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Anthropometric data on college women of the middle states.

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ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA ON COLLEGE WOMEN O F
T H E MIDDLE STATES
EVA G, DONELSON; MARGARET A. OHLSON,9 BERNICE KUNERTH,’
MARY BROWN PATTONS AND GLADYS M. KINSMAN”
The character of the development ensuing at the end of
the growth cycle and the point at which the cessation of this
process takes place in women has been little investigated.
Hooton (’36) states: “It is a lamentable fact that comparatively little is known of the terminal phases of the growth
cycle (approximately between 21 and 25 years in males, and
between 18 and 22 years in females). Actually we do not
know when growth stops.”
Studies of the development of college women over a period
of years indicate that the freshmen entering American universities during the present decade are both taller and heavier
than similar students of 20 to 40 years earlier as indicated in
the work of Newcomer (’21)’ Mosher (’23)’ Jackson (’31)’
Chenoweth ( ’37)’ Gordon ( ’30) and Bowles ( ’32). Such findings have been reported consistently from both private and
state schools in various parts of the United States.
‘Approved for publication by the Advisory Committee as Paper No. 4 of the
Regional Project of the North Central States Relating to the Nutritional Status
of College Women.
’With the assistance of L. M. Wall. Approved for publication by the Agricultural
Experiment Station, St. Paul.
Journal paper no. J-786 of the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station, Ames.
Project 538.
‘With the assistance of E. J. Miller, P. Nutter and R. Tucker.
Contribution 92, Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of
Home Economics.
Contribution 102, Division of Home Economics, Kansas State College of
Agricultural and Applied Science, Manhattan.
Approved for publication by the Ohio Experiment Station, Wooster.
“ Approved for publication by the Oklahoma Experiment Station, Stillwater.
319
AMERICAN J O V R N A L OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, VOL. XLYYII, NO.
DECEXBER, 1940
3
320
EVA G. DONELSON AND OTHERS
Additional measurements of college women should, therefore, be of value at this time to augment the few data that
have been accumulated on the late phase of growth and to fix
new points in the trend of size of college women a t entrance.
Such measurements may also contribute to the establishment
of norms for the age groups and geographic areas represented
in the study.
The subjects of the present investigations were 1013 freshman college women, ranging in age from 16 to 30 years, 97%
of the group falling within the limits of 17 to 23 years inclusive. The majority of the students measured were those
selected to cooperate in an extensive study of the nutritional
status of college women. Since serial observations were to be
made in the course of this investigation, it was desirable to
select the subjects as far as possible from among women who
expected to remain in college f o r 4 years. Those selected were
judged to be in a normal state of health by the respective
health services of the cooperating schools.
The students were distributed among certain of the states in
the North Central Region as follows: 356 from Iowa, 88 from
Kansas, 187 from Minnesota, 160 from Ohio, and 222 from
Oklahoma.
The measurements employed, chosen primarily for the purpose of indicating the nutritional status of the individual,
were recommended by Dr. Ale8 HrdliEka ( '20) who taught a
representative investigator from each participating institution
the technic of making and recording the measurements. The
observations made included height, weight, chest breadth and
depth, circumference of each arm and of the left leg, and
pressure measurements of each hand.
The height was determined with the subject standing
straight, with heels, shoulders, and buttocks touching a flat
vertical surface to which a measuring tape had been attached.
Each subject was weighed with a small amount of clothing,
for which a correction was applied. Chest measurements were
made with the large metal caliper (HrdliEka), with the subject's arms partly elevated and held limp. To take the breadth
ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA ON COLLEGE WOMEN
321
(lateral diameter) of the chest, the caliper was placed on the
sternum at the level of the fourth chondrosternal articulation
and held steady against the thorax. For the depth measurement (anteroposterior diameter), the caliper was placed in
the same horizontal plane as for the breadth determination.
The chest measurements recorded were the average of the
excursions on inspiration and expiration. The minimum circumference of each arm was obtained below the insertion of
the deltoid muscle, with the subject inclining slightly to the
side that was being measured. The maximum circumference
of the calf of the left leg was taken while the leg rested on an
elevation and the weight was placed on the right leg. A
dynamometer was used to obtain the pressure measurements.7
I n order to insure that the investigators at their respective
institutions were following with precision identical procedures
in taking the measurements, the cooperating groups reassembled to check this point after several months of collection
of data by each individual. At this time each examiner carried
through the series of measurements on the same subject, and
the various observations were then scrutinized and appraised.
Each operator included only those records made after she had
recently served a practice period and was able t o duplicate
her own performance.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The mean, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation
for each measurement for all observations from each state are
recorded in table 1. It will be noted that, although the states
represented in the study, namely Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota,
Ohio and Oklahoma, are in the same general geographical
region, differences are to be found in the measurements
recorded in the various states. Concerning mean height, that
' Measuring tapes were obtained from the Child Welfare Station, University
of Iowa, Iowa City; the metal calipers from the Bmithsoiiian Institution, Washington, D. C.; and dynamometers from the Narragansett Machine Company, Providence, R. I. The calibrations of each piece of equipment were tested for accuracy
at the respective institutions.
Mean
Number of subjects (356)
Stature (em.)
164.0
Weight (kg.)
57.6
Chest, lateral
25.3
(em.>
w Chest, anteroKl
18.4
posterior (em.)
Arm circumference,
27.0
right (em.)
Arm circumference,
left (em.)
26.4
Leg circumfereiice,
36.1
left (em.)
Pressure, right
33
(kg.)
Pressure, left
30
(kg.1
Mean age
19.5
(years)
MEASUREYENT
RECORDED
3.81
13.08
6.00
7.92
8.57
9.32
6.84
15.50
16.90
7.54
1.52
1.46
2.31
2.46
2.47
5.15
5.12
IIn
n
per-Lent
per
cent
%$ti:
Coef-
6.24
%
: $:
IOWA
TABLE 1
1.70
1.53
2.66
2.71
2.98
4.86
4.56
25.9
18.0
26.6
26.1
35.8
33
30
19.4
15.59
9.12
14.98
14.54
8.33
10.38
10.00
8.50
6.56
3.81
6.28
$%
: $:
4.50
30
19.8
4.11
2.29
35.7
26
2.44
2.42
1.25
1.50
7.21
5.70
%
$::$:
15.70
15.00
6.40
9.21
9.04
6.78
5.80
12.54
3.47
18.5
29
31
35.0
5.09
4.76
2.45
2.65
2.60
26.3
23.9
1.49
17.48
15.19
7.00
10.22
9.90
8.11
6.22
14.55
8.12
1.57
3.65
18.7
30
35.4
25.3
25.7
19.1
26.2
(222)
163.2
56.5
4.94
5.37
2.46
2.57
2.42
1.20
18.87
18.05
6.97
10.17
9.42
6.30
6.29
7.92
1.65
3.42
14.03
5.58
IU
per cent
per
per-Fent
cent
IIll
ll
variation
Acient
Coef-of
OKIAHOYA
t%$t!:i Mean %
: $:
Coef-
5.90
ziT$:t
OHIO
18.3
25.2
(160)
161.4
55.8
Coefflcient of
variation Mean
In
per cent
YINNEMTA
26.5
26.7
18.4
25.9
(187)
164.3
57.5
Coefficient of
vari.ation Mean
in
In
per cent
per-Lent
164.8
58.4
(88)
Mean
KANSAS
Mean by states for all ages f o r each measurement o f 1019 women
ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA ON COLLEUE WOMEN
323
of the Ohio students is significantly less than the mean height
of the students of each of the other states (p<O.Ol). No other
differences in height are significant. None of the differences
in weight are sufficiently great to be significant.
The means for the chest breadth of the Oklahoma, Kansas,
and Minnesota women are significantly greater than these
means for the Ohio and Iowa groups (p<O.Ol). The mean
chest depth of the Oklahoma women exceeds significantly this
mean for each of the other groups observed (p<O.Ol); no
other differences are of sufficient magnitude to be significant.
The mean girths of the right and the left arms of the Iowa,
Kansas, and Minnesota women are significantly greater than
these means for the Oklahoma students (p<O.Ol) ; all other
differences are inconsequential, with the exception of the
amount that the Iowa mean exceeds the Ohio mean for girth
of the right arm (p<O.Ol). The mean leg girths of the Iowa,
Kansas, and Minnesota students are significantly greater
than the mean for the Ohio students (p<O.Ol) ; in addition,
the mean for the Iowa students exceeds significantly the mean
for the Oklahoma women (p<O.OI). The strength test means
for the right hand of the Iowa and Kansas students are
significantly greater than the means for the Minnesota, Oklahoma, and Ohio students (p<O.Ol); the means for the left
hand of the Iowa, Kansas, and Ohio women exceed significantly
these means for the Minnesota and Oklahoma women
(p <0.01) .
The percentage of Old Americans among the women observed varies markedly between the states. The designation,
“Old American,’’ was proposed by HrdliEka (’25) for persons
whose ancestry on both sides has been American for at least
three generations. The greatest percentage in any group is
in the Oklahoma sampling, in which 78% of the students are
Old Americans. Ohio follows, with 62% of the students observed at Ohio State classified as Old Americans. Forty-five
per cent of the students from Kansas, 27% of those from
Minnesota, and 21% of those from Iowa were similarly rated.
In table 2 the measurements f o r students who are listed as
Iowa
Old Americans
Remainder-not
Old American
Kansas
Old Americans
Remainder-not
Old American
Minnesota
Old Americans
Remainder-not
Old American
Ohio
Old Americans
Remainder-not
Old American
Oklahoma
Old Americans
Remainder-not
Old Anierican
Mean of all
Old Americans
Mean of remainder
not Old American
STATE
TABLE 2
(568)
NO.OF
SUBJECTS
19.5
164.1
57.6
25.7
25.8
56.1
163.5
18.5
18.5
26.7
26.1
26.3
25.8
26.0
26.1
18.8
19.3
26.6
58.4
164.1
18.6
25.0
25.5
18.9
26.1
55.9
163.0
18.6
25.8
18.5
24.1
56.4
161.6
19.0
26.6
18.2
25.9
55.4
161.2
19.0
26.0
18.5
26.0
57.8
164.5
19.7
26.1
18.3
25.8
56.7
162.8
19.5
26.5
25.9
25.8
18.1
25.6
57.8
164.5
19.6
26.8
26.4
26.9
18.0
26.2
59.2
165.2
19.2
26.4
26.4
27.0
18.4
25.3
57.9
164.0
19.6
26.7
26.4
27.0
Left
18.2
Right
25.2
t:;:
ARM CIRCUMFERENcE IN
56.8
Lateral
CHEST DIAMETER
I N CM.
164.0
WEIQHT
INKG
19.4
STATURE
INCM.
z:&
35.8
35.0
35.8
35.3
35.1
35.0
35.8
35.6
35.7
35.9
36.2
35.8
INCM.
LEQ omCUMFEPENCE
(&EFT)
Comparison of means of measurements of Old Amnarkcans and of those not rimilarly classified
32
31
30
29
32
31
31
30
31
33
33
34
Right
29
28
27
26
20
28
26
26
31
30
30
31
Left
PRESSURE
I N Ka.
ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA ON COLLEGE WOMEN
325
Old Americans are assembled apart from the measurements
for those students who are not thus classified. In some cases
students were unable to provide this information. The means
for the measurements of height, weight, girths of the arms and
the left leg, and pressure measurements of the 437 Old Americans from the five states are smaller than the means for the
same measurements of the 568 persons who are not Old Americans ; the differences in the girth measurements are significant
(p<O.Ol). There is no difference in the chest size between the
two groups.
The ethnic derivation also varied somewhat between states.
German and English were found to be the most commonly
occurring lineage in the Iowa and Kansas students. The
Minnesota women had Swedish, Norwegian, and German
lineage occurring most frequently ; the Oklahoma women,
Irish, English, German, and Scottish.
The degree of variability in the same measurement for the
different states is consistently of the same magnitude. There
is on the other hand a notable divergence in the degree of
variability between the different measurements taken (table
1). The least variable measurement is height, for which the
coefficient of variation ranges from 3.42 to 3.81%. Chest
breadth varies from 5.80 to 6.56% ; chest depth, from 6.30 to
8.50%; and the left leg, from 6.40 to 8.33%. More variable
than the height, chest, and leg measurements is that of the
girth of the arms. The right arm varies from 8.57 to lO.OO%,
and the left from 9.21 to 10.38%. Most variable are the weight
and pressure measurements. For weight, the coefficient of
variation ranges from 12.54 to 15.59%; for right hand pressure, from 14.54 to 18.05% ; and for left hand pressure, from
14.98 to 18.87%.
When the measurements are classified according to age
from 17 to 21 years inclusive (table 3) there are small progressive increases in the means for height, weight, girth of right
arm, and left leg circumference, for ages 17, 18, and 19.
Individual states do not manifest this progression. Carter
('31-'32) observed an increase in stature in 61 Pembroke
TABLE 3
Physical measurements, according t o state and age, f o r 937 freshman college women
STATE
Iowa
Kansas
Minnesota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Mean of all
NO.OF
STATURE WEIQHT
SUBJECTS
INCX.
~ ~ x
(12)
(3)
(3)
(17)
(20)
(55)
Stand.dev.
Coef. of var.
(per cent)
Iowa
Kansas
Minnesota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Mean of all
Stand. dev.
Coef. of var.
(per cent)
Iowa
Kansas
Minnesota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Mean of all
(122)
(23)
(55)
(28)
(73)
(301)
Stand. dev.
Coef. of var.
(oer cent 1
Iowa
Kansas
Minnesota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Mean of all
Stand. dev.
Coef. of var.
(per cent)
164.4
167.2
164.0
1613
163.4
164.0
163.6
162.9
1642
159.9
163.1
163.4
1.34
5.22
0.95
5.11
2.36
9.06
7.51
13.19
1.35
5.19
1.37
7.41
2.49
9.42
7.66
13.30
1.66
6.42
1.43
6.60
2.47
9.30
Age-20 years (178 subjects)
56.4
25.1 18.2
26.7
56.0
25.7
17.8 26.0
57.4
25.4
18.2 26.6
53.2
25.1 18.4 25.4
25.7
57.8
26.8 19.0
56.6
25.4
18.2 26.3
6.04
3.70
163.7
165.7
165.2
158.2
164.9
164.4
7.20
12.96
Age-19 years (301 subjects)
58.0
25.4
18.5 27.0
59.7
26.1
18.0
26.5
57.0
26.2
18.4 26.7
55.8
25.6
18.1 25.9
57.1
26.2
18.9
25.9
57.6
25.9
18.5 26.6
6.48
3.95
(82)
(18)
(46)
(13)
(19)
(178)
Right
A g e 1 8 y e a d (328 subjects)
57.8
25.2
18.3 26.8
61.4
25.9
18.0
27.1
59.4
26.1
18.6
27.0
56.3
26.0
18.4
26.3
55.8
26.0
19.0 25.4
56.9
26.1
18.5 26.4
5.57
3.41
Stand. dev.
Coef. of var.
(per cent)
Iowa
Kansas
Minnesota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Mean of all
164.2
165.1
164.2
162.6
163.3
163.6
t:i
ARMCIROUYFERENCE
I N CY.
Age-17 years (55 subjects)
59.3
25.0
18.2 26.9
53.8
25.1
18.4 25.8
57.2
27.0
18.3
26.4
55.4
25.9
18.3
26.8
53.8
25.9
19.2 24.9
55.6
25.7
18.6 26.1
165.5
159.8
164.6
161.0
162.0
162.4
6 07
3.74
(75)
(27)
(40)
(91)
(95)
(328)
a .
CHEST
DIAMETEB
I N CY.
7.82
13.80
1.61
6.34
4.60
7.98
2.42
9.22
Age-21 years (75 subjects)
57.4
25.6
18.5 27.4
56.5
25.7
18.5 26.1
58.9
25.8
18.8 27.2
55.1
24.2
17.8
27.0
59.8
26.8
19.5 26.5
58.6
25.8
18.7
27.1
5.35
3.25
2.49
13.46
1.79
6.93
326
1.45
7.73
2.56
9.46
Left
26.3
24.8
26.3
26.4
24.4
25.6
2.30
8.99
26.3
26.6
26.8
26.0
25.0
25.9
2.53
9.75
26.6
26.1
26.5
25.6
25.7
25.9
2.55
9.88
26.1
25.4
26.3
25.0
25.3
26.0
2.47
9.52
26.8
26.0
27.2
26.4
26.1
26.8
2.84
10.62
LEOCIRCUMWEBENCE
IN CY.
Left
36.3
34.1
36.9
35.2
34.7
35.2
2.33
6.62
36.2
35.8
35.9
35.1
34.8
35.5
2.24
6.29
36.2
36.0
35.6
34.8
35.6
35.8
2.51
6.99
35.8
35.4
35.7
34.0
35.7
35.5
2.58
7.26
36.1
35.0
36.1
35.0
35.8
36.0
2.59
7.21
PRESSUaEl
I N KQ.
Right
Left
33
32
26
31
26
29
30
32
24
28
23
26
5.28
18.00
5.13
19.40
34
33
30
32
30
32
31
30
26
28
26
27
4.97
15.76
2.00
19.60
33
32
30
31
30
32
30
30
26
29
27
28
5.35
16.97
4.98
17.51
33
34
30
30
29
31
30
31
26
28
26
28
4.93
15.76
5.05
17.87
34
34
31
29
31
32
30
29
26
26
27
28
5.42
16.71
4.98
17.49
ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA ON COLLEGE WOMEN
327
Old Americans between the ages of 16 and 19 inclusive. The
158 University of Tennessee Old Americans reported i n the
same study increased in stature with age after the seventeenth
year. On the other hand, Bowles ('32) reports no definite
increment in either stature or weight in Wellesley College
women for ages 17, 18, and 19. Gordon ( '30), from observations made on 1000 Smith College students, found a similar
lack of relationship. Diehl ( '33) further confirmed the independence from age of the stature and weight measurements
in his extensive report on 17,127 college women. Although
Gould ('30) and Barker and Stone ('36) observed a lack of
relationship in means representative of the composites of
measurements of height and weight of different individuals
with increasing age, they discovered that, when measurements
were made serially* on the same individuals, a consistent
increment in height and weight with age became apparent.
Young ('28) earlier reported this t o be true of height from
his work on fifty girls 18, 19 and 20 years of age in physical
education training courses.
Comparing previous studies on college women from the
states where earlier studies are available, Ohio, Iowa, and
Minnesota, with the present observations (table 4), it is apparent that the college freshmen of today as represented in
these studies are taller and heavier a t ages 17, 18, 19, and 20
than those entering at the earlier dates. Observations were
made as early as 1886 in Ohio, in 1897 in Iowa. Jackson ( '31)
reported measurements on 1019 students over a period of 18
years, during which time he noted an increase of 0.25 em. in
height and 0.30 kg. in weight of the college entrants. Hrdli6ka
('25) has reviewed studies made at Stanford University,
Oberlin, Smith, and Vassar Colleges over a period of 30 years,
which show a notable increase in stature and weight over
that period of time. Bowles ('32) concluded from his measurements taken at Wellesley, Vassar, Smith, and Mount Holyoke
Colleges that stature increases significantly every 15.3 years
'Serial measdrements of some of the subjects of the present study are now
being made.
328
EVA G. DONELSON A N D OTHERS
TABLE 4
Changes in height and weight
AQa
STATE
YEAS
17years
Iowa
1897
1940
18years
Iowa
Minnesota
19years
Ohio
Iowa
Minnesota
20 years
l
Minnesota
1897
1940
1933
1940
1856-1903
1940
1597
1940
1933
1940
1929
1933
1940
07 conege women over a half century
NO. O P
SUBJECTS
HEIQHT
IN'CM.
WEIQHT
INKQ.
54.4
59.3
56.2
57.8
54.8
59.4
(446)
(55)
162.6
165.5
162.6
164.2
161.3
164.2
159.0
161.6
162.6
164.4
161.3
164.0
57.0
Gilbert *
Present study
Gilbert
Present study
Diehl
Present study
Hanna
Present study
Gilbert
Present study
Diehl
Present study
(1393)
(252)
(46)
161.5
161.3
164.2
55.4
55.0
57.4
Jackson
Diehl
Present study
(12)
(75)
(777)
(40)
(1600)
(28)
55.8
57.2
58.0
55.4
INVESTIOATOB
Height and weight taken with indoor clothing ou, including shoes. Correction
applied as reported in Gould ( '30).
TABLE 5
Regional differences in height and weight
~
YEAR
STUDBXTg
OF
EEIQET
INCM.
WEIGHT
IBKff.
1933
(2485)
163.2
56.3
1933
(1470)
163.5
56.3
1933
1933
1940
(2098)
(2004)
(1013)
162.4
161.3
163.6
55.1
55.3
57.2
1933
1933
(2225)
(2448)
162.4
161.8
52.7
53.3
East
Smith College
West
Stanford University
iVorth Central Region
University of Wisconsin
University of Minnesota
Present study a
South
University of Texas l
North Carolina College for Women
From study by Diehl ( '33).
* Iowa State College, Kansas State College, University of Minnesota, Ohio State
University, and Oklahoma A. and M. College.
A N T H R O P O M E T R I C DATA ON COLLEGE WOMEN
329
and weight every 34 years. A recent report by Chenoweth
(’37) from Cincinnati, including the years between 1916 and
1935, indicates that the students at the later time were younger
but taller and heavier.
I n table 5 are summarized recent measurements available in
the literature, namely from Diehl’s (’33) study on college
women from various parts of the country, and the findings
from the present investigation. In an earlier study, Palmer
( ’29) made the observation that southern students were shorter
than those measured at Wellesley, Vassar, and Smith Colleges.
In the recent studies the sampling of schools is too small in
some areas to warrant drawing conclusions on regional
differences.
Figures representing the mean height and weight of the
1013 women measured at state colleges and universities in
the North Central Region for the present study, exceed
measurements previously reported (table 5 ) from all regions.
This perhaps may be explained in part by the fact that the
majority of women observed in this study were selected because they were in good health, whereas the women reported
by Diehl ( ’33) were an unselected group of college women.
Although records of the height and weight of college women
covering long periods of time and from many sections of the
country are extant, the literature contains few reports of
chest diameters, arm and leg circumferences, and pressure
measurements. It is fortunate that there is available HrdliEka ’s
(’25) classic study of “Old Americans,’’ with which the current measurements, with the exception of arm circumferences,
can be compared.
Observations of chest size have been reported from widespread geographic areas. Carter ( ’31-’32) reported the
lateral and antero-posterior diameters of the chests of 103
students from New England, whose mean age was 19 years,
to be 24.5 and 18.7 cm. respectively. Barker and Stone (’36)
reported the lateral diameter of the chests of 182 California
women 19 years of age to be 25.3 cm. In the present study
330
EVA G . DONELSON AND OTHERS
the Oklahoma and Kansas women were of a mean age of
19 years. The respective lateral chest diameters of the
students from these two states were 26.2 and 25.9 em., and
the antero-posterior diameters, 19.1 and 18.0 em. The mean
lateral chest diameter of the 175 Old Americans reported by
HrdliEka ( '25) was 26.6 cm., the antero-posterior 20.0 cm.,
indicating a larger chest size among this group than among
any of the others reviewed. The mean age of this latter group
of women, however, was 41 years, and the difference in chest
diameter might be expected with the marked difference in age,
since the chest is known to grow in both lateral and anteroposterior diameters during adult life.
The maximum circumference of the left leg was found to
vary from a minimum of 35.0 em. for the Ohio women to a
maximum of 36.1 cm. f o r the Iowa group. The sixty-four Old
Americans reported by Hrdli6ka had a mean maximum circumference of the left leg of 35.5 cm. When the observations of
the current study are sorted according to age there is a fairly
consistent increase in size with age (table 3). This is also
indicated in the means for the different states when they are
arranged according to mean age.
The pressme exerted by the right hand as measured by the
dynamometer varied in the present study from a mean of
30 kg. f o r the Oklahoma and Minnesota students to 33 kg.
for the Iowa and Kansas groups. This exceeded the corresponding measure of 23 kg. which was the mean for HrdliEka's
Old Americans. For the left hand the pressure exerted varied
from 26 kg., the mean for both the Oklahoma and Minnesota
women, to the maximum of 30 kg. obtained by the Iowa and
Kansas students. These means also exceeded notably the
corresponding figure of 19 kg. for the Old Americans.
The mean circumference of the right arm exceeded that of
the left at each age level (table 3). Maximum arm girths were
observed in the Iowa women; the mean girth for the right arm
was 27.0 cm., and for the left, 26.4 cm. The minimum girths
ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA ON COLLEGE WOMEN
331
were observed in the Oklahoma group ; the mean for the right
arm was 25.7 cm., and for the left, 25.3 cm.
SUMMARY
1. Anthropometric measurements of 1013 college women
from the states of Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Ohio, and Oklahoma are reported. The measurements taken were height,
weight, chest breadth (lateral), chest depth (antero-posterior), girth of the arms and left leg, and pressure of the
right and left hands.
2. There were 437 Old Americans observed. Seventy-eight
per cent of the Oklahoma students were Old Americans, 62%
of the Ohio group, 45% of those from Kansas, 27% of the
Minnesota group, and 21% of the Iowa students.
3. The means for the Old Americans were slightly smaller
for all measurements than the means for those not classed
as Old Americans, with the exception of the chest breadth
and depth which were no different; the girth measurements
were significantly smaller.
4. The measurements, ranked according to degree of variability expressed by the coefficient of variation, follow in
increasing order of magnitude : height, chest breadth, chest
depth, leg girth, arm girths, weight, and pressure.
5. The measurements for height, weight, girth of right arm,
and leg circumference show a small consistent increase with
ages 17, 18, and 19 years.
6. The women measured for this study excel in height and
weight previously measured college women from the respective states.
7. The chest diameter measurements, although of a magnitude similar t o earlier measurements on college women, were
exceeded slightly by HrdliEka's measurements of Old
Americans.
8. The pressure force measurements varied between states,
but all exceeded that determination by HrdliEka for adult
Old Americans.
332
EVA
(3.
DONELSON AND OTHERS
LITERATURE CITED
BARKER,R. G., AND C. P. STONE 1936 Growth in height and weight in college
and university women. Science, vol. 83, pp. 59-61.
BOWLES,G. T. 1932 New types of Old Americans a t Harvard and a t eastern
women 's colleges. Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press.
CARTER,I. G. 1931-1932 Physical measurements of Old American college women.
Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., vol. 16, pp. 497-514.
CHENOWETH,
L. B. 1937 Increase in height and weight and decrease in age
of college freshmen over a period of twenty years. J. Am. Med.
Assoc., vol. 108, pp. 354-356.
DIEHL,H. S. 1933 The heights and weights of American college women. Human
Biology, vol. 5, pp. 600-628.
GILBERT,J. A. 1897 University of Iowa studies in psychology, pp. 1-39.
GORDON,F. F. 1930 *Physical measurements of 1000 Smith College students.
Am. J. Pub. Health, vol. 20, pp. 963-968.
GOULD,H. N. 1930 The physique of women students a t Newcomb College of
Tulane University. I. Stature and weight. Res. Quart. Am. Phys. Educ.
ASSOC.,V O ~ . 1, pp. 1-18.
HANNA,
D. 1894 Anthropometric tables compiled from the measurements of
1600 women (Oberlin students). Cited by HrdliEka ( '25).
HOOTVN,
E. A. 1936 An anthropologist looks a t medicine. Science, vol. 83,
pp. 271-276.
HRDLIEKA,
A. 1920 Anthropometry. Philadelphia : Wistar Institute of Anatomy
and Biology.
1925 The Old Americans. Baltimore : Williams and Wilkins.
JACKSON, C. M. 1931 Changes in stature, weight, and body build of female
students at the University of Minnesota during a period of 18 years.
Anat. Rec., vol. 49, pp. 71-80.
MOSHER,C. D. 1923 Some of the causal factors in the increased height of college
women, third note. J. Am. Med. Assoc., vol. 81, pp. 535-538.
NEWCOMER,
M. 1921 The physical development of Vassar College students,
1884-1936. Quart. Pub. Am. Statist. Assoc., vol. 17, pp. 976-982.
PALM=,G. L. 1929 The physical measurement of Hollins freshmen, 1920-1927.
J. Am. Statist. Assoc., vol. 24, pp, 40-49.
YOUNG,
M. 1928 Age of full stature in the female and epiphyseal union of
long bones of lower limbs. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., vol. 12, pp. 285-292.
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