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Anthropometric observations on the Choctaw.

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ANTHROPOMETRIC OBSERVATIONS ON THE CHOCTAW1
HENRY B. COLLINS, JR.
Assistant Curator, Division of Ethnology, U. S. National Museum
The Choctaw present one of the most striking examples to be found
in North America of an Indian tribe once large in numbers, and of first
importance historically and ethnologically, which has failed as yet to
receive due attention by anthropologists. The physical type of the
present population has not been studied and the skeletal material
collected from the region fonnerly occupied by the Choctaw is scanty
and of no great value. This latter is due in large part to climatic conditions in the South, which are unfavorable to the preservation of
skeletal remains, but also because generally the crania are artificially
deformed, making it impossible to arrive at an exact determination of
the original head form.
-4ccording to Dr. HrdliEka,2 the aboriginal population of the southeastern states was composed of two more or less distinct elements.
One of these, as represented by the Natchez, Alabama, and possibly
Choctaw, with other smaller tribes, was strongly brachycephalic with a
high head. This type was confined to the region extending from Florida
and Georgia westward to Arkansas and Louisiana, including parts of
Tennessee. The other strain, including the Creeks, Chickasaws, and
Seminoles, was more oblong-headed but still rather high vaulted. This
second type is found with varying frequency thruout the same region
as that occupied by the brachycephalic group, but its affiliations are to
the north, representing probably the southward extension of an originally
dolicho- to inesocephalic element, which by intermixture with the
southern tribes underwent a gradual broadening and heightening of the
head. The Choctaw as the largest tribe in the Gulf region and as
perhaps a basic type culturally and physically, thus assume considerable
importance in any consideration of the ethnic problems of this area.
While engaged in an investigation on the prehistoric mounds and
village sites of eastern Mississippi for the Bureau of American Ethnology
during the past summer, I was afforded an opportunity to secure
measurements and observations on some of the Choctaw in the vicinity
of Philadelphia, Miss. I wish to express my thanks to Mr. H. H.
Knoblock who, representing the Mississippi Department of Archives
'Published with the permission of the Bmeau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian
Institution.
ZTheAnthropology of Florida. Small 4",Fla. S. Hist. SOC., Deland, Fla., 1922.
4 $5
hI.J. P H Y S . AVTHROP., 1923, Vol. VIII, No. 4
486
HENRY B. COLLINS, JR.
and History, accompanied me on the trip, and to Mr. T. M. Scott of the
Indian agency a t Philadelphia, whose intimate knowledge of the
Choctaws was placed a t our disposal.
There are still at the present time some 1000 Choctaws in Mississippi,
most of them in the counties of Neshoba, Kemper, Leake, and Newton.
Measurements were taken on 58 adults, 40 males and 18 females, from
which series 7 males and 1 female were later removed because of the
probability of mixed blood, so that the following data relate to 33 males
and 17 females. A considerable number of the tribe are undoubtedly
mixed with whites and negroes, but very little miscegenation has taken
place in recent years.
The anthropometrical method employed was that outlined by Dr.
HrdliEka,3by whom I have also received direct training. The instruments used were the HrdliEka spreading compass, the small Broca
sliding compass, and the anthropometric tape. The large sliding compass for taking the chest diameters was not available, so the chest
measurements had to be omitted. Twenty-eight of the subjects were
examined at the Indian Agency in Philadelphia, Miss. The exact
weights of these subjects were obtained. With the others it was necessary to go to their homes, and in these cases the weights are only
approximations.
DESCRIPTIVE NOTES
Skin Color. Subjects were examined on the chest for skin color,
which was noticeably lighter there than where the skin had been exposed
to the sun. Broca's color standards, as published by HrdliEka (Part R.,
Bull. 39, U. S. Nat. Mus.), were used. The majority of both sexes were
found to be of a tan color, ranging between Nos. 24, 25, and 26, with a
few individuals of darker brown hue. The males generally were somewhat darker than the females.
Hair. In all of the 50 individuals here considered the hair was
thick, coarse, black and straight. Gray hair was observed in Nos. 7,26,
41, 51, and 52, which small group included most of the older subjects.
Among the eight individuals whose measurements were excluded because of the probability of mixture, the hair showed a more or less
distinct waviness as well as a perceptible thinning in those above 40
years of age.
Eyes. The eyes were in every case a dark brown.
Mustache and Beard. Facial hair was scanty, the usual condition in
3Anthropometry. So,Wistar Inst. of Anat. & Biol., Philadelphia, 1920.
OBSERVATIONS ON THE CHOCTAW
No. 39
No. 24
No. 48
No. I
Choctaw Types
HENRY B. COLLINS, JR.
438
the males being a very scattered growth, principally on the chin and
upper lip.
Head. I n two individuals there was a slight sagittal ridge, and in
one case (No. 51) asymetry, produced by a n undue bulging of the parietal
and occipital regions. Occipital flattening was observed in two instances; the head measurements of these are given but are not included
in the averages.
Forehead. The forehead for the males was recorded as fairly high in
34 per cent; medium in 4s per cent, and low in 1s per cent. Of the
females, 41 per cent had fairly high foreheads, 35 per cent medium, and
23 per cent low. The average forehead in the females was not only
proportionally higher than that of the males, but the measurements
show it t o be on the average actually higher by S mm. This condition4
should probably be attributed t o a higher hair line in the females, which
results in a higher and more rounded forehead. Among the males 63
per cent had upright foreheads, 33 per cent showed a slight backward
slope and 4 per cent a moderate slope; while in the females 76 per cent
showed no slope and 24 per cent only a slight slope.
Supraorbital Ridges. The development of the supraorbital ridges was
not'especially pronounced in either sex. The conditions were as follows:
Males
Kumber
Per cent
........................
........................
Medium. . . . . . . . . .
Pronounced. . . . . . .
6
8
11
S
18
24
33
24
Females
Number
Per cent
16
1
94
6
E y e Slits. The slant of the eyes was found in general to be but
slightly more pronounced than in whites. Only two individuals, both
males, showed any marked evidence of epicanthus.
Malaus. The malars of both sexes were found to be constantly more
prominent than in whites, but not to such a degree as is found among
some other Indian tribes.
Nasioiz Depressioiz. This feature was distributed as follows :
Males
Number
Per cent
Shallom.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deep.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
17
9
21
51
27
Females
Number
Per cent
7
41
0
1
53
6
Nose. The shape of the nose was recorded most frequently as straight,
slightly concave or slightly convex :
'Found by HrdliEka also among the Old Americans (So,1925, Waverley Press,
Baltimore).
OBSERVATIONS ON THE CHOCTAW
430
HENRY B. COLLINS, JR.
Males
Number
Per cent
Concave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slightly Concave. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Straight.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slightly Convex. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Convex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
5
15
8
3
6
15
45
24
9
Females
Number
Per cent
2
10
2
3
12
59
12
17
Nasal Septum. The nasal septum was found to incline mildly upward
in 24 per cent of the males and 23 per cent of the females. It was
horizontal or nearly so in 64 per cent of the males and 71 per cent of
the females, and showed a downward inclination in 12 per cent of the
males and G per cent of the females. Most of the latter type were found.
as usual, among the older subjects.
Lips. As in most Indians the lips were found on the whole to be
somewhat fuller than in whites. The conditions were as follows:
Males
Number
Per cent
Thin.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Above Medium. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
16
16
3
48
48
Females
Number
Per cent
12
5
70
29
Alveolar Prognathism. There was but little alveolar prognathisni
observed. The females showed a somewhat greater tendency in this
direction than did the males.
Chin. The chin was recorded as t o prominence and form, with the
following results :
Prominence
Males
Number
Per cent
Submedium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Above Medium.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
24
4
Form
15
73
12
Males
Number
Per cent
Ordinary.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pointed.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Square., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28
1
4
85
3
12
Females
Number
Per cent
6
9
2
35
52
12
Females
Number
Per cent
7
10
-
41
59
-
Body and Limbs. Observations on the body and limbs were as follows :
Males
Number
Per cent
Spare.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Muscular.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
21
S
Females
Number
Per cent
12
4
64
8
24 Plump 5
24
47
29
Health. The subjects examined were mostly in good health. A few
suffered from malaria, and two (Nos. 45 and 57) had incipient tuberculosis. The latter disease is rather prevalent among the Mississippi.
Choctaws.
OBSERVATIONS O N THE CHOCTAIT'
431
434
HENRY B. COLLINS, JR.
MEASUREMENTS
The group is shown to be of rather high stature. The only measurements directly available for comparison are those made by students of
Dr. Boas a t the Chicago Exposition in 1893, who give the stature of 260
Chotaws as 170 cm. for males and 157.2 cni. for females. Our stature
averaged for the males 171.4 cm. and for the females 156.2. The
difference in stature between male and female in the present series is
unusually large, being 15.2 cin. as compared with the usual difference of
about 12 cni. HrdliEka, in his study on “Stature among the Indians of
the Southwest and of northern 1\/Iexicco,”5found this difference t o range
from 9 cni. in the Walapai to 13.4 cm. in the Yaqui.
As t o head form the subjects here considered do not conform very
closely t o the brachycephalic Gulf type. The average cephalic index of
78.8 for males and 80.1 for females is closer, in fact, to that of the longer
headed element before mentioned, which is found in burial mounds
together with the broad-headed type in different localities of the Gulf
region. As t o the mean height index, measurements of head height on
the living and on the skull are not directly comparable, the former
being smaller on the average by some 9 mm., which means a corresponding lowering of the mean height index by about 5 points. Converted in
this way, the mean height index of the present series, 80.4 for males and
S0.7 for females on the living, or approximately 85.4 for the males and
S5.7 for the females on the skulls, would be in fair agreement with the
index given by HrdliEka on the Florida crania (86.0 for niales and SS.l
for females), in which were represented both the brachycephalic and
mesocephalic types. The reverse is true, however, as regards the
cephalic index. This index is generally greater by about 2 points on
the living than on the skull, so that if the measurements of the Mississippi
Choctaws were reduced t o those of the skull, the majority would be
still further removed from the broad-headed type.
If the original Choctaw type was strongly brachycephalic, should the
lowered cephalic index found in the present population be attributed to
a n infiltration of other blood? It is quite certain that there are still in
our series individuals with traces of white, which might in some degree
account for the altered condition. On the other hand it is very unlikely t h a t the Choctaws of even a century or two ago were a homogeneous group. The population of the tribe around 1 i O O is variously
estimated t o have been from 15,000 t o 20,000. The territory occupied
included the southern half of the present state of Mississippi with parts
”Putnam Anniv. Vol., Small 4”,1909, 405-426.
OBSERVATIOKS ON THE CHOCTAW
433
HENRY B. COLLINS, JR.
434
TABLE
1. CHOCTAW
(Arranged by the
7.4
9.8
12.5
6.9
10.2
4.4
6.4
4.8
8.4
2.9
6.0
6.5
12.3
6.5
12.5
10.7
7.0
1.9
8.0
6.1
3.1
4.3
93.0
88.2
93.5
96.0
96.1
87.7
88.1
89.0
.89.6
87.7
92.0
89.5
93.0
88.5
89.8
88.2
83.2
91.8
88.0
93.5
91.2
8X.1
50.7
51.1
56.0
52.6
53.2
52.5
53.1
53.2
52.7
52.1
52.4
52.9
49.7
51.9
50.1
50.7
51.3
53.0
52.2
51.7
54.3
53.3
20.4
19.9
20.0
20.8
19.5
19.1
20.0
19.4
19.1
19.3
18.9
20.1
20.2
19.3
19.8
18.8
18.1
19.2
19.1
19.1
18.8
19.8
14.2
14.1
14.3
14.5
13.1
13.7
14.G
13.5
13.8
13.4
14.0
14.2
14.4
14.2
13.8
13.0
13.5
14.0
13.9
13.8
13.6
14.2
16.46
16.23
16.36
17.00
15.80
15.76
16.60
15.93
15.86
15.86
15.83
16.66
16.80
16.20
16.36
15.53
15.33
16.16
16.13
16.06
15.83
16.63
80.7
81.5
82.2
79.5
76.4
81.5
83.9
78.9
81.7
78.4
83.6
79.3
80.0
82.6
78.2
77.4
83.1
81.2
80.6
80.0
80.2
79.6
11.7
12.6
12.2
14.6
12.6
12.4
12.4
12.5
12.8
12.9
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.3
12.3
12.7
11.6
12.2
11.6
12.4
10.9
12.4
17.4
18.5
19.0
21.4
19.2
19.2
18.5
19.5
19.4
19.4
17.2
18.6
18.3
19.3
18.3
18.0
16.8
19.4
18.8
18.0
19.0
19.5
5.7
5.9
6.8
6.8
6.6
6.8
6.1
7.0
6.6
7.0
5.0
6.3
5.9
7.0
6.0
5.3
5.2
7.2
7.2
5.6
8.1
7.1
fl. 171.0 179.6 8.6
42 23
163.7 170.3 6.6
18 50
168.1 169.3 1.2
49 35
161.0 168.4 7.4
57 43
171.8 177.6 5.8
23 3 0
167.0 174.6 7.6
40 26
174.7 181.8 7.1
352 19
166.0 175.3 9.3
2 17
177.0 183.5 6.5
4 1 54
165.7 170.8 5.1
37 23 mod.
occ. fl. 167.5 173.3
5.8
A verages
I7I.4 178.2 6.8
Minima
161.0 168.4 1.2
Maxima
187.0 199.3 12.5
'Sons of 51 and 52.
?Feeble mi1ided. hereditai.Y.
90.0
87.9
87.0
85.6
88.0
87.8
89.2
86.0
90.0
88.7
52.6
53.7
51.8
53.2
51.2
52.6
51.1
51.8
50.8
52.5
(19.2) I115.5) (80.7) (13.6)
13.5
18.1 14.7 81.2
13.4
18.7 15.2 81.3
81.5
13.4
18.9 15.4
18.5 15.1 81.6 13.7
81.8
13.9
18.7 15.3
13.2
18.2 14.9 81.9
83.1
14.5
18.9 15.7
18.7 15.8 84.5 13.7
85.5
13.5
17.9 15.3
16.10
15.43
15.76
15.90
15.76
15.96
15.43
16.36
16.06
15.56
(78.4)
82.3
79.1
78.1
81.5
81.8
79.8
83.8
79.4
81.3
12.5
11.4
11.3
12.6
12.1
11.3
12.5
13.2
12.0
11.2
19.2
17.8
16.9
19.5
18.0
18.0
18.5
18.8
18.9
16.9
6.7
6.4
5.6
6.9
5.9
6.7
6.0
5.6
6.9
5.7
17.5
18.58
16.8
21.4
6.4
6.35
5.0
8.1
321 29
51 67
1 24
53 32
34 37
26 50
50 27
48 26
47 23
38 38
16 25
58 25
451 23
15 30
46' 21
28 29
22 25
55 35
6 41
3 27
43 20
27 26
7 62 51. occ.
183.4
172.5
167.0
182.6
180.5
167.0
165.9
167.2
174.0
168.2
175.5
169.3
187.0
170.5
179.4
174.0
162.3
173.3
168.5
181.0
167.9
165.3
190.8
182.3
179.5
189.5
190.7
171.4
172.3
172.0
182.4
171.1
181.5
175.8
199.3
177.0
191.9
184.7
169.3
171.4
176.3
187.1
171.3
169.6
14.8
14.7
14.8
15.7
14.8
14.5
15.2
14.8
14.7
14.9
14.6
15.7
15.8
15.1
15.5
14.8
14.4
15.3
15.4
15.3
15.1
15.9
86.7 51.7 (17.6) (15.4)
15.13
83.2 49.7 17.9 14.4
96.1 56.0 20.8 15.9
80.5 52.2 19.20
72.5
73.9
74.0
75.5
75.9
75.9
76.0
76.3
77.0
77.2
77.2
78.1
78.2
78.2
78.3
78.7
79.6
79.7
80.1
80.1
80.3
80.3
(87.5) (13.3) 15.43 (80.6) 11.1
78.8 13.8 16.04 80.4 12.23
72.5 13.0 15.33 76.4 10.9
85.5 14.6 17.00 83.9 14.6
TABLE2.
CHOCTAW'
X
159.6 164.5 4.9 82.2
19 48
155.0 163.4 8.4 78.8
3 1 35
152.5 157.0 4.5 81.5
10 24
152.6 155.0 2.4 82.5
213 46
158.5 160.2 1.7 82.2
17 38
147.0 150.5 3.5 79.0
20321
173.4 183.5 10.1 87.4
52 58
155.0 158.6 3.6 82.2
36 2 1
156.8 159.0 2.2 83.3
39 35
149.9 153.3 3.4 79.6
33 26
152.7 166.6 13.9 82.3
44 25
157.5 164.0 6.5 83.5
11 20
154.6 159.6 5.0 82.5
24 35
160.6 167.2 6.6 82.9
29 23
13 35
160.0 168.0 8.0 85.0
9'48
154.0 156.5 2.5 81.0
156.0 166.5 10.5 77.0
14 29
156.2 161.9 5.7 82.0
Averages
Minima
147.0 150.5 1.7 77.0
173.4 153.5 13.9 87.4
Maxima
1Mother of 10 and 11.
ZDaughter of 19.
3Mother of 43 and 47 (Table 1).
51.6
50.8
53.4
54.4
51.9
53.7
50.4
53.0
53.2
53.1
53.9
53.0
53.4
51.6
53.1
52.6
49.5
52.5
49.5
54.4
19.9
18.4
18.3
18.3
18.5
18.3
18.9
18.1
17.8
18.4
18.6
18.4
17.1
18.3
17.9
16.8
17.0
18.17
16.8
19.9
14.6
14.0
14.3
14.4
14.6
14.5
15.0
14.4
14.2
14.7
14.9
15.0
14.1
15.2
15.1
14.0
14.5
I4.55
14.0
15.2
73.4
76.1
78.1
78.7
78.9
79.2
79.4
79.6
79.8
79.9
80.1
81.5
82.5
83.1
84.4
84.5
85.3
80.1
73.4
85.3
14.0
13.4
13.1
13.2
13.0
13.3
13.5
13.1
12.8
13.2
13.5
13.2
12.7
13.7
13.8
12.3
12.9
13.2 15.31 80.7 11.37
12.3 14.36 78.5 10.7
14.0 16.16 83.6 12.0
17.8
17.2
17.0
18.0
17.9
17.7
16.6
6.3
6.2
5.9
6.4
6.5
6.0
5.9
17.X
6.4
i7.6 6.2
18.0 6.8
18.3 6.8
18.6 6.9
17.9 6.0
18.2 7.2
18.0 6.7
18.4 7.4
17.6 5.6
17.80 6.43
16.6 5.6
18.6 7.4
OBSERVATIONS ON THE CHOCTAW
435
~IALES.
Cephalic Index)
5
-
5
...c $'S
rd
u
+.
i4.6 5.0
~ 4 . 2 5.6
14.3 5.6
15.7 6.1
14.9 5.4
15.1 5.2
14.0 4.7
14.4 5.3
14.4 5.0
13.8 5.2
14.1 5.2
14.5 5.1
14.1 5.5
14.3 5.3
14.5 5.7
14.0 5.1
14.0 4.6
14.3 4.1
14.8 4.7
14.9 4.9
14.7 5.3
15.0 5.2
13.9 5.3
14.0 4.7
14.5 5.3
14.9 5.6
13.8 5.1
14.2 4.9
13.9 5.1
14.6 5.2
14.0 5.4
14.3 5.0
14.3 5.3
14.41 5.2
13.8 4.6
15.7 5.7
4.0
4.3
3.9
4.0
4.4
4.6
3.9
4.1
4.0
4.1
4.1
3.6
4.2
3.9
4.2
4.3
3.5
4.2
3.8
3.9
3.8
3.5
3.8
4.1
4.5
4.0
3.8
3.6
3.4
4.2
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.~
3.4
4.7
5.5
5.0
5.6
5.6
6.0
6.1
5.1
5.2
5.2
5.6
5.3
5.4
5.7
5.6
4.9
5.5
5.1
5.7
5.5
5.4
5.3
4.9
5.8
5.2
5.9
5.9
5.2
5.6
5.1
5.6
5.1
5.3
5.0
5.39
4.9
6.1
6.2
6.7
6.7
6.9
6.2
6.8
5.7
5.9
6.3
6.3
6.1
6.3
6.0
5.9
6.0
6.5
5.9
6.2
6.5
6.6
6.3
6.5
6.5
5.4
6.5
5.7
5.9
5.5
5.7
6.0
5.9
5.9
5.9
6.18
5.4
6.9
4.2
3.3
3.6
3.5
3.5
3.2
4.3
3.5
3.7
3.4
3.3
3.6
3.1
3.9
3.4
3.6
3.4
3.59
3.1
4.3
54.0
70.2
75.0
74.5
73.1
64.0
82.7
70.0
86.0
69.4
68.5
70.6
63.3
79.6
72.3
70.6
69.4
73.5
63.3
86.0
5.4
5.3
5.2
5.2
5.2
4.6
4.3
4.4
4.6
4.9
5.3
5.2
5.3
4.9
3.4
5.0
4.6
4.9
3.4
5.4
a%
+
i
m
1
Y
s 3.5s
50.0
76.8
69.6
65.6
81.5
55.5
83.0
77.4
50.0
78.9
78.5
70.6
76.4
73.6
73.7
54.3
76.1
82.4
80.9
79.6
71.7
67.3
71.7
87.2
84.9
74.1
74.5
73.5
66.7
80.5
70.4
76.0
71.7
876.5
65.6
85.5
-6,
E
0
al
0
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u
42
.
4 :
56.5
4.1 61.2
3.6 53.7
3.7 53.6
3.4 54.8
3.5 51.5
3.1 54.4
3.4 57.6
3.3 52.4
3.4 54.0
3.1 50.5
3.6 57.1
3.8 63.3
3.1 52.6
3.4 56.7
3.4 52.3
2.5 47.5
3.5 56.5
3.8 58.5
3.4 51.5
3.3 52.4
3.2 47.1
3.3 50.8
59.3
3.2
3.5 51.5
3.2 56.1
3.1 52.5
2.9 52.7
3.1 54.4
65.0
3.9
3.5 59.3
2.9 49.2
3.5 59.3
3.37 54.2
2.5 47.1
4.1 65.0
.<
5
*
2
20.6
19.4
17.9
19.7
19.3
15.1
17.5
17.9
17.7
18.0
19.1
15.5
20.5
17.8
20.6
18.9
17.9
18.1
17.6
15.5
17.7
17.5
17.9
18.0
17.9
18.3
18.9
18.0
18.0
18.9
15.7
17.9
18.2
18.48
17.5
20.6
10.3
9.5
10.0
10.1
9.3
8.9
5.5
5.8
9.0
8.6
9.0
9.0
10.0
9.0
9.2
9.4
5.4
9.4
8.6
9.5
5.8
5.5
8.7
8.5
8.9
9.1
5.3
9.1
9.3
5.5
8.9
9.2
8.5
9.06
8.3
10.3
50.0
49.0
55.9
51.3
45.2
49.2
45.6
49.2
50.8
47.8
47.1
45.6
45.8
50.6
44.7
49.7
46.9
51.9
48.9
50.9
49.7
47.8
45.6
45.9
49.7
49.7
43.9
50.6
51.7
45.0
47.6
51.4
46.7
49.0
43.9
55.9
29.8
27.3
26.0
29.0
26.2
2.5.8
24.8
26.2
26.0
25.3
27.5
25.5
29.8
25.5
28.7
26.7
24.2
26.5
25.5
27.0
25.3
25.6
27.5
25.2
25.5
24.8
26.0
25.6
24.3
27.0
27.5
24.8
26.2
26.32
24.2
29.5
11.0
10.0
10.3
11.5
11.5
9.6
10.3
10.9
10.2
36.9
36.6
39.6
39.7
43.9
37.2
41.5
41.9
39.2
10.1 40.0
9.7 35.0
10.0 38.8
11.0 36.9
10.5 41.2
10.0 34.8
10.1 37.8
9.0 37.2
10.9 41.1
10.0 39.2
11.2 41.5
10.7 42.3
10.5 41.0
11.0 40.0
9.3 36.9
10.7 42.0
10.6 42.7
10.0 35.5
10.7 41.8
10.4 42.8
10.3 35.1
9.8 35.6
9.1 36.7
9.6 36.6
10.31 39.1
9.0 34.5
11.5 42.7
6
52.0 175.
45.5 (145.)
55.0 165.
57.0 154.5
53.0 (165.)
50.0 (160.)
49.5
145.
51.0
138.5
55.0
146.
50.5 (145.)
51.0
147.5
52.0
153.
167.
53.5
138.
47.5
53.0 147.
55.0 (175.)
50.0
117.
147.
56.0
45.5
140.
58.0 199.
52.5 141.
50.0 142.
51.0 (140.)
52.5 130.
152.
49.5
54.0 141.5
49.0
130.5
52.0 160.5
54.0
148.5
45.5 (130.)
52.0
147.
127.
48.0
50.0 (140.)
51.69 1qg.2
45.5
117.
55.0 199.
FEMALES.
13.9
13.4
13.5
13.6
14.0
12.8
14.6
13.4
13.2
13.1
14.8
14.1
12.7
14.3
13.4
13.1
14.0
13.7
12.8
14.8
5.0
4.7
4.5
5.1
5.2
5.0
5.2
5.0
4.3
4.9
4.5
5.1
4.9
4.9
4.7
5.1
4.9
4.92
4.3
5.2
6.4
5.6
5.5
6.5
5.8
5.5
7.3
5.6
5.9
5.9
5.6
6.0
6.2
5.6
5.7
6.2
5.5
5.94
5.5
7.3
3.2
3.6
3.0
3.4
3.0
3.2
3.3
3.2
3.1
3.2
3.2
3.0
3.4
3.2
3.1
3.1
3.0
3.18
3.0
3.6
50.0
64.3
54.5
50.0
51.7
55.2
45.5
57.1
52.5
54.2
57.1
50.0
54.8
57.1
54.4
50.0
54.5
535
45.8
64.3
17.5
17.8
16.3
16.2
17.6
16.7
20.1
16.5
16.8
16.9
16.9
16.3
16.7
17.9
17.0
16.4
16.8
17.08
16.2
20.1
5.0
7.6
7.6
7.5
5.1
7.5
8.7
7.5
7.9
7.5
8.0
7.4
7.7
5.2
7.7
7.5
7.7
7.80
7.4
5.7
45.7
42.7
46.6
46.3
46.0
44.9
43.3
47.3
47.0
46.1
47.3
45.4
46.1
45.5
45.3
45.7
45.8
45.6
42.7
47.3
24.0
23.6
24.0
22.3
24.3
22.4
27.8
23.0
24.1
23.8
23.7
23.5
23.6
23.7
24.5
22.0
23.5
23.75
22.0
27.5
10.1
5.9
9.0
10.0
9.7
8.6
10.5
10.0
8.7
9.0
9.1
9.5
9.0
8.8
9.0
8.5
8.5
9.22 3 8 . 8 135.3
8.5 36.1 104.
10.5 44.8 155.
436
HENRY B. COLLINS, JR.
of western Alabama and southeastern Louisiana, and despite a fairly
uniform language certain cultural differences were found throughout
the area. For such a large tribe to be homogeneous would be a great
exception. But the Choctaw are known to have incorporated some of the
smaller neighboring tribes and doubtless similar merging had taken place
in the more remote past. This, together with a normal amount of
mixture due to contact with adjoining tribes might well have brought
about some changes in the original type. Moreover the numbers now
studied are not large enough to be safely regarded as fully representative
of the tribe; they may show localized differences. It is hoped that added
observations may be made in the near future on both the Choctaw and
other remnants of the more important tribes of the Southeast.
An analysis of the other measurements is hardly called for in this place
and with the numbers a t our disposal. The data will be given instead,
for what they may be worth, in detail, until the study can be made
more comprehensive.
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