As to the occurrence of accessory triradii in interdigitum 3 of the human palm.код для вставкиСкачать
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 76:245-250 (1988) As to the Occurrence of Accessory Triradii in interdigiturn 3 of the Human Palm MARGAEtETE WENINGER Institute of H u m a n Biology, University of Vienna, 1091 Vienna, Austria ABSTlZACT Analysis of extensive dermatoglyphic data, collected from West Kenya by Doz. E.M. Winkler, showed considerable intergroup variability in the frequencies of accessory triradii in the third interdigital area (interdigitum 3) of the palm. A review of the literature confirmed the universally low frequency of this trait, as well as its racial variability, with the Negroes having the highest frequency. The interdigital patterns of the human palm are not the favorite and best variables of the dermatoglyphic system. Even though there is a well-defined differentiation between interdigital patterns with accessory triradii (D) and without accessory triradii (L) (Cummins and Midlo, 19431, a variety of superficial notations have been used over the years by various investigators. Many authors report the frequency of interdigital patterns of the palm as a unit, regardless of palmar configurational area, or the presence of an accessory triradius. The present study is an effort to expand our knowledge on the polymorphism of the third palmar configurational area (interdigitum 3) by observing, on a broader basis, the occurrence of accessory triradii in this area. It is not always easy to determine the presence of an accessory triradius in interdigitum 3 as its localization shows considerable variability (Fig. la-d). It may be situated near the inner limit of interdigitum 3, close to line C, or even exactly proximal to triradius c a t line C (Fig. Id). In the latter case, one cannot discern whether the configuration is brought about by the third interdigital pad, the fourth interdigital pad, or by both of them. Under these conditions it is not possible to determine if the accessory triradius belongs to interdigitum 3 or 4. Because of this uncertainty, triradii located just proximal of c were excluded from the present study. Another difficulty encountered in the determination of accessory triradius in interdigitum 3 relates to its formation. In several 0 1988 ALAN R. LISS, INC. instances the accessory triradii are not fully developed (Fig. lc). Table 1, which contains the results of the samples of the present study, offers evidence of the existence of both types (completely and incompletely developed triradii) separately and pooled. Furthermore, these results demonstrate the frequencies of the various forms of accessory triradii by hand and by sex. A well-developed accessory triradius is associated with a loop, which, on rare occasions, may enclose a small whorl. MATERIALS AND METHODS Starting from an extensive collection of dermatoglyphic material of Bantu and Nilotic tribes of Kenya, made available to us courtesy of Doz. Dr. E.M. Winkler, we proceeded to observe the feature in question in a series of different samples of our own material. Our samples included prints of Bushmen (Weninger, 1936), of Semang and aborigines of the Philippines (Weninger, 1952), of Malays of Java (Weninger, 19611, of the inhabitants of MarienfeldlRumania, of mothers and putative fathers of paternity testsNienna and surroundings, and of Greeks (Weninger and Rothenbuchner, 1974). The Kenya material was collected by Winkler (1984)during three expeditions (1977,1978, and 1980). Also included in the present study are samples of the Bantu-speaking Abaluyia The Editor is grateful to Dr. Chris C. Plato for his assistance in preparing the final revisions of this manuscript on behalf of the deceased author. Received July 3, 1986; accepted December 11, 1987. 246 M. WENINGER fig. 1. Accessory triradius in palmar interdigitum 3. a: Without accessory triradius (male, Batsotso 205; Winkler, 1978). b: With accessory triradius (male, Bukusu 175; Winkler, 1980). c: Accessory triradius incomplete (male, Isukha 43;Winkler, 1978). d Accessory triradius proximal of triradius c(Paternity test, male, 305/3;Weninger). and Abagusii,and of some Nilotic tribes (Deiyo, Luo, Marakwet, Teso, and Sabaot) of Western Kenya. The Abaluyia, who settled in the western highland of Kenya, are composed of several intermarrying subtribes of Merent origin. The prints of the Bushmen were taken during the R. Poch expedition 1907-1909 from a watering hole in the middle of the Kalahari. The material of the Semang/Malayan peninsula and of the Philippines was collected by Schebesta (1952). Our study also includes prints from Asiatic Pygmies (Semang, Aeta of Luzon), of Mangyans of Mindoro and Igorotes of Luzon, so-called Protomalays, and of Ilokano, Christian Malays of Luzon. The prints of Java Malays were brought to us courtesy of H.H. Noosten, a physician in PandongIJava. The samples of MarienfeldIRomania were obtained during an expedition of the Anthro- pological Institute of Vienna in the 1930s from individuals from Vienna and the surroundings. The samples of Greeks were taken in Athens in 1970 by G. Rothenbuchner. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 1 shows that accessory triradii in the third palmar interdigiturn occur more often on the right hand. They are seen less frequently on the left hand or bilaterally. No sex differences were observed. The frequencies of the feature in question among the Abaluyia subtribes are almost always higher than those of our other African samples. The frequency of the Bantu-speaking Abagusii males is nearly identical with that of the Abaluyia, whereas the Nilotic tribes, with the exception of the Sabaot fe- 247 ACCESSORY TRIRADII IN HUMAN PALM TABLE 1. Accessory triradii in palmar interdigitum 3 of the samples observed in this paper 8 6' Abaluyia 565 68,531 0 9 Abagusii 50 88,51 P P Keiyo 107 6 6 , 1 0 2 0 P Luo 126 6 6 , 1 1 7 9 9 Marakwet 77 $ 6 . 6 3 P P Teso 58 6 8 , 4 6 P P Sabaot 126 6 8 , 8 3 0 P Bushmen 20 $ 8 , 1 2 P O Semang 33 6 6 , 2 3 0 P 'AetaLuzon (1.76) 117 d d . 73 P P Mangyanhlindoro 2686,3PP IgorotedLuzon 14 6$,15 P P Ilokanohuzon 766,1399 %alaydJava 83 88.18 P P M&ienfeid 52666,560PP Paternity test 240 6 6 . 1 9 0 0 P Greeks 95 8 8 , 1 0 2 P 0 0 4.4(14r,lr with w,4r inc, 11,ll inc, 4 bill PL 4.7(13r,lr with w, 21-inc, 21J1 with w, 4bi1,Zbil with w) 4.O(lr,lbil) 0.9(11) 2.0(2r) 2,4(1r,lr with w , l l ) 3.4(2r,lr inc, 11) 1.3(lr) 4,8(1r,lr inc, 11 inc) 3.4(2bil) 2.2(lr inc) 1.6(1r,lr inc) 8.4(3r,lr with w , l l with w, 11 inc,lbil) 0.7(1r,ll)Malays + Negritos 0.95(5r) 1,61(7r,lrwith w , l l ) 0,83(1r,ll) 1.05(2r) l.l(lr) l.O(lr) 'Values preceding parentheses are frequency percentages.Abbreviations:r = right;1 = left; bil = bilateral; inc = incomplete; w = whorl. 'These frequencies are somewhat different from those given in former papers (Weninger, 1952, 1961), where some cases of an accessory triradius localized just proximally of the regular triradius c had been included. males, show, for the most part, somewhat lower values. In contrast to our African series, the Asiatic samples of Negritos and Malays are nearly devoid of accessory triradii in interdigitum 3. Our extensive European samples (Greeks, Marienfeld, and those of the paternity tests) have very similar, low, frequencies of interdigital triradii in interdigitum 3. Tables 2a, 2b, and 2c show the frequencies of accessory triradii in the third interdigital area in some populations reported in the literature. Also, Plato et al. (1975) and Plato (1984), while reviewing the worldwide distributions of all dermatoglyphic traits, presented the means and the ranges of frequency distributions of accessory triradii in the third interdigital area in the major human groups. While accurate statistical comparisons cannot be made owing to the heterogeneity of the ascertainment and evaluation of these data, it becomes evident from the tables of this study, as well as the earlier reviews, that the African groups have higher frequencies of accessory triradii in the third interdigitum than the Caucasian, Asiatic, Oriental, Australian, or the Amerindian populations. There are several reasons that no statistical procedures were carried out on these comparative data. First, some of these samples are very small in size. Second, it is questionable whether one can avoid inclusion of unrelated individuals in the ascertainment of many of these samples. Indeed, it is almost impossible to obtain samples devoid of 248 M. WENINGER TABLE 2a. Accessorv triradii in ualmar interdiPitum 3 (in %): Africa PP 66 r Bambuti (Geipel, 1956) 223 6 6 , 225 99 Bambenga Zaire Wrydagh Laoureux, 1980) 33 66 Cio (Congo) (Matznetter & Weninger, 1980) 82 6 6 , 8 4 9 9 Guinea Espaiiola (Pons, 1954) Bubi 282 6 6 , 6 1 P P Pamue 338 6 6 , 1 4 5 0 0 Combe 189 6 6 Angola (Brehme, 1972) Bieno Bantus 72 6 6 , 72 P P Luimbe Bantus 89 6 6 , 7 6 P P Mocambique (Matznetter, 1970) Bitonga 99 6 6,109 0 0 Chope 105 6 6 ,97 P P Mateve117 6 6 , 9 1 P P Hottentotten (Fleishchacker, 1934) 42 6 6 , 8 P P Bushmen (Geipel, 1956) 297 6 6 , 3 5 9 P P 1 66 1 r + PP 1 r+l r 6.5 9.1 1.2 1.2 1.4 3.4 5.6 1.1 1.4 3.1 2.9 0.9 2.0 1.9 0.9 2.1 1.1 1.3 0.9 1.1 4.5 TABLE 2b. Accessory triradii in palmar interdigitum 3 (in %): East PP 6d r Armenier (Jungwirth, 1960) 63 6 6 Iranian Muslims (Mebdipour & Farhud, 1979) 100 66.100 P P India (Biswas, 1936) 1 r 66 1 + PP r 1 r+l 4.2 1.2 2.7 1.0 m __ 88 I I Vorderinder (Geipel, 1961) 124 66,112 P 0 Tonkinesen (Jungwirth, 1959) 45 6 6 Annamiten (Jungwirth, 1959) 15 A d BalinGs Wrydagh Laoureux & Breguet, 1981) BaliEst5866,68PP Bali Isolat 106 6 6 , 111 P P New Guinea (Plato et al.. 1978) 498 6 6 , 1 6 4 P P Avom Pygmies, New Guinea (Geipel, 1958) 21866,71 P P Yap, Micronesia (Mavalwala & Hunt, 1964) Landlords 233 6 6 ,right hands only 2 other groups 58 6 6, right hands only Japanese (Wilder, 1922) 83 66,112 P P Chinese (Wilder, 1922) 50 6 6 , 5 0 P P Eskimos (Midlao & Cummins, 1931) 30 6 6 , 3 4 P P Eskimos & American Indians (Garruto and Plato, 1979) Eskimos North and South American Indians I 1.72 1.86 0.89 0.2 0.2 1.0 0.5 0.4? 1.2 1.0' 'The results for a great many of these populations are rather poor. In most of them data for the accessory triradii do not exist. The frequency of 1.0% for North and South Americcan Indians is a casual one. 249 ACCESSORY TRIRADII IN HUMAN PALM TABLE 2c. Accesson, triradii in Dulmur interdieitum 3 (in %): EuroDe 66 England (Fang, 1950) 462 6 6 , 4 6 4 P 0 DDR (Jaeger & Bach, 1976) 300 $8,300 P P Switzerland (Schefiahn Kumin, 1980) 415 6 6.298 P P Belgium &rydagh Laoureux, 1982) 187 $ 6 , 1 5 3 P P CSR (Mala, 1961) 52686.474 9 9 CSR (Lorencova & Benes, 1965) 100 ATrs.98 P P Poland(Lasinski, 1952) 580 66 Spain (Vrydagh Laoureux, 1982) 203 6 6 , 1 5 9 0 P Vascos, SDain (Pons. 1954) 100 bd Greece (Barcsocas et al.,1982) 205 66.190 P P 1.0 99 r+l 1 r 1.0 1.0 r 2.7 1 0.3 0.8 r+l 0.8 1.31 0.0 0.66 1.5 0.0 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.6 1.0 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.2 0.6 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.26 0.0 0.63 2.0 1.0 1.1 0.6 0.8 0.7 2.0 1.4 My first thanks are due to Doz. Dr. E.M. WinklerAnstitut fur Humanbiologie d. Universitat Wien for having placed his extensive dermatoglyphic Kenya material at 1.4 0.5 1.3 0.53 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 1 1.5 1.06 related individuals during scientific expeditions, many of which took place several decades ago. In our own samples, for instance, the values for the Nilotic Sabaot women deviate strongly from those of the other Nilotic tribes. The Sabaot are a vanishing tribe consisting of only a few hundred individuals (Winkler, 1982). In this case endogamy will have to be taken into consideration. This is true for most of these tribes living in isolation. Third, methodological differences and subjective judgments among investigators with variable training, equipment, and facilities may also introduce strong uncertainties and errors in the data files. For example, in the feature dealt in this report, it is impossible to differentiate exactly the incomplete triradius from the vestige. Certainly the variable interpretation of the investigators will result, to a larger or smaller degree, in discrepancies in the frequency distribution of the observed feature. In summary, the results of the present study show interpopulation differences in the frequencies of accessory triradii in the third interdigital area of the palm. Frequencies of comparative data reported in the literature support this conclusion. r my disposal. I am grateful to Dr. G. Mulled Anatomisches Institut d. Universitat Wien, who let me know the special details of the anatomical basis of the observed region, likewise to R. WyteWChefprogrammierer am EDV-Zentrum der Universitat Wien, to whom I owe the comparative statistical treatment of the samples studied. LITERATURE CITED Bartsocas, CS, Panayotou, T, Vamnos, S, Kritsikis, S, Plato, CC, and Papdatos, CJ (1982) Digital and palmar dermatoglyphics in Greeks. In CS Bartsocas (ed): Progress in Dermatoglyphic Research. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc., pp. 247-267. 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Papillarlinienbild der Handflache. h b l . Fac. Sci. Univ. J.E. Purkyne, Brno 8. Mala, L (1961) Analysa palmarnich a plantamich dermatoglyfu v ceskoslovensku.Acta F.R.N. Univ. Comen. VI,Anthopol.:125-135. Matznetter, T (1970) Studien uber Hautleisten Negrider aus Mocambique. Mitt. Anthropol. Ges. Wien 100: 48-69. Matznetter, T, and Weninger, M (1980) Uber das Hautleistensystem der Cio, einer bantusprechenden KongoBevolkerung in Raume Cabinda (Angola). Mitt. Anthropol. Ges. Wien 110:60-71. Mavalwala, J, and Hunt, EE, Jr (1964) Finger and palm prints of the Micronesians of Yap. Z. Morphol. Anthropol. 55:ll-23. Mebdipour, P, and Farhud, DD (1979)Adermatoglyphic study of Iranian Muslims. I1 Part: Palmar main lines, patterns and axial triradius. Coll. Anthropol. 3:113117. Midlao, CH, and Cummins, H (1931) Dermatoglyphics in Eskimos. Am. J . Phys. Anthropol. 16:41-49. Plato, CC, Cereghino, JJ, and Steinberg, FS (1975) The dermatoglyphics of American Caucasians. Am. J . 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Wilder, HH (1922) Racial differences in palm and sole configuration: Palm and sole prints of Japanese and Chinese. Am. J . Phys. Anthropol. 5:143-206. Winkler, EM (1982) Zur Haufigkeit der Rot-Grun-Blindheit bei Bantu und Nilotisch sprechenden Stammen Kenyas. Homo 33:13-20. Winkler, EM (1984) Zur systematischen Stellung der Populationen West Kenias. Homo 35:73-109.