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Anthropometric facial proportions in medicine. Edited by L. G. Farkas and I. R. Munro. Springfield Charles C. Thomas. 1987. xxiv + 344 pp. tables figures appendices index. $65

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Book Reviews
MEDICINE.Edited by L.G. Farkas and I.R.
Munro. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.
1987. xxiv + 344 pp., tables, figures, appendices, index. $65.75 (cloth).
Anthropometric Facial Proportions in Medicine makes its contribution to the biomedical literature by providing 1) reference data
that are not readily available, and 2) a clinical perspective from which to appreciate more
fully the practical importance of proportionate indices.
The reference data, presented as an appendix to a collection of reports, describe craniofacial proportions of North Americans. A
more or less comprehensive set of 166 proportionate indices are included: 129 indices pertaining to a cross-sectional sample of 1,312
children between 6 and 18 years of age, 26
indices for young adults, and 11 indices for
children under 6 years of age. The proportions for children 0-5 years of age are based
on West German norms that were adjusted
statistically. The method used to adjust the
data, as described in the introduction t o the
appendix, should be considered as approximate at best.
Given the inherent problems of evaluating
proportions, the application of these data to
individual cases requires information on the
separate measures. To this end, the reader
must rely on Anthropometry of the Head and
Face in Medicine, an earlier volume by Dr.
Farkas, to isolate the potential source of any
disproportion. It should also be consulted for
further details about the study’s materials
and methods.
Four of the 14 reports, or chapters, pertain
directly to the material presented in the appendix. The sample and the notion of proportion index are introduced by the first two
chapters, respectively. The distinction made
between disproportions, described as deviations beyond 5 2 standard deviations, and
disharmonies, which are located between 1
and 2 standard deviations, provides an interesting insight into the clinical orientation.
Chapter 5 summarily describes the age
changes, including the relative amounts and
directions, and sex differences in proportions
for six craniofacial regions. It condenses the
0 1988 ALAN R. LISS, INC.
information presented in the appendix. As
an introduction to the appendix, chapter 14
describes the types of indices used, how they
were named and ordered, and the manner in
which the information was tabulated.
Six of the chapters describe andlor evaluate proportionate measures. Following an interesting historical account of the betterknown facial proportions in the third chapter, the validity of nine neoclassic canons are
evaluated in chapter 6. Unfortunately, statistical comparisons are not presented, making
it dificult to ascertain whether some of the
differences are not merely reflecting normal
variation. Chapter 8 provides a short description of indices that have proven useful in
clinical studies. The discussion of how indices are applied in clinical settings is most
useful. Refining this orientation slightly,
chapter 10 presents the use of facial proportions in aesthetic surgery. Chapter 13 briefly
describes the computer program used for facial design at the Hospital for Sick Children
and discusses the application of the “golden
section,” the ratio 1:1.618,for the analysis of
facial proportions.
Chapter 9 should not be overlooked. It provides an excellent account of how proportionate indices are used in the planning of
surgical-orthodontic treatment. The various
soft and hard tissue considerations for treatment planning are succinctly and clearly integrated. Basic scientists require more of this
type of information to develop clinically appropriate and meaningful research designs.
The remaining chapters pertain to sources
of variation in craniofacial proportions. Ethnic differences in facial proportions are described in chapter four. As expected, 14 of
155 (approximately 9%)proportions are significantly different between four samples of
adult European females. The interpretation
of the results may be confounded by problems with normality and homogeneity of
variance, which are apparent from the
graphics. Chapter 7 gives reference data, relationships between five basic facial profile
lines or inclinations, not included in the appendix. It is suggested that stability of treatment may be evaluated through correlations
between measures. Additional analyses of
200 females, including 50 professional
models, imply that a n “absolute objective
concept of the aesthetic profile does not exist
in nature.” This line of comparison is further
developed in chapter 11, which contrasts the
craniofacial proportions of females rated as
above and below average for attractiveness.
Only 25% of the proportions studied show
significant differences between the two
groups; the chin appears to be the most important aspect of a pleasing profile. Finally,
chapter 12 evaluates facial proportions in
children with attention deficit disorder
(ADS). Significant differences apparently exist 1)between normal individuals and subjects with ADS and 2) between individuals
with ADS who respond favorably and those
who respond poorly to medication. It is noteworthy that the control group has more deviant Z-scores than the other groups for some
of the comparisons.
Assuming that no shortcuts have been
taken to produce the summary statistics,
purchase of book may be justified by the information provided in the appendix. It provides valuable reference material for human
biologists, clinicians, biomedical engineers,
and industrial designers. The reports, which
vary in quality, present a n opportunity for
physical anthropologists to understand better how and why craniofacial proportions are
used in clinical situations and, with a little
imagination, how they might be used in a
variety of future applications.
Faculty of Dental Medicine and
Human Growth Research Center
University of Montreal
Montreal, Quebec, Canada
VARIATION,CULTURE AND EVOLUTIONIN interests): variation, culture, and evolution
Edited by Ronald in African populations. The incredible diverSinger and John K. Lundy. Johannesburg: sity of this volume simply demonstrates the
Witwatersrand University Press. 1986. xvi numerous ways in which these topics can be
+ 258 pp., figures, tables, references. approached.
$50.00 (cloth).
This volume thus offers something of interest for palaeoanthropologists, anatomists,
This volume is a festschrift in honor of human geneticists, and archaeologists. There
Hertha de Villiers, a pre-eminent palaeoan- are articles that are historical in their orienthropologist and anatomist in a field where tation (Morris, Wilson), those dealing with
women researchers are indeed rare and one analytical methods (Fatti, Wood and Wilson),
of de Villiers’ caliber is rarer still. She is investigations of growth and development
perhaps best known for her monumental (Preston and Chertkow), presentations of
work The Skull of the South African Negro: skeletal, dental, or soft tissue variability
A Biometrical and Morphological Study and (Lundy, Cleaton-Jones, Traill, Grine, Sperher analysis of the controversial Border Cave ber, van Reenen), examinations of genetic
remains. But as this collection by her stu- variability (Singer and Kimura) and the redents and colleagues well illustrates, her in- lationship between culture and genetic variterests and influence are considerably ability (Jenkins, Nurse), those dealing with
broader. The breadth of this book is enor- palaeontological questions (Feldesman, Spermous, consisting of a foreward by Raymond ber, Rightmire), and those addressing the
Dart, a n introduction by Ronald Singer, a interpretation of archaeological data and macompendium of de Villiers’ lifework and pub- terial culture (Inskeep, Bedaux, Sampson).
lications, and 19 specific articles. These range Several of the articles make use of the Rayfrom discussions of Proconsul africanus anat- mond A. Dart skeletal collection (Morris,
omy and behavior (Feldesman) and studies of Wilson, Fatti, Grine, Lundy, Wood and Wilthe soft anatomy of the speech apparatus son), which de Villiers helped to organize and
(Cleaton-Jones, Traill) to Stone Age archae- curate, and others discuss the interpretation
ology (Inskeep, Sampson). This may dissuade and analysis of the Border Cave remains
some readers who favor more specialized and (Morris, Fatti, Rightmire). Genetic and hismore narrowly defined volumes, but I ac- toric relationships between Khoi, San, and
tually enjoyed the tremendous breadth of other southern African populations are dissubject matter because all of the articles con- cussed by Morris, Wilson, van Reenen, Jenform to the spirit of the book (and de Villiers’ kins, and Singer and Kimura. An important
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medicina, figuren, facial, xxiv, farkas, charles, proportional, index, 1987, anthropometric, 344, springfield, thomas, munroe, edited, tablet, appendices
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