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Arterial vascularization of the mandible and maxilla of neotropical primates.

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American Journal of Primatology 68:777–788 (2006)
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Arterial Vascularization of the Mandible and Maxilla
of Neotropical Primates
CRISTIANE SCHILBACH PIZZUTTO1, MARCELO ALCINDO DE BARROS VAZ
GUIMARÃES1, AND ARANI NANCI BOMFIM MARIANA2
1
Departamento de Reproduc- ão Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia,
Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
2
Departamento de Cirurgia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade
de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
The objective of the present investigation was to conduct a comparative
macroscopic study of the arterial vascularization of the mandible and
maxilla of neotropical primates of the genera Cebus, Alouatta, Callithrix,
and Leontopithecus. After vinyl was injected into the arterial system of
the head of each specimen, the pieces were macerated and corroded. The
level of the bifurcation of the common carotid artery into the internal and
external carotids varied between the first and third cervical vertebrae.
The external carotid artery accounts for most of the vascularization of the
facial structures. The actual vessels responsible for the supply of this
region are the sublingual, facial, angular, lingual, submandibular,
submental, inferior and superior labial, maxillary, inferior alveolar,
infraorbital, superior posterior alveolar, palatine major, and sphenopalatine arteries. We conclude that although the arterial vascular pattern
was similar in all the genera studied, and resembles the human pattern,
there are notable variations in the vasculature of the mandible and
maxilla among these four neotropical genera. Am. J. Primatol.
68:777–788, 2006. c 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Key words: comparative anatomy; neotropical primates; arteries;
mandible; maxilla
INTRODUCTION
Dental health is an important factor in the general well-being of zoo animals
[Wenker et al., 1999]. According to Hillden et al. [1989] and Robinson [1986],
tooth pain, reduced feeding, body weight loss, and impairment of organic
functions due to infections have all been attributed to dental pathologies,
including fractures, periodontal diseases, caries, impaction, and tooth retention
[Robinson, 1986]. Depending on the severity of the pathology in the affected
tooth, adequate treatment should take into account the anatomical structures
Contract grant sponsor: Fundac- ão de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo.
Correspondence to: Cristiane Schilbach Pizzutto, Rua Caraı́bas 1342, apto 33, Pompéia, São Paulo,
SP, Brazil CEP 05020-000. E-mail: cspizzutto@yahoo.com.br
Received 2 March 2003; revised 26 September 2005; revision accepted 18 October 2005
DOI 10.1002/ajp.20278
Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com).
r 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
778 / Pizzutto et al.
where the teeth are inserted. Tooth extraction is often indicated, requiring
surgical procedures that are based on an understanding of the vascularization
and innervation of the underlying structures.
The arterial trunk responsible for the vascularization of the teeth and
periodontium in humans is the maxillary artery, which originates from the
external carotid artery [Brand & Isselhard, 1994; Serra & Ferreira, 1970;
Widdowson, 1952]. This vessel sends out numerous collateral branches along its
course. The inferior alveolar artery supplies the teeth and periodontal structures
of the mandible, while the superior alveolar and infraorbital branches are
responsible for the supply of similar structures in the upper jaw.
In view of the lack of information about the vascular anatomy of the head of
the brown capuchin monkey, Madeira and Watanabe [1978] carried out a
comparative study of the facial arteries of that primate and humans. Veterinary
treatments based on data about humans can be problematic when applied to other
primates, since the dental structures of nonhuman primates often differ from
those of humans. This highlights the need for research involving other primates.
Given this scarcity of information, the aims of the present study were to
obtain more extensive data from neotropical primates and to describe the
vascularization of their mandibular and maxillary periodontal structures.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
We examined a total of 15 individuals from six species: six brown capuchin
monkeys (Cebus apella), two white ear-tufted marmosets (Callithrix jacchus
jacchus), three black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya), one golden lion tamarin
(Leontopithecus rosalia), two gold-and-black lion tamarins (L. chrysomelas), and
one golden-rumped lion tamarin (L. chrysopygus). All of the specimens were
obtained following routine autopsy procedures carried out at Fundac- ão Parque
Zoológico de São Paulo. For better conservation of the material, the specimens
were immediately frozen after autopsy and kept frozen for about 2 months prior
to preparation.
After the specimens were thawed, the vascular system was injected as
follows: Both the right and left common carotid arteries were cannulated and
perfused with physiological saline at ambient temperature, followed by perfusion
with acetone P.A. After perfusion the arteries were injected with vinyl acetate
(Solvent Vinyl VMCH B-1099; Chemical and Plastic Union Carbide Corp., New
York, NY) and stained with Laca Duco Nitrocellulose red (Glasurit do Brasil S.A.,
São Paulo, SP). About 2 hr later the samples were placed in water for 24 hr for
total resin polymerization, and then macerated in water for approximately
2 months. The samples were then incubated in 20% potassium hydroxide for
about 2 hr for final corrosion of the remaining soft tissues.
The terms used to designate the vessels follow the classification system of the
International Human Nomina Anatomica [Feneis, 1976].
RESULTS
All results include (whenever possible) the origin, distribution, destination,
ramifications, and anastomoses of the vessels, and correlations between these
pathways and the bony structures in the left and right sides of the animal’s face.
The sample size in this study precluded us from obtaining conclusive evidence of a
direct correlation between vessel size and the size of the foramen and/or its
accompanying nerve.
Am. J. Primatol. DOI 10.1002/ajp
Arterial Vascularization of Mandible and Maxilla / 779
Fig. 1. Schematic presentation of a lateral view of the arterial vascular pattern of the mandible and
maxilla of Cebus apella (a), Alouatta caraya (b), Leontopithecus sp (c), and Callithrix jacchus
jacchus (d), showing the arterial branches: common carotid (c.c.a.), internal carotid (i.c.a.), external
carotid (e.c.a.), maxillary (m.a.), inferior alveolar (i.a.a.), facial (f.a.), angular (a.a.), lingual (l.a.),
superior labial (s.l.a.), inferior labial (i.l.a.), infraorbital (i.o.a.), mentonian (me.a.), and superior
thyroidea (s.t.a.) arteries, linguofacial trunk (l.f.t.), and thyroid-linguofacial trunk (t.t.l.f.).
Figure 1 is a schematic presentation of the arterial vascular pattern of the
mandible and maxilla of Cebus apella, Alouatta caraya, Leontopithecus sp., and
Callithrix jacchus jacchus.
Common Carotid Artery
We start our description from the bifurcation of the left and right common
carotid arteries into their respective external and internal carotid arterial
branches. Since vascular patterns are not necessarily bilaterally symmetrical, the
left and right sides of each individual were considered separately.
We observed variations both within and across species in the location of the
bifurcation of the common carotid artery relative to the level of the cervical
vertebrae. In capuchins (Fig. 2b), bifurcation was evident in three of 12 samples
at the level of the first cervical vertebra, five of 12 samples at the level of the
Am. J. Primatol. DOI 10.1002/ajp
780 / Pizzutto et al.
Fig. 2. Photograph showing arterial branches of the mandible and maxilla of Cebus apella (a, b, and
d) and Alouatta caraya (c). a: Lateral view of the superficial vasculature of the mandible and face of
Cebus apella. b: Close-up lateral view of the divisions of the common carotid artery in the cervical
region of Cebus apella. c: Close-up lateral view of the retromandibular divisions of the common
carotid artery in Alouatta caraya. d: Oblique inferior–superior view of the branching of the external
carotid artery in Cebus apella. Note the common carotid (c.c.a.), external carotid (e.c.a.), maxillary
(m.a.), facial (f.a.), lingual (l.a.), superior labial (s.l.a.), inferior labial (i.l.a.), infraorbital (i.o.a.),
submandibular (s.m.a.), submentonian (s.me.a.), and superior thyroidea (s.t.a.) arteries, and the
linguofacial trunk (l.f.t.).
second vertebra, and four of 12 at the level of the third vertebra. In all four
samples of white ear-tufted marmosets the bifurcation was 0.2 cm superior to the
first cervical vertebra. In tamarins the bifurcation was observed at the level of the
first cervical vertebra in six of eight samples, and 0.2 cm superior to that point in
two out of eight samples. In howler monkeys (Fig. 2c) the bifurcation was
observed at the level of the second cervical vertebra in four of six samples, and
at the level of the third cervical vertebra in two of six samples.
Am. J. Primatol. DOI 10.1002/ajp
Arterial Vascularization of Mandible and Maxilla / 781
External Carotid Artery
The external carotid artery is one of two branches that originate from the
bifurcation of the common carotid artery, and is mainly responsible for the
vascularization of facial structures (Fig. 2b–d). Its ramifications are described in
detail below according to their importance for the blood supply to the mandible,
maxilla, and periodontium.
Linguofacial Trunk
In all 12 brown capuchin monkey and all four marmoset samples, a common
linguofacial trunk was present and originated as the first branch from the
external carotid artery (Fig. 2b and d). The superior thyroid artery branched off
of the linguofacial truck prior to its bifurcation.
The linguofacial trunk was present in all of the lion tamarin samples, with
this trunk being the first branch of the external carotid artery. In all four lion
tamarins, regardless of species, the right superior thyroid artery was a branch off
the linguofacial truck. All the left sides, however, showed a trifurcating thyroidlinguofacial trunk that gave rise to the lingual, facial, and superior thyroid
arteries simultaneously (Fig. 1c).
No linguofacial trunk was observed in the six howler monkey specimens, with
the first three branches of the external carotid artery arising separately as the
superior thyroid, lingual, and facial arteries, respectively (Fig. 2c).
The linguofacial trunk, when present, bifurcates into two large vessels–the
lingual and facial arteries (Figs. 2b–d, and 3a). The lingual artery gives origin to
three branches: the dorsal lingual, deep lingual, and sublingual arteries. The first
two not were studied here, since the main emphasis of the present study was the
arterial branches of the mandible and maxilla destined to reach the periodontium.
Sublingual Artery
The sublingual artery originates from the lingual artery and is responsible
for the vascular supply to the mandibular gingival on the lingual side. It runs
anteriorly along the medial side of the ventral border of the mandible, branching
on the floor of the mouth and supplying the mandibular periodontal membrane
and bone tissue, and anastomoses with the facial, submental, mandibular
alveolar, and inferior labial arteries.
In the current study the sublingual artery was present in eight of 12 brown
capuchin monkey samples, five of six howler monkey samples, three of four
marmoset samples, and all eight of the tamarin samples.
Facial Artery
The facial artery originated from the linguofacial trunk in all of the brown
capuchin (Fig. 2d), tamarin, and marmoset specimens, while in howler monkeys it
consistently arose separately from the external carotid artery (Fig. 2c). In all of
the animals this artery ran medial to the mandibular angle, hidden by its lower
border until it reached the mid-portion of the body of the mandible, when it
emerged inferiorly to continue more superficially in the direction of the face,
laterally crossing the angle of the mouth (Fig. 2d). From this point on, differences
in the trajectory of this artery were observed both between and within species.
In the present study the facial artery was found to give origin to five
important collateral branches: the submandibular, superior and inferior labial,
angular, and submental arteries. These branches differed among the species
Am. J. Primatol. DOI 10.1002/ajp
782 / Pizzutto et al.
studied (Figs. 2d and 3a). In all of the capuchins, marmosets, and howler
monkeys, the facial artery in the mid-region of the body of the mandible gave rise
to a branch (the inferior labial artery) that continued on toward the mental
protuberance. In these species the facial artery then crossed the angle of the
mouth, where it gave origin to the superior labial artery. There were numerous
anastomoses of the facial artery, especially with vessels on the opposite side of the
face and neck, with particular emphasis on the labial ones.
In four of 12 capuchin samples, the facial artery ran superior to the angle of
the mouth, traversing the side of the frontal process of the nose and ending in the
medial commissure of the eye (where it is called the angular artery).
Angular Artery
The angular artery, when present in capuchin, marmoset, and howler
monkeys, is the terminal part of the facial artery (Fig. 1a, b, and d). It ascends to
the medial angle of the eye and anastomoses with branches that are not described
in this work.
In contrast, a double facial artery was observed in all of the tamarin samples
(Figs. 1c and 3a). Two main branches are sent out from its origin in the
linguofacial trunk. One runs approximately 0.5 cm below the condylar and
coronoid processes of the mandible on its lateral side, passing inferior to the
zygomatic bone, continuing on the side of the frontal process of the nose, and
ending in the medial commissure of the eye. Here it is called angular artery and
gives origin to some supraorbital branches above the supraorbital margin. The
other main branch of the tamarin facial artery follows the description of the facial
artery of the other animals, and ends in the superior and inferior labial arteries. It
should be noted this dual facial artery was present only in tamarins, and was
consistent in all eight specimens.
Submandibular Artery
This artery was considered only as an important branch of the facial artery
(Fig. 2d) and was present at a frequency equal to that of the submental artery
described below.
Submental Artery
This vessel was found to originate from the facial artery close to the middle of
the body of the mandible in all of the samples (Fig. 2d). It runs to the symphysis
of the chin and anastomoses with the sublingual artery. It then ascends above
the border of the mandible and divides into a superficial branch and a deep
branch that connect with the inferior labial and mental arteries, respectively. We
identified this artery in 10 of 12 brown capuchins, five of six howler monkeys, two
of four marmosets, and seven of eight tamarin samples.
It should be noted that when present the tamarin submental artery had an
extremely wide caliber and contained numerous tiny ramifications.
Inferior Labial Artery
This vessel originates close to the angle of the mouth, continuing in a
winding manner until the base of the mandible above the mental protuberance
(Figs. 2a and 3a), where it anastomoses with the artery of the opposite side and
with the mental branch of the inferior alveolar artery. Some branches of the
inferior labial artery extend up to the inferior border of the mandible, connecting
Am. J. Primatol. DOI 10.1002/ajp
Arterial Vascularization of Mandible and Maxilla / 783
Fig. 3. Photograph showing arterial branches of the mandible and maxilla of Leontopithecus sp
(a) and Cebus apella (b–d). a: Lateral view of superficial vasculature of head of Leontopithecus sp.
b: Hard palate of Cebus apella, showing the greater and lesser palatine arteries. c: The mandibular
canal and incisive arteries are exposed as they traverse the body of the mandible in Cebus apella.
d: The posterior superior alveolar artery as it traverses the maxillary sinus of Cebus apella. Note the
facial (f.a.), angular (a.a), superior labial (s.l.a.), inferior labial (i.l.a.), infraorbital (i.o.a.), mentonian
(me.a.), greater palatine (g.p.a.), lesser palatine (l.p.a.), inferior alveolar (i.a.a.), and superior
posterior alveolar (s.p.a.a.) arteries.
with the sublingual and submental arteries. In 11 out of 12 of the capuchin
samples, the inferior labial artery originated 1.5–2 cm anterior to the angle of the
mouth, at the level of the mental foramen of the mandible.
Superior Labial Artery
The superior labial artery is a branch of the facial artery and follows a
winding course, continuing anteriorly parallel to the alveolar process of the
maxilla inferior to the zygomatic bone in the direction of the nose and upper lip
(Figs. 2a and 3a), where it anastomoses with the infraorbital artery and the
arteries of the opposite side.
As observed for the inferior labial artery, the superior labial artery originated
1.5–2 cm in front of the angle of the mouth in 11 of the 12 brown capuchin
samples. In contrast, this artery was very thin and tended to disappear in all
Am. J. Primatol. DOI 10.1002/ajp
784 / Pizzutto et al.
howler monkey samples. In tamarins, the only interesting difference between the
inferior and superior labial arteries was the caliber of the latter. The superior
labial artery was much thicker and showed a larger number of ramifications,
as well as anastomoses with the angular artery.
Maxillary Artery (Arteria maxillaris)
This vessel was responsible for the blood supply to the deep facial structures
in all of the animals and was the main terminal branch of the external carotid
artery (Fig. 2b and d). It ran medial to the respective condylar and coronoid
processes of the mandible, from which point it continued medially up to the
pterygopalatine fossa. At the anterior end of the pterygopalatine fossa the
maxillary artery emits two branches at almost the same point: the infraorbital
and posterior superior alveolar arteries. After these ramifications, the descending
palatine artery branches off the maxillary artery. The sphenopalatine artery is
the real terminal branch of the maxillary artery and passes across the back of the
nose to the nasal septum.
Inferior Alveolar Artery
The inferior alveolar artery arose anteriorly close to the origin of the
maxillary artery in all samples studied. It penetrated the mandibular canal
through the mandibular foramen and continued as an incisive artery within the
mandibular canal (Fig. 3c) until it reached the midline anteriorly, providing
branches to the incisor and canine teeth and anastomoses with its homologue on
the opposite side.
The inferior alveolar artery gave off mental branches through the mental
foramen in all of the animals, supplying blood to the region of the chin and
anastomoses with the submental and inferior labial arteries. The largest number
of anastomoses was observed in tamarins.
Infraorbital Artery
The infraorbital artery represents one of the last branches of the maxillary
artery at the anterior end of the pterygopalatine fossa. In all samples studied it
was found to run along the sulcus and infraorbital canal through the infraorbital
foramen.
Within the canal the infraorbital artery gave origin to dental branches to
the maxillary teeth, and emerged on the face through the infraorbital foramen
in all of the animals (Figs. 2a and 3a).
Posterior Superior Alveolar Artery
The posterior superior alveolar artery originates from the maxillary artery
and is almost always associated with the infraorbital artery when the vessel trunk
passes through the pterygopalatine fossa. Descending along the maxillary
tuberosity, it divides into numerous branches, some of which penetrate the
alveolar canals in order to supply blood to the molar and premolar teeth (Fig. 3d),
and to the lining of the maxillary sinus, whereas others continue anteriorly to the
alveolar process to irrigate the gingivae.
It was not possible to observe all of the branches sent out to the teeth.
Am. J. Primatol. DOI 10.1002/ajp
Arterial Vascularization of Mandible and Maxilla / 785
Anterior Superior Alveolar Artery
The anterior superior alveolar artery is a continuation of the posterior
superior alveolar artery. It is responsible for the blood supply to the canine and
incisor teeth through the alveolar branches that descend along the anterior
alveolar canals to irrigate incisors, canines, and the mucosal membrane of the
maxillary sinus.
Descending Palatine Artery
The descending palatine artery is another branch of the maxillary artery at
the anterior end of the pterygopalatine fossa. It continues through the
pterygopalatine canal, emerging at the greater palatine foramen, and gives
origin to two collateral branches (the greater and lesser palatine arteries).
Lesser Palatine Artery
The lesser palatine artery arises from the descending palatine artery in the
pterygopalatine canal and descends through the lesser palatine foramen to supply
the soft palate (Fig. 3b).
Greater Palatine Artery
The greater palatine artery is the main arterial vessel responsible for the
vascularization of the hard palate. This artery originated from a direct
continuation of the trunk of the descending palatine artery after it emerged
from the greater palatine foramen in all of the samples studied. It ran anteriorly
in the palatine sulcus on the medial side of the alveolar border of the hard
palate to the incisive canal (Fig. 3b). Some branches were found to be distributed
to the gingiva and the mucosal membrane of the roof of the mouth. Posterior to
the incisor teeth, it anastomosed with its homologue on the opposite side,
thus forming an arterial arch. Small branches arose from this arch supplying the
mucosa, teeth, and periosteum. A terminal branch anastomosed with the
nasopalatine branch of the sphenopalatine artery in the incisive canal.
In eight of the 12 capuchin samples, the greater palatine artery sent out a
wide-caliber branch that continued until it reached the alveolar process of the
incisor teeth. This branch was also highly ramified. In two of the 12 samples, this
ramification of the greater palatine artery emerged from the greater palatine
foramen and continued in the direction of the choanae.
Sphenopalatine Artery
The sphenopalatine artery is a direct continuation, and thus the terminal
branch, of the maxillary artery. It penetrates the nasal cavity after it passes the
sphenopalatine foramen and anastomoses with the branches of the greater
palatine artery.
DISCUSSION
The preservation of exotic species requires adequate knowledge about the
health of these animals in captivity. It is necessary to provide good dental care for
such animals [Wenker et al., 1999], since ignorance can result in severe problems,
including loss of appetite, body weight loss, and impairment of organic functions
through the occurrence of infections [Hillden et al., 1989; Robinson, 1986].
Am. J. Primatol. DOI 10.1002/ajp
786 / Pizzutto et al.
It has long been known that the teeth play an important role in mastication
and that therefore their preservation is fundamental for survival. Tooth
extraction requires a refined knowledge about the anatomical structures,
particularly the vessels and nerves, in the region. Extraction often provokes
vascular alterations in the mandibular and maxillary branches, as demonstrated
by Castelli and Nasjleti [1975] in rhesus monkeys.
In primates the main blood supply to the head comes from the common
carotid artery, which bifurcates into external and internal carotid arteries. The
external carotid artery is responsible for supplying the most extracranial
structures of the head and neck. Therefore, we started our discussion with the
bifurcation of the common carotid artery in these different species. Since we used
a technique that preserves only bony structures and resin-filled vessels, the
reference to soft structures (e.g., muscle and cartilage) was lost; however,
this method permitted us to establish direct relationships with bony landmarks in
the head.
Bugge [1974] showed in his study of the cephalic pattern of supply in diverse
mammals that primates can be allocated into different levels of development
within an expanded primate order, thereby expressing the order in which the
groups in question are presumed to have departed from a line of development that
leads from protoinsectivores to anthropomorphs (including humans).
The level of the bifurcation of the common carotid artery into the internal
and external carotids showed significant variation in previous studies of primates.
In chimpanzees, Sperino [1987] observed the same pattern as that found in
humans, i.e., bifurcation occurring at the thyroid cartilage level. In studies of
baboons [Krieger, 1982], rhesus [Castelli & Huekle, 1965; Dyrud, 1944], and
gorillas [Raven & Hill, 1950] the bifurcation was observed more cranially, near
the hyoid bone. In the present study, the bifurcation of the common carotid artery
was observed at an even higher level, ranging from above the first to the third
cervical vertebra.
In most primates the facial artery normally emerges in a common trunk with
the lingual artery [Castelli & Huelke, 1965; Hill, 1960, 1962; Krieger, 1982;
Livini, 1903; Madeira & Watanabe, 1978]. Hill [1962] did not mention the
presence of a linguofacial trunk in the genus Alouatta, which confirms the
findings of the present study that the external carotid artery dorsally sends out
separate lingual and facial arteries. The present results also show that howler
monkeys (Alouatta caraya) do not possess a linguofacial trunk, in contrast to the
findings of Madeira and Watanabe [1978]. This point may be related to
intraspecific variation resulting from the small number of individuals studied
in these analyses.
The presence of a thyroid-linguofacial trunk, as evidenced by a trifurcation,
was observed only in half the animals in the genus Leontopithecus, and never in
Callithrix jacchus. However, Madeira and Watanabe [1978] also identified the
presence of this trunk in C. penicillata. In Leontopithecus and C. jacchus, when a
thyroid-linguofacial trunk was absent the superior thyroid artery was observed to
be a branch of the linguofacial trunk.
With respect to the facial artery, Hill [1962] reported that in capuchin
monkeys it disappeared almost immediately after it crossed the mandibular angle.
In a study of the same primate, Madeira and Watanabe [1978] found that this
artery crossed the angle of the mouth and gave origin to the superior and inferior
labial arteries. They also reported that the facial artery showed a complete
trajectory in only 0.5% of the animals in their study, ending in the so-called
angular artery at the level of the eyes. In the present study a wide variation
Am. J. Primatol. DOI 10.1002/ajp
Arterial Vascularization of Mandible and Maxilla / 787
regarding this result was observed, with four of the 12 brown capuchin monkeys
possessing an angular artery.
No reports are available in the literature concerning the facial artery in
Leontopithecus. Our results show that these animals have a double facial artery
of the same origin. The angular artery of these animals continues on the side of
the frontal process of the nose and ends in the medial commissure of the eye, and
was identified in all the samples studied.
Previous studies of capuchin monkeys [Madeira & Watanabe, 1978] and
rhesus monkeys [Castelli & Huelke, 1965] reported that the superior and inferior
labial arteries are ramifications of the facial artery. Our results are in agreement
with those findings, with the frequency of the inferior and superior labial arteries
being 94.7% in the study of Madeira and Watanabe [1978], and 11 of 12 in the
present investigation on brown capuchin monkeys.
Of interest, we observed that the superior labial artery in howler monkeys
was very thin and almost disappeared. Given the presence of such reduced
alveolar processes in the maxilla, we believe that the branches of the superior
labial artery have practically no bone surface available to perform their
anastomoses.
With respect to tamarins, the only interesting difference was the greater
thickness of the superior labial artery compared to the inferior labial artery.
This variation was also observed by Madeira and Watanabe [1978] in
capuchin monkeys.
According to Serra and Ferreira [1970], the arterial trunk responsible for the
vascularization of the teeth and periodontium in humans is the maxillary artery
(A. maxillaris). This finding is in agreement with our results, since the branches
of this artery were found to irrigate the deep facial structures. Grassé [1972]
reported that in capuchin monkeys the maxillary artery ends its trajectory in two
branches: the descending palatine artery and the sphenopalatine artery. This
observation is in contrast to our findings, which showed that the maxillary artery
ended only in the sphenopalatine artery in all of the neotropical primates studied.
Cohen [1960] considered the dental arteries to be the main vessels
responsible for the nutrition of the mandible. In another study, Cohen [1959]
showed that the lower borders of the mandible are mainly supplied by vessels of
the periosteum. Subsequently, Castelli [1963] confirmed that the angle of the
mandible and its lower borders are irrigated by the inferior alveolar artery.
The present study demonstrates that the inferior alveolar artery plays an
important role in supplying blood to structures of the periosteum and gingiva in
neotropical primates.
According to Gray [1988], the greater palatine artery in humans originates
from the maxillary artery in the pterygopalatine fossa and descends to the
pterygopalatine canal. After it emerges from the greater palatine foramen, it runs
anteriorly in a sulcus on the medial side of the alveolar border of the hard palate.
That finding differs from the present results in neotropical primates, in that we
found the greater palatine artery to be a direct continuation of the trunk of the
descending palatine artery after it emerged from the greater palatine foramen.
This pattern was also observed by Castelli and Huelke [1965] in rhesus monkeys.
Based on the present results, we conclude that the arterial vascular pattern
of the maxilla and mandible of neotropical primates is closely similar to that of
humans. However, differences among species do exist and should be taken into
consideration during dental and/or surgical interventions in captive animals.
Bifurcation of the common carotid artery appears to occur at a higher level in
neotropical primates as compared to humans, apes, and Old World monkeys.
Am. J. Primatol. DOI 10.1002/ajp
788 / Pizzutto et al.
Other notable variations in facial vasculature among the neotropical primates
were that Alouatta caraya did not possess a linguofacial trunk, a thyroidlinguofacial trunk was frequently observed in the genus Leontopithecus, and the
genus Leontopithecus possessed a double facial artery, with the angular artery
representing the terminal branch of the more superior of two facial arteries.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors thank the Fundac- ão Parque Zoológico de São Paulo for
providing the study animals. The authors also thank the reviewers for comments,
suggestions, and corrections that significantly improved the quality of this paper.
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