close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Anthropometric studies in Brazilian Cayapo Indians.

код для вставкиСкачать
Anthropometric Studies in Brazilian Cayapo Indians
F. J. DAROCHA AND F. M. SALZANO
Departamento deGenetica, Instituto de BiociZncias, Universidade Federal do
Rio Grande do Sul, PBrto Alegre, R S , Brazil
ABSTRACT
Results of 16 measurements and 7 indices obtained from 130
men and 156 women belonging to three populations of Brazilian Indians are
reported. For both males and females the averages f i r stature and head breadth
are in the middle of the distribution range of values observed in other South
American tribes; those for head length and nasal height are relatively low but
the averages for sitting height, calf circumference and minimum frontal breadth
are high. As for the indices, in both sexes the cephalic and cephalofacial are
medium, the Rohrer, jugomandibularis and facial low, and the nasal high when
compared with other tribes. Morphological distances between the three Cayapo
populations were estimated using Mahalanobis' D2 statistic; they are smaller
than those separating different tribes and are not the expected ones when the
demographic variables of these groups and the geographic distances between
them are considered. The amount of variability as expressed by the coefficient
of variation and the prevailing pattern of sexual dimorphism are similar to
those observed i n other Indian populations.
Despite the large amount of research
already performed on genetic polymorphisms in Latin American Indians, not
much is known about their morphology.
This lack of information is particularly
obvious among South American Indians,
only some 30 populations having been
reasonably well studied anthropometrically so far (Comas, '71).
The present paper reports anthropometric data from three Cayapo Indian
populations collected as a part of a multidisciplinary investigation started in 1965.
The ultimate aim of these studies is the
understanding of their genetic structure,
trying to ascertain in what way this structure can influence their genetic variability. Previous analyses of the health status
of one of these groups and the demography of all three have been reported
(Nutels, Ayres and Salzano, '67; Salzano, '71b). Other medical and genetic
information will be published elsewhere.
MATERIAL A N D METHODS
The individuals studied speak a Ge language and live in three semi-independent,
quite isolated localities in the Brazilian
States of Para and Mato Grosso. Twenty
years ago they were still hostile to nonAM. J. P H Y S . ANTHROP., 36: 95-102.
Indians. The Kuben-Kran-Kegn number
310 persons and are located near the
Riosinho river, an affluent of the Fresco
Oat. 8"10'S., long. 52'8'W.); they were
pacified in 1952 and studied in 1968.
The Txukahamae comprise 190 persons
and live in the Xingu National Park, in
a place called Porori (lat. 10"20'S., long.
53 "5'W.); they established peaceful relations with neo-Brazilians in 1953 and
were studied in 1966. Finally the Mekranoti (240 persons) are in the Iriri river
region (lat. 8"40'S., long. 54"W.); they
were pacified in 1958 and studied in
1969. The first are somewhat more acculturated than the other two. Due to the
process of disruption of their culture,
as well as the place where they now live,
their nutrition and health seem to be not
as good as those of the two other groups.
Detailed studies were not performed, however, to quantify adequately this general
impression. On the other hand, we studied the Mekranoti just after a very serious malaria epidemic; therefore, measurements most influenced by nutritional
and/or health variables may not be typical
of the group's best conditions. Other information about these populations and
demographic data are given in Salzano
('71b).
95
96
F. J . DAROCHA AND F. M. SALZANO
All individuals without obvious malformations older than 15 present in the
villages during our stay there were included in the sample.
All 16 measurements (tables 1, 2) were
made according to standard techniques
by one of us (F. J. R.). His first orientation about the location of key anthropometric points was given him by Dr. G. A .
Harrison in Brazil in 1964, and checked
afterwards with other trained physical
anthropologists. A test of the reproducibility of the measurements obtained in
field conditions was made during the
study of another tribe (the Yanomama) in
1967 and is described in detail elsewhere
(Da Rocha, '71). Briefly, ten individuals
were measured on two different days; in
13 of the 16 measurements (81%) the
average deviation reached the maximum
level of 2 % of the trait's mean. The less
reproducible measurements were lip thickness (average difference 6.5% of the
mean), height of forehead (5%) and
nasal breadth (3% ).
The data were transferred to punched
cards and all calculations performed on a
1130 IBM electronic computer, including
Mahalanobis' D2 (Mahalanobis et al., '49),
using a program especially devised a t the
Data Processing Center of our University.
For the DZ calculation the following measurements were used: stature, weight,
head length, head breadth, height of forehead, morphological face height, nasal
height, nasal breadth and sitting height.
Only another measurement (lip thickness)
was obtained in the three populations and
not used. This was due to its low reproducibility and to the Cayapo custom of
lip perforation, which prevented the measurement of several individuals i n relation to this trait.
RESULTS
Tables 1 and 2 present the results of
the 16 measurements and seven indices
obtained among the adult male and female individuals of the three populations.
A total of 130 men and 156 women were
studied. Comparing these data with those
listed by Comas ('71) and Da Rocha ('71)
respectively on other South American and
Brazilian tribes, the total Cayapo values
for both males and females can be placed
in the middle of the distribution range
for stature (males, 1.65 m ; females,
1.54 m) and head breadth (M, 150 mm;
F, 142 mm). The averages are relatively
low for head length (M, 185 mm; F,
176 mm) and nasal height (M, 49 mm;
F, 44 mm), but high for sitting height (M,
8 5 cm; F, 80 cm), calf circumference
(M, 34 cm; F, 33 cm) and minimum frontal breadth (M, 118 mm; F, 114 mm).
As for the indices, in both sexes the
cephalic and cephalofacial show medium,
the Rohrer, jugomandibularis and facial
low, and the nasal high values when
compared to other tribes.
The coefficients of variation ranged
from 3 to 23. High coefficients were observed for weight in both sexes and for
calf circumference in females; since these
characteristics are influenced by nutritional variables, this was not unexpected.
Other high coefficients occurring in both
sexes were obtained for height of forehead and lip thickness. Since there are
problems in the location of key points in
these measurements this variation, however, may not be real. In general the coefficients obtained are similar to those
observed in other South American tribes.
A DZ analysis performed with data
from two of the three Cayapo populations studied here (Txukahamae and
Kuben-Kran-Kegn) and including 13 other
Brazilian tribes (Da Rocha, '71) showed
that the Cayapo morphologically are
much more similar to the Caingang (D2
= 1 i n males and 2 in females) than to
the Xavante (D? = 22 and 18 respectively), two other Ge-speaking tribes included in the comparison. Differences
between the Cayapo and Xavante (Nee1
et al., '64; Niswander et al., '67) are
especially marked for face height, nasal
height, head length and mandibular
breadth (bigonial). The general distribution of D2 values in the 66 comparisons
involving the 13 tribes indicated varied
from 0.6 to 38.9 among the males and
from 0.9 to 26.5 among the females.
As expected, the differences between
the three Cayapo populations are much
less marked than those separating different tribes. The average stature is exactly the same among the females of the
three groups, but among the males there
is a difference of 4 cm between the
-
-
82.3
_
54.4
-
142.5
81.9
-
_
_
_
_
_
1.1
0.9
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.4
_
SE
_
_
12.14
5.82
7.43
9.79
12.14
3.67
_
CV
4.6 0.7 2.77
6.6 0.9 10.43
13.4 1.9 7.33
5.2 0.7 3.46
SD
_
64.7 7.8
118.9 6.9
49.0 3.6
40.3 3.9
20.5 2.5
85.8 3.1
-
164.1
63.0
183.9
150.6
Mean
Txukahamae ( N = 49)
168.1
58.5
186.9
149.1
141.8
98.2
68.8
120.6
49.8
37.9
16.2
87.3
34.8
89.6
55.1
119.4
123.2
79.8
95.1
69.3
57.1
85.0
76.1
Mean
1.3
1.9
1.4
1.0
1.1
1.1
1.2
1.4
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.8
0.3
0.8
0.4
1.1
SE
3.38
13.99
3.33
3.08
3.56
5.08
7.84
5.21
7.02
8.18
13.48
3.83
3.86
3.76
2.96
4.25
CV
- - _
5.7
8.2
6.2
4.5
5.0
4.9
5.4
6.2
3.5
3.1
2.1
3.3
1.3
3.4
1.6
5.0
SD
Mekranoti ( N = 19)
165.7
61.1
185.2
150.1
143.3
101.0
69.4
118.7
48.8
40.1
16.4
83.4
34.0
89.8
54.3
118.2
134.1
81.0
95.5
70.5
58.5
82.8
82.3
Mean
SE
5.0 0.6
5.1 0.6
5.6 0.7
4.4 0.5
4.4 0.5
5.9 0.7
8.0 1.0
5.8 0.7
2.9 0.3
3.0 0.3
3.3 0.4
3.1 0.4
1.6 0.2
2.9 0.4
1.7 0.2
5.1 0.6
SD
3.04
8.37
3.06
2.95
3.10
5.92
11.56
4.88
6.00
7.47
20.27
3.67
4.86
3.25
3.08
4.34
CV
Kuben-Kran-Kegn ( N = 62)
165.4
61.4
185.0
150.1
142.9
100.3
67.6
119.1
49.0
39.9
17.7
84.9
34.2
89.7
54.5
118.5
135.6
81.1
95.2
70.2
56.8
83.3
81.4
Mean
-
-
5.1
6.3
9.4
4.7
4.6
5.8
7.9
6.3
3.2
3.4
3.5
3.4
1.6
3.0
1.7
5.1
SD
-
-
0.4
0.6
0.8
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.5
SE
-
-
3.08
10.30
5.11
3.16
3.22
5.83
11.70
5.28
6.71
8.69
19.89
4.05
4.72
3.35
3.10
4.31
cv
Total Cayapo ( N = 130)
Note: One individual among the Kuben-Kran-Kegn was not studied in relation to stature and sitting height. Due to the Cayapo custom of lip perforation
only 29, 11 and 53 persons respectively could be studied among the three groups for lip thickness.
tlOO X wt.lstature3
2 100 X head br./head length.
3 100 X bizyg./head br.
4 100 X mandib. br./bizyg.
5 100 X foreh. ht./face ht.
6 100 X face ht./face br.
7 100 X nose br./nose ht.
Stature (cm)
Weight (kg)
Head length (mm)
Head breadth (mm)
Bizygomatic breadth (mm)
Bigonial (mm)
Height of forehead (mm)
Height of face (mm)
Nasal height (mm)
Nasal breadth (mm)
Thickness of lips (mm)
Sitting height (cm)
Calf circumference (cm)
Chest circumference (cm)
Head circumference (cm)
Minimum frontal breadth (mm)
Rohrer’s index 1
Cephalic index 2
Cephalofacial index 3
Jugomandibular index 4
Relative height of forehead 5
Facial index 6
Nasal index 7
Characteristic
Anthropometric measurements and seven indices in males from three Cayapo Indian populations
TABLE 1
TABLE 2
54.1
84.3
-
-
-
-
-
-
- 147.8 80.6 -
-
-
-
-
-
-
2.65
9.21
2.89
3.38
-
CV
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9.53
4.31
7.62
5.55
24.02
3.38
-
-
-
-
-
-
58.4 5.5
107.9 4.6
44.9 3.4
37.8 2.1
18.7 4.5
81.4 2.7
_
-
0.8
0.6
0.5
0.3
0.6
0.4
4.1
5.0
5.1
4.8
-
153.9
53.9
177.3
142.9
-
0.6
0.7
0.7
0.7
-
SD
SE
Txukahamae (N = 46)
Mean
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.7
0.8
1.1
0.6
0.5
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.4
1.6
1.5
0.3
0.9
-
4.1
4.8
6.6
3.5
3.0
5.8
4.8
3.8
1.9
2.6
3.2
2.6
9.6
9.0
1.7
5.2
154.0
49.2
175.9
142.4
132.4
95.1
61.1
107.4
42.2
36.1
15.7
82.0
33.8
80.6
52.1
114.7
134.6
80.9
93.0
71.8
56.9
81.1
85.5
SE
-
SD
-
-
-
-
-
2.63
9.86
3.80
2.51
2.33
6.12
7.96
3.58
4.71
7.45
20.89
3.16
28.49
11.16
3.18
4.56
CV
Mekranoti ( N = 34)
Mean
153.9
51.4
176.4
142.3
133.0
96.4
62.9
108.9
44.8
36.6
15.4
78.1
32.1
82.2
52.9
114.4
141.1
80.7
93.5
72.5
57.8
81.9
81.8
Mean
-
-
-
-
-
5.0
6.4
6.0
4.2
4.8
5.9
6.2
5.2
3.3
3.0
2.8
2.7
1.9
10.4
1.5
4.8
SD
2
3
-
-
-
3.24
12.41
3.42
2.95
3.62
6.12
9.96
4.84
7.57
8.20
18.62
3.45
5.89
12.72
2.78
4.25
CV
_ - _
_ - _
- _
-
0.6
0.7
0.6
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.6
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.2
1.2
0.2
0.5
SE
Kuben-Kran-Kegn( N = 7 6 )
Note: Due to a mistake in the registration of the information the Txukahamae sample for sitting height is 45 only.
1 100 X wt./statures
100 X head br./head length
100 X bizyg./head br.
4100 X mandib. br./bizyg.
5 100 X foreh. ht./face ht.
6 100 X face ht./face br.
7 100 X nose brhose ht.
Stature (cm)
Weight (kg)
Head length ( m m )
Head breadth (mm)
Bizygomatic breadth (mm)
Bigonial (mm)
Height of forehead (mm)
Height of face (mm)
Nasal height (mm)
Nasal breadth (mm)
Thickness of lips (mm)
Sitting height (cm)
Calf circumference (cm)
Chest circumference (cm)
Head circumference (cm)
Minimum frontal breadth (mm)
Rohrer’s index 1
Cephalic index 2
Cephalofacial index 3
Jugomandibular index 4
Relative height of forehead 5
Facial index 8
Nasal index 7
Characteristic
153.9
51.6
175.7
142.5
132.8
96.0
61.2
108.3
44.2
36.8
16.4
79.9
32.6
81.7
52.7
114.5
141.7
80.7
93.1
72.3
56.5
81.6
83.3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.3
0.4
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.5
0.9
0.2
0.5
SE
-
-
-
-
2.93
11.41
2.82
2.98
3.28
6.13
9.91
4.45
7.46
7.49
23.03
4.01
17.13
12.26
2.98
4.33
CV
- - _
4.5
5.9
4.9
4.2
4.3
5.8
6.0
4.8
3.3
2.7
3.7
3.2
5.6
10.0
1.6
4.9
SD
Total Cayapo ( N = 156)
Mean
Anthropometric measurements a n d seven indices in females f r o m three Cnynpo Indian populations
:
50
N
?i
?3
5
k
8
P
%-
9
99
ANTHROPOMETRY OF BRAZILIAN INDIANS
Txukahamae and Mekranoti averages.
There are also differences in weight, the
Txukahamae averaging 4 kg heavier than
the Mekranoti among the males and 5 kg
among the females. This is reflected in
the Rohrer index in both sexes which is
low among the Mekranoti and high
among the Txukahamae, the Kuben-KranKegn showing an intermediate value.
Some differences were also observed in
sitting height among the three populations (males, Kuben-Kran-Kegn: 83 cm;
Txukahamae: 86 cm; Mekranoti: 87 cm;
females, 78, 81 and 82 cm respectively).
Besides the Rohrer index, those which
show more marked intratribal variability
are the relative height of forehead and
nasal indices. Examining the latter, it can
be seen that the Mekranoti males would
be classified as platyrrhine while the
other groups are mesorrhine (males, Mekranoti: 76; Txukahamae and Kuben-KranKegn: 82; females, Kuben-Kran-Kegn:
82; Txukahamae: 84; and Mekranoti:86).
The coefficients of variation show about
the same distribution in the three populations.
Table 3 presents the results of the
application of Mahalanobis' DZ coefficient
to the data shown in tables 1 and 2. As
is shown there for both males and females the Txukahamae/Kuben-Kran-Kegn
comparison yielded a much lower value
than the other two, the Mekranoti and
Kuben-Kran-Kegn presenting the most
marked amount of morphological differentiation.
Data about the degree of sexual dimorphism observed in the characteristics
investigated are shown in table 4. As
was observed in other Brazilian tribes
(Da Rocha, '71) most of the female measurements show values ranging from 90-
99% of those present among males. No
differences in the amount of this dimorphism are apparent either among tribes
or in intratribal comparisons. About half
of the indices show higher values among
the females but the differences are not
large except for the Rohrer and nasal
indices observed among the Mekranoti
(Rohrer: females, 135; males, 123. Nasal:
females, 86; males, 76).
DISCUSSION
The first question that should be asked
is whether anthropometric studies can
still furnish data of value for the understanding of the biological variation of
human groups. After achieving great popularity during the last century and the
beginning of this one there was a tendency to replace these investigations with
others dealing with polymorphisms, which
unlike them have a mode of inheritance
clearly established. The fact that anthropometric variables are influenced to a
much larger extent by environmental
variables no doubt is a considerable handicap for the proper interpretation of the
pattern of variability found. However, if
these studies are complemented with
others in which nutritional and ecological
factors are taken into consideration, they
may furnish a good set of partially independent evidence to be added to those
obtained with polymorphisms (further discussion in Salzano, '71a). Another problem concerns the difficulty of obtaining
strictly reproducible results for some measurements. Here appropriate methodological tests like those that one of us (Da
Rocha, '71) and Lewin and Jurgens ('69)
have performed are very helpful for a
proper evaluation of the findings.
TABLE 3
Generalized d i s t a n c e (D2) of Mahalanobis b e t w e e n Cayapo I n d i a n populations
1
Comparison
Sex
Males
Females
Txukahamael
Mekranoti
Txukahamael
Kuben-Kran-Kegn
Mekranotil
Kuben-Kran-Kegn
3.46
6.38
0.99
3.11
10.14
14.34
1 The significance of the coefficients obtained was tested as suggested by Rightmire ('69). They are
all significant at the 0,001level, with the exception of the TxukahamaelKuben-Kran-Kegn value obtained
among the males, significant at the 0.01 level only. The application of the correction suggested by the
above-indicated author to take into account small sample sizes does not change the D2 values very much,
the reductions thus obtained being of the order of 0 . 3 t o 0.6.
100
F. J. DAROCHA AND F. M. SALZANO
TABLE 4
Sexual dimorphism in relation to morphological characteristics in three
Cayapo lndian populations
~
~~
Ratio of fema1e:male measurement
Characteristic
Stature
Weight
Head length
Head breadth
Bizygomatic breadth
Mandibular breadth
Height of forehead
Height of face
Nasal height
Nasal breadth
Thickness of lips
Sitting height
Calf circumference
Chest circumference
Head circumference
Minimum frontal breadth
Rohrer's index
Cephalic index
Cephalofacial index
Jugomandibular index
Relative height of forehead
Facial index
Nasal index
Txukahamae
Mekranoti
Kuben-Kran-Kegn
Total
94
86
94
95
92
84
94
96
93
97
89
89
85
95
97
94
97
90
95
96
109
101
98
104
100
95
112
93
84
95
95
93
93
84
95
95
93
96
90
91
90
92
93
94
95
91
97
97
105
99
98
103
99
98
102
-
90
91
92
94
91
95
104
98
99
102
The usefulness of anthropometric measurements was enhanced by the recent
availability of high speed electronic computers to human biologists. It is now
possible to investigate more easily multivariate patterns and transform a mass of
numbers into a coherent picture. A convenient statistic in this regard is the DZ
generalized distance, although it should
be remembered that the anthropometric
data may not meet all the requirements
needed for its proper utilization (Huizinga, '62; Rightmire, '69).
The question of the relationship between the intratribal and intertribal variability has received some attention lately
(Arends et al., '67; Salzano, '68; Neel
and Ward, '70; Layrisse, '71). For these
analyses the data used were derived from
genetic polymorphisms. Anthropometric
traits can be utilized with the same purpose and therefore whenever sample sizes
permit the results should be given separately for different populations of a given
tribe. Varied environmental differences
within and between tribes, however, may
complicate the interpretation of the results.
Since, as was already indicated, the
data available on the anthropometry of
95
91
92
92
91
94
94
94
92
97
97
105
100
98
103
99
99
99
South American Indians are still too
scanty, we cannot be sure of how "typical" the Cayapo are in relation to other
groups. One point, however, already
emerges from the present study. It is that
the deviant figures obtained for the
Xavante in relation to most other studies
(Neel et al., '64; Niswander et al., '67)
are not common to other Ge-speaking
tribes. On the other hand, attempts
to verify intertribal differences in the
amount of variability as expressed by the
coefficient of variation, as well as departures from the prevailing pattern of
sexual dimorphism, have so far been unsuccessful.
It is curious that the amount of morphological differentiation observed among
the three Cayapo populations studied, as
measured by the D 2 coefficient, is completely unexpected if we consider their
demographic characteristics
(Sdzano,
'71b). The Txukahamae and Kuben-KranKegn show clear dissimilarities in a set
of these variables and yet are the groups
which present the least morphological
difference. The backward stochastic migration matrix obtained using the genealogical information suggested a high
degree of interchange between the Mekra-
ANTHROPOMETRY OF BRAZILIAN INDIANS
noti and Kuben-Kran-Kegn, while the
morphological data indicate that they are
morphologically quite distinct. It is possible that the demographic results show
recent trends only, while the anthropometric variation would be indicative of
historical relationships. No correlation
was obtained either between morphological and geographical distances, since the
Kuben-Kran-Kegn and Txukahamae are
the two groups which presently live farthest apart and they show the least degree of morphological differentiation.
Further discussion of this point is deferred until the information available on
the genetic polymorphisrns of these populations is properly analysed.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Thanks are due to G. V. Sim6es and
M. Ayres for help in the field work and to
the Funda@o Nacional do Indio and
Parque Nacional do Xingu which gave
permission to study the Indians and provided all facilities. Transportation to and
from the villages was made possible by
Asas de Socorro and the skillful assist,ante of E. Reaser, G. Insley and W. Born.
Practically all the computation work reported here was performed at the Centro
de Processamento de Dados of our University and we must thank the Center’s
Director and N. B. Rosa. Our researches
are supported by the Conselho Nacional
de Pesquisas, Conselho de Pesquisas da
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do
Sul, Coordenaq2io do Aperfeiqoamento
do Pessoal de Nivel Superior, Fundagso
de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio
Grande do Sul, and the Wenner-Gren
Foundation for Anthropological Research.
LITERATURE CITED
Arends, T., G. Brewer. N. Chagnon, M. L. Gallango, H. Gershowitz, M. Layrisse, J. Neel,
D. Shreffler, R. Tashian and L. Weitkamp
1967 Intratribal genetic differentiation among
101
the Yanomama Indians of Southern Venezuela. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 57: 1252-1259.
Comas, J.
1971 Anthropometric studies i n
Latin American Indian populations. In: The
Ongoing Evolution of Latin American Populations. F. M. Salzano, ed. Charles C Thomas,
Springfield, pp. 333-404.
Da Rocha, F. J. 1971 Antropometria e m indigenas brasileiros. Departamento de Genetica,
Universidade Federal d o Rio Grande do Sul,
Publ. no. 2: 1-110.
Huizinga, J. 1962 From DD to D2 and back.
The -quantitative expression of resemblance.
Proc. Koninkl. Nederl. Akad. Wettensch., Series C, 6 5 . 4 : 1-12.
Layrisse, M. 1971 Blood group polymorphisms
in Venezuelan Indians. In: The Ongoing Evolution of Latin American Populations. F. M.
Salzano, ed. Charles C Thomas, Springfield,
pp. 61 7 4 2 9 .
Lewin, T., and H. W. Jurgens 1969 Uber die
Vergleichbarkeit von anthropometrischen Daten.
Z. Morphol. Anthrop., 6 1 ; 3 3 4 1 .
Mahalanobis, P. C., D. N. Majumdar and C. R.
Rao
1949
Anthropometric survey of the
United Provinces, 1941 : a statistical study.
Sankhya, 9: 90-324.
Neel, J. V., F. M. Salzano, P. C. Junqueira,
F. Keiter and D. Maybury-Lewis 1964 Studies on the Xavante Indians of the Brazilian
Mato Grosso. Am. J. Hum. Genet., 16: 52140.
Neel, J. V., and R. H. Ward 1970 Village a n d
tribal genetic distances among American Indians, and the possible implications for hum a n evolution. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 65: 323330.
Niswander, J. D., F. Keiter a n d J. V. Neel 1967
Further studies o n the Xavante Indians. 11.
Some anthropometric, dermatoglyphic, and
nonquantitative morphological traits of the
Xavantes of SimBes Lopes. Am. J. Hum. Genet., 19: 490-501.
Nutels, N., M. Ayres and F. M. Salzano 1967
Tuberculin reactions, x-ray and bacteriological
studies i n the Cayapo lndians of B r a d . Tubercle. 48: 195-200.
Rightmire, G. P. 1969 On the computation of
Mahalanobis’ generalized distance (D2). Am. J.
Phys. Anthrop., 30: 157-160.
Salzano, F. M. 1968 Intra- and inter-tribal
genetic variability i n South American Indians.
Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., 28: 183-190.
1971a Retrospect a n d prospect. In:
The Ongoing Evolution of Latin American Populations. F. M. Salzano, ed. Charles C Thomas,
Springfield, pp. 67-91.
1971b Demographic a n d genetic interrelationships among the Cayapo Indians of
Brazil. Social Biol., 1 8 : 148-157.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
497 Кб
Теги
brazilian, indian, studies, anthropometric, cayapo
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа