mostly nomads) was 18.7.
Two Khazaiil Bedouin females of Iraq, aged 40 and 45 years,
had head lengths of 18.4 and 18.5 cm., respectively, whereas
the mean head length for 222 Khazaiil males reported by
396
WILLIAM M. SHANKLIN AND NEJLA IZZEDDIN
Shanklin ('36b) was 18.6. The 107 Syrian Bedouin males
measured by Kappers ('31, IV) had a mean head length of
18.7. The 32 Samaritan females had a mean of 18.0, and the
27 Samaritan males a mean of 19.1. The close resemblance
TABLE
15
Total faoirrl indez
U N Q E Il? PEE CENT
~
Frequency
76.5- 80.4
80.5- 82.4
82.5- 84.4
84.5- 86.4
86.5- 88.4
88.5- 90.4
90.5- 92.4
92.5- 94.4
94.5- 96.4
96.5- 98.4
98.5-100.4
100.5-102.4
102.5-104.4
104.5-106.4
1
4
.L
5
4
I1
10
9
9
6
3
2
3
_ 2_
70
Mean
C.V.
Minimum
Maximum
SigniMance ratio and
probability meam
A1.m.-A1.f.
A1.f.-Drf.
Dr.m.-Dr.f.
0.88,
552
4.05,
6
8.85, under 1
1.92,
194
5.58, under 1
7.37, under 1
in 1000
in 1000
in 1000
jn 1000
in 1000
in 1000
Frequency
2
4
7
11
14
17
17
10
1.43
5.71
1.43
7.14
5.71
15.72
14.29
12.86
12.86
8.57
4.29
2.86
4.29
2.86
r
6
3
1
1
100
90.04 rt 0.33
4.90 2 0.23
5.44 2 0.26
80.45
104.34
92.46 2 0.48
5.96 If: 0.34
6.44 2 0.37
77.77
106.08
S.D.
Ak.f.-Akm.
Akf.-A1.f.
Ak.f.-Dr.f.
Per cent
SipniMance rat* and
probability S.D1.
1.70,
1.62,
4.81,
0.15,
2.73,
4.29,
250 in
274 in
1 in
918 in
66 in
4 in
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
of the Samaritan and Akeydat head length is perhaps significant because, as discussed by Shanklin ( '36 c), it is likely that
both the Akeydat Bedouin and the Samaritan Jews are representatives of the Mediterranean race that have kept relatively
pure.
397
NEAR EAST FEMALE
The short-headed brachycephalic people of the Lebanon,
Cyprus, Northern Iraq, and Southern Arabia form a striking
contrast to the long-headed inhabitants of the Near East. The
investigations of Buxton and Rice ('31) on skeletal remains
from Iraq suggest that these brachycephalics a r e not recent
intrusive elements, for a few brachycephalics were at Kish
as early as 4000 B.C.
O l J I T E FPYALB.9
RANGE I N CElNT1XKTEBB
Frequency
3.85-4.24
4.25-4.44
4.45-4.64
4.65-4.84
4.85-5.04
5.05-5.24
5.25-5.44
5.45-5.64
5.65-5.84
5.85-6.44
3
7
4.29
10.00
14.29
15.72
11.43
10
11
8
2
6
10
18
19
18
10
11
6
__
100
5.21 & 0.27
4.06 2 0.19
7.80 2 0.37
4.3
6.1
Mean
8.D.
C.V.
Minimum
Maximum
6.3
& m i f i a n c e ratw and
probabilm man#
Ak.m.-Ak.f.
A1.f.-Ak.f.
Dr.f.-Ak.f.
A1.a-A1.f.
A1.f.-Dr.f.
Dr.m.-Dr.f.
9.98, under 1
5.62, under 1
5.24, under 1
6.20, under 1
0.87,
556
13.61, under 1
in
in
in
in
in
in
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
Signifrcancc ratio and
probability R.Ds.
2.57,
1.76,
3.33,
0.89,
1.78,
1.27,
82 in
234 in
24 in
544 in
230 in
392 in
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
These short-headed peoples a r e very widespread throughout the mountainous regions of the Near East, for Chantre
(1895) reported a mean head length of 17.7 em. for 49 Armenian
females, and Rappers ('30, I ) a mean of 17.5 f o r 39 Armenian
females. Chantre (1895) reported a mean head length of 18.3
AMERICAN JODRNAL O F PHYSICAL ASTHROPOIQQY, SOL. X X I I , NO. 3 Ah'D S U P P L E M E N T
398
WILLIAM M. S H A N K L I N AND NEJLA IZZEDDIN
for 6 Alouite females, and a mean of 18.4 for 60 Kurdish females. The 103 Mitwali females reported in this paper have a
mean of 16.9, which is very close to that of the 100 Alouite
females (mean 17.0). Other head lengths reported by Kappers
(’30, 11) a r e for 80 Druse males (mean 17.8), 182 Lebanese
males (mean 18.2) and 24 Lebanese females (mean 17.5, and
136 Alouite males (mean 17.9).
TABLE 17
~-
Nasal breadth
---__
~
-_______--
1
AKLYDAT F E M A L E S
FLANGE IN CENTIMETERS
,
IFriiienep
___-
ALOUITE FEMALES
~
.
2.25-2.64
2.65-2.84
2.85-3.04
3.05-3.24
3.25-3.44
3.45-3.64
3.65-4.04
____
__
1
-
Per cent
5
16
30
15
2
1
I
__-
70
-_
Mean
S.D.
C.V.
Minimum
Maximum
.
100
3.13 & 0.18
2.18
0.12
6.95 & 0.40
2.6
3.9
3.66 2 0.20
2.94 & 0.14
9.60 -+: 0.46
2.4
4.0
*
I
i
--
Significance ratio and
probabdzby m’am
Ak.m.-Ak.f.
A1.f .-A k.f.
Ak.f .-Dr.f.
A1.m.-A1.f.
A1.f .-Dr.f.
Dr.m.-Dr. f.
21.20,
20.15,
3.68,
6.95,
25.02,
22.40,
under 1 in
under 1 in
14 in
under 1 in
under 1 in
under 1 in
Frequtncy
5
1:
30
31
11
5
1.43
7.14
22.86
42.86
21.43
2.86
1.43
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
Significance ratio and
crobabiZity S.Dx.
2.36,
4.08,
0.75,
0
3.69,
3.23,
112 in 1000
6 in 1000
612 in 1000
12 in 1000
30 in 1000
The sex difference for head length in favor of the male is
a s follows : Akeydat 1.1 em., Alouite 0.8, Druse 0.9, Lebanese
0.7.
I1ea.d breadth. Both the Syrian Bedouin females and the
Syrian Bedouin males reported by Shanklin (table 22) have
very narrow heads. The same is true for the two Khazaiil
females, who had head breadths of 13.4 and 13.9 em., also
399
NEAR EAST FEMALE
the 221 Khazagl males only had a mean of 14.3. The 107
Syrian Bedouin studied by Rappers ('31, IV) had a mean
breadth of 14.4. The average head breadth reported by
TABLE 18
Nasal indez
ALOUITE FEMALES
AKEYDAT FEMALES
U N G E I N PEE CENT
Frequency
40.5-46.4
46.5-48.4
48.5-50.4
50.5-52.4
52.5-54.4
54.5-56.4
56.5-58.4
58.540.4
60.5-62.4
62.5-64.4
64.5-66.4
66.5-68.4
68.5-70.4
70.5-72.4
72.5-74.4
74.5-82.4
8
3
6
10
7
6
11
4
3
3
6
3
70
Mean
S.D.
C.V.
Minimum
Maximum
Frequency
3
4
3
6
11
11
20
7
13
7
3
6
3
11.43
4.29
8.57
14.29
10.00
8.57
15.72
5.71
4.29
4.29
8.57
4.29
1
2
100
63.36 k 0.53
6.62f0.38
10.44 zk 0.60
52.72
82.05
Sign$fieance d w and
probability nuam
Ak.m.-Ak.f.
Akf.-A1.f.
Ak.f.-Drf.
A1.m.-A1.f.
Dr.f.-Al.f.
Dr.m.-Dr.f.
Per eent
3.80,
10
7.31, under 1
6.37, under 1
12.46, under 1
1.40,
344
7.05, under 1
in 1000
in 1000
in 1000
in 1000
in 1000
in 1000
58.28 2 0.44
6.54 2 0.31
11.21 2 0.53
41.66
79.06
Signifiance ratio and
probabQity S.Ds.
0.45,
0.16,
0.72,
2.25,
0.62,
1.37,
760 in
914 in
626 in
878 in
676 in
356 in
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
Shanklin ( '34) for 791 Transjordanian males was 14.5 (minimum 14.1, maximum 14.5). The Samaritans studied by Kappers ('31, IV) also had narrow heads: 32 females, mean 14.2,
27 males, mean 14.8.
AMEBIOAN JOURNAL OF PHYBIOAL ANTHBOPOMQY, V O L XXII, NO. 3 AND S U P P L E Y E X T
400
WILLIAM M. SHANKLIN AND NEJLA IZZEDDIN
TABLE 1 9
TABLE 2 0
Ear height
Ear breadth
4LOUITE FEMALES
LLOUITE FEMALES
RANGE IN OGhTIYETERS
RANUE IN OENTIPETEES
~~
4.65-4.84
4.85-5.04
5.05-5.24
5.25-5.44
5.45-5.64
5.65-5.84
5.85-6.04
6.05-6.24
6.2 5-6.44
6.45-6.64
6.65-6.84
Frequency
-
Frequency
_______
2.25-2.44
2.45-2.64
2.6 5-2.84
2.85-3.04
3.05-3.24
3.25-3.44
3.45-3.64
3.65-3.84
2
2
6
14
23
20
16
10
4
2
1
1
4
13
25
31
13
11
2
__
100
-
100
Mean
S.D.
C.V.
Minimum
Maximum
3.10 f 0.19
2.80 & 0.13
8.97 f 0.43
2.4
3.8
Mean
S.D.
C.V.
Minimum
Maximum
5.70 2 0.30
3.76 f0.21
6.60 f 0.38
4.7
6.8
TABLE 21
Ear indez
~.___._
ALOUITE FEMALES
RANGE IN PEE CENT
40.5-46.4
46.548.4
48.5-50.4
50.5-52.4
52.5-54.4
54.5-56.4
56.5-58.4
58.5-60.4
60.5-62.4
62.5-68.4
Frequency
6
10
10
10
16
13
12
7
9
7
-
100
Mean
S.D.
C.V.
Minimum
Maximum
54.38 f 0.36
5.40 +- 0.26
9.93 k 0.47
41.93
67.30
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404
WILLIAM M. SHANKLIN AND NEJLA IZZEDDIN
The male and female Bedouin heads are very narrow as
compared with the heads of the settled mountain population.
Chantre (1895) gives a mean head breadth of 15.7 cm. for 6
Alouite females, and a mean of 16.4 for 42 Alouite males.
Rappers ('30, 11) reported a mean of 15.3 for 136 Alouite
males. The 103 Mitwali females reported on in this paper
had a mean head breadth of 14.8.
The head breadths reported for other Near East females
are: Chantre (1895) found means of 14.4 cm. for 60 Kurds,
14.9 for 49 Armenians; Kappers ('30, I, 11) found means of
15.0 for 39 Armenians, and 15.4 for Lebanese Christians. For
other Near East males additional mean head breadths reported are: Rappers ('30, I, 11) 15.5 cm. for 97 Armenians,
15.6 for 80 Druses, and 15.4 for 182 Lebanese Christians.
The sex difference for head breadth in favor of the males
is as follows: Akeydat 0.7 cm., Alouite 0.3, Druse 0.7, and
Lebanese 0.5.
E e a d height. The mean head heights for all the Bedouin
included in table 22 are rather low. The mean height for
107 Bedouin males reported by Kappers ('31, IV) was 12.7
cm., for 32 Samaritan females 12.6, and for 27 Samaritan
males 13.4.
Head height was not secured on the Alouite nor on the
Mitwali females. Rappers ('30, I, 11) reported mean head
heights of 13.1 cm. for 136 Alouite males, 12.4 for 39 Armenian
females, 13.1 for 97 Armenian males, 12.9 for 80 Druse males,
12.6 for 24 Lebanese Christian females, and 13.3 for 182
Lebanese males.
The mean sex difference in favor of the male for head
height is as follows: Akeydat 1.0 cm., Druse, 0.8, and
Lebanese, 0.7.
Cephalic module. The cephalic module, determined by addi n g head length, head breadth, head height and dividing by
three, gives an indication regarding head size. The cephalic
module is of particular interest in the Near East because of
the relativeIy small size of the Arab head, a topic that has
been discussed by Sir Arthur Keith in the book by Bertram
NEAR EAST FEMALE
405
Thomas ( '32). I n spite of the striking differences in head
form between the desert nomads and the settled mountain
population, there is not much difference in head size (table 22).
Calculations by the senior writer on the data by Rappers
('30, I, 11) gives the following mean cephalic modules:
Alouite males 15.4, Druse males 15.4, Lebanese males 15.6,
Armenian males 15.6, Armenian females 15.0, and Lebanese
females 15.0.
The sex difference for cephalic module in favor of the males
is as follows. Akeydat 0.9, Druse 0.8, Lebanese 0.7, and
Armenians 0.7.
The Old Americans (Laboratory and Southern 'Engineers')
studied by Hrdlicka ('25) had a mean cephalic module of 16.4,
and some other groups reported had the following means:
Irish 16.2, English 16.1, North Italians 16.1, Greeks 15.9, and
Armenians 15.8.
Cephalic i d e s . The cephalic indices of the Syrian Bedouin
studied by Shanklin, in practically all cases, fall in the
dolichocephalic and mesocephalic groups (table 22). The
same is true for the 107 Syrian Bedouin males (mean 77.2%)
studied by Rappers ('31, IV). The 791 Transjordanians,
mostly Bedouin, studied by Shanklin ('34) had a mean
cephalic index of 77.3 (minimum 74.4, Hajayya; maximum
78.2, Bataylvni). The two female Khazaiil Bedouin of Iraq
had mean indices of 72.4 and 75.5, and the Rhazaiil males had
a mean of 76.8 (Shanklin, '36 b).
Buxton and Rice ( '31) called attention to the fact that two
varieties of the long-headed Brown-Eurafrican group occupied
the Tigris-Euphrates valley as early as 4000 B.C. Shanklin
( '34) suggested that among the Transjordan Bedouin there
appear to be two varieties, one dolichocephalic, the other
mesocephalic. Subsequent studies on the Rwala, the Akeydat,
and the Maualy support that viewpoint, and as the senior
writer ('36 b) has pointed out the Akeydat and the Maualy
Bedouin are much nearer in their anthropoloLgyto some of the
Riffians described by Coon ('31) than they are to the Syrian
Rwala.
406
WILLIAM M. S H A N K L I N AND N E J L A IZZEDDIN
There is a striking difference between the cephalic indices
of the long-headed Bedouin and the short-headed mountaineer.
The Alouite indices reported by Chantre (1895) are 85.8 for
6 females, and 84.1 for 42 males. The 136 Alouite males by
Kappers ( '30, I ) had a mean of 85.7.
The mean Mitwali female cephalic index is hyperbrachycephalic, being 87.5%. The Druses reported in table 22 are
hyperbrachycephalic, as are also those studied by Kappers
( '30, 11),80 males, mean 87.3. Other groups reported on by
Kappers ( '30, I, 11) are 39 Armenian females, mean 85.7 ; 97
Armenian males, mean 85.4; 24 Lebanese females, mean 85.4;
and 182 Lebanese males, 84.9. Chantre (1895) gave :t mean
cephalic index of 85.7 for Armenian males.
Kappers ('31, 111, p. 8 ) has called attention to the fact
that the cephalic index of the female Phoenician skeletal
material from Sidon, dating about 500 B.C., and the cephalic
indices of living Samaritan females is greater than that of
the males, and anticipates that the same would be true for
Bedouin women. Hence the cephalic index of 77.1 for the
Akeydat female as compared with 76.4 for the Akeydat male
justifies that assumption. Also among the brachycephalics
of the Lebanon the female index is higher than that for the
male. The sex difference for cephalic index in favor of the
female is as follows: Akeytiat 0.7%, Alouite 2.2, Druse 0.7,
Lebanese 0.5, Armenian 0.3.
Thanks to the efforts of Professor Kappers ('30, '31),
Kappers and Parr ('34) frequency curves of the cephalic
indices have been published for many of the Near East groups.
An analysis of the Armenian curve shows two conspicuous
peaks one at 83, the other at 86, and that in general the peaks
of the Lebanese, the Druses, and at least part of the Alouite
curves correspond to that of the Armenian curve. A frequency curve (fig. 1) of cephalic indices is included in this
paper for the 70 Akeydat females, the 103 Mitwali females,
and the 100 Alouite females. The main Bedouin female peak
omurs at 77 but the Alouite peaks occur at 81,85 and 87 to 88.
The main lllitwali peak is from 86 to 88, with lesser peaks at 83
and 91.
NEAR EAST FEMALE
407
Minimum frontal diameter. The only minimum frontal
diameters reported on other Near East females, besides those
included in table 22 of this paper, are studies by Chantre (1895)
who found a mean of 11.3 cm. for Alouite females and 11.5
for Alouite males. The sex difference in favor of the males
is as follows: Akeydat 1.1 cm., Alouite 0.8, and Druse 0.5.
15
ll
13
12
11
10
9
e
7
6
s
4
3
z
I
Fig. 1 Frequency curve of the cephalic indices of 70 Akeydat females (thick
line), 100 Alouite females (thin line), and 103 Mitwali females (broken line).
Bizygomatic diameter. Chantre (1895) found mean bizygomatic diameters of 14.7 em. for 6 Alouite females, 15.4 for 42
Alouite males, and 13.3 for 49 Armenian females. The
measurements by Chantre are much higher than those reported for females in this paper (table 22). The sex difference
408
WILLIAM M. SHANKLIN AND NEJLA IZZEDDIN
in favor of the male is: Akeydat 1.1 cm., Alouite 1.5 and
%use 0.5.
Bigonial diameter. The three groups of females included in
table 22 do not show much difference in their bigonial diameters; the same is true regarding the males. The sex difference for bigonial diameter in favor of the males is : Akeydat
1.3 cm., Alouite 0.9, and Druse 0.9.
Total facial height. The females reported in table 22 have
relatively uniform facial heights, but there are considerable
differences between the facial heights of the males, the
greatest length, 12.6 cm., occurring among the Druses, and the
least, 11.9, among the Rwala.
The total facial height sex difference in favor of the male
is as follows: Akeydat 0.9 cm., Alouite 0.7, and Druse 1.2.
Although Chantre (1895) measured the facial height of the
Alouites his data cannot be compared with that of this study,
for Chantre measured from glabella to menton, whereas, according to the International Agreement, total facial height
is the distance between the nasion and the menton. The total
facial indices of Chantre are of necessity also omitted.
Upper facial height. A comparison of the data in table 22
shows that among the females the upper facial height of the
Alouite is decidedly shorter than that of the other two groups.
The sex dieerenee in favor of the males is : Akeydat 0.4 cm.,
Alouite 0.9, and Druse 0.7.
Total facial i d e s . The total facial index of the Druse
females is much lower than that of the Akeydat females; however, among the males there are only minor differences. The
total facial index of the Akeydat females is 0.6% greater than
that of the Akeydat males ;whereas, among the settled population the male index is the higher: Alouite 0.8, Drnse 2.7.
Nasal height. Chantre (1895) gave a mean nasal height of
4.3 cm. for 6 Alouite females, 5.0 for 42 Alouite males, and
5.1 for 49 Armenian females. The sex difference reported
for nasal height in table 22 is in favor of the male: Akeydat
0.5 cm., Alouite 0.2, and Druse 0.4.
NEAR EAST FEMALE
409
Nasal breadth. The Alouite females studied by Chantre
gave a mean nasal breadth of 3.0 cm., the Alouite males a mean
of 3.6, and the Armenian females a mean of 3.3. The data in
table 22 shows that the Akeydat male and the Druse male
noses are on the average 0.5 cm. greater than the corresponding females, whereas among the Alouites the average female
nose is 0.2 cm., greater than that of the male.
Nasal ifindex. Both among the nomad and the settled Near
East population the nasal index is relatively low (table 22).
Chantre (1895) found slightly higher indices: 70.0% for
Alouite females, 72.0 for Alouite males, and 65.6 f o r Armenian
females. Kappers ( '33) gave a mean nasal index of 63.4 f o r 200
Armenian females, and 65.2 for 15 Assyrian females. The
mean sex difference in favor of the males for nasal index is:
Akeydat 2.6%-,Alouite 6.7, and Druse 3.5.
Ear height. The mean ear measurements on the Akeydat
females, included in table 22, only represent measurements
on 17 individuals. Kappers ('33) gives a mean ear height
of 6.0 cm. for 200 Armenian females, and a mean of 6.1 cm.
for 15 Assyrian females. The sex difference for mean ear
height in favor of the male is: 0.2 cm. for the Akeydat and
0.5 cm. for the Alouite.
E a r breadth. There is very little variation in the ear
breadths of the various groups reported in this paper. The
sex difference for mean ear breadth in favor of the male is,
0.6 cm. for the Akeydat, and 0.1 cm. for the Alouites.
E a r index. The Akeydat mean ear index is 6.8% greater
for the males than for the females, but that of the Alouite
female is 2.8% higher than that of the Alouite male.
DISCUSSION
It is the suggestion of the senior writer that the blood
group of the early Mediterranean race was pure group 0,
and that the serology of at least part of the living representatives of that early race, the three Bedouin tribes reported by
Shanklin ( '35 b, '36 c ) , are characterized by a very high percentage of blood group 0. In their serology, the Akeydat
410
WILLIAM M. SHANELIN A N D N E J L A IZZEDDIN
Bedouin females are higher in blood group 0 than the Akeydat
males. Shanklin ( ' 3 6 ~ )has raised the question whether or
not this might indicate that, when foreign blood high in p o u p s
A and B is introduced among a pure group 0 people, the
serology of the female is less susceptible to change than that
of the male. This suggestion is in line with the viewpoint that,
in her serology as in her physical anthropology, the female
tends to be the more conservative.
Although the percentage of blood group 0 prevailing among
the Alouites is definitely lower than that of the Bedouin, it is,
surprisingly, higher than that of the Druses, the Mitwalis
and the other Lebanese, whose physical anthropology does
not differ to any appreciable extent from that of the Alouites.
The low polynuclear index of the Alouites can be attributed,
at least in part, to their primitive living conditions and the
consequently wide-spread infections, chiefly malaria among
those living in the plains. However, such factors as climate
and strong sunlight should not be overlooked, since Kennedy
and Mackay ('35) found that healthy British airmen stationed
in the Baghdad area only had a polynuclear index of 1.94,
whereas the index for British normals was 2.62.
There appears to be a fundamental difference between the
skin color of the Bedouin and that of the settled population.
The Bedouin skin has a very characteristic color that might
be called an intermediate between the copper colored skin of
the American Indians and the skin of some of the brown races.
The Alouites and the Lebanese, on the other hand, are usually
fair or brunet, and there is, therefore, no difEculty in distinguishing them from the average Bedouin.
The hair and eyes of both the Bedouin female and the female
of the settled population are usually brown or black. Blue
eyes are occasionally found in the settled population. In
other respects, there is no great difference in the appearance
of the females of these two groups.
There are significant differences between the mean stature
of the males and the females of the same group; there are,
however, only slight differences in stature between the females
NEAR EAST FEMALE
411
of the various groups. The only reliable differences in
standard deviations ar e between the Akeydat females and
the Alouite females, the Alouite males and the Alouite females.
There are significant differences between the mean sitting
height of the males and the females of the corresponding
groups, and between the females of the different groups,
except between the Alouite females and the Akeydat females.
In all cases, the standard deviations for sitting height a r e
practically the same. Also the mean sitting height indices
of the different groups ar e similar.
There are significant differences between the mean head
lengths of the males and the females of the same groups ; the
same is true for head breadth. The most significant difference
prevailing among the females is between the very long and
narrow headed Akeydat and the Alouite, the Druse and the
Mitwalis, whereas among the females of the settled population
the head measurements are nearly the same. All of the groups
show a high degree of similarity in the homogeneity of their
head length. There ar e no significant differences between
the head breadth standard deviations except between the
Alouite males and the Alouite females, where the males have
a higher degree of variability. There a r e reliable differences
between the mean head heights of Akeydat males and the
Akeydat females, between the Druse males and the Druse
females, and between the Akeydat females and the Druse
females. The standard deviations of these groups are
practically the same.
There are no significant differences between the mean
cephalic indices of the males and the females of the same
group except between the Alouite males and females. As is
to be expected, the long and narrowheaded Akeydat females
differ markedly in their cephalic indices from the other
females; Alouites, Druses, and Mitwalis. The mean cephalic
indices of the females of the settled population a r e very much
the same. There are significant differences f o r cephalic
indices between the standard deviation of the Akeydat female,
the Alouite female, the Druse female, and the Mitwali female.
412
WILLIAM M. SHANKLIN AND N E J L A IZZEDDIN
I n all cases the Akeydat female has the higher degree of
homogeneity.
There are significant differences between the mean minimum
frontal diameter of the males and the females of the same
group, and between the females of the different groups.
The standard deviation for the minimum frontal diameter
is similar for the various groups except between the Akeydat
males and the Akeydat females where the standard deviation
of the males is somewhat higher. The same holds true for
bizygomatic diameter both for the mean and the standard
deviation. There are reliable differences for the mean bigonial
diameter between the males and the females of the corresponding group and between the females of the different
groups. However, the only significant difference for standard
deviation of bigonial diameter is between the Alouite females
and the Akeydat females, and between the Druse males and
the Druse females.
The statistical treatment of this study corroborates the conclusions of Kappers, based on the analysis of cephalic indices
by frequency curves, that the Bedouin form a racial group
quite distinct from the inhabitants of the plain (desert border
population of Kappers, '31, IV) and the peoples of the
Lebanon and the Alouite mountains, whereas the indices of
the mountain dwelling groups, the Alouites, the Druses and
the Mitwalis have a high degree of similarity.
In spite of the differences in serology and head form between the nomad and the settled mountain population recent
fhdings on dermatoglyphics indicate a close affinity between
the Rwala, the Mitwali, the Lebanese, and Jews ( Shanklin
and Cummins, '37 ; Cummins and Shanklin, '37 ; and Cummins
and Midlo, '26).
NEAR EAST FEMALE
413
SUMMARY
1. Measurements and indices are reported on 70 Akeydat
female Bedouins, 100 Alouite females and 103 Mitwali females.
2. Significant differences were found between the measurements of the Akeydat Bedouin females and the females of the
settled population. These differences parallel previous findings between the males of the two groups.
3. A high degree of similarity was found between the
measurements on the females of the settled population.
4. The physical anthropological findings verify the serological evidence indicating that the Bedouin Arab and the
so-called Arabs forming the settled population represent two
different racial groups.
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