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As to the occurrence of accessory triradii in interdigitum 3 of the human palm.

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AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 76:245-250 (1988)
As to the Occurrence of Accessory Triradii in interdigiturn 3
of the Human Palm
MARGAEtETE WENINGER
Institute of H u m a n Biology, University of Vienna, 1091 Vienna, Austria
ABSTlZACT
Analysis of extensive dermatoglyphic data, collected from West
Kenya by Doz. E.M. Winkler, showed considerable intergroup variability in the
frequencies of accessory triradii in the third interdigital area (interdigitum 3)
of the palm. A review of the literature confirmed the universally low frequency
of this trait, as well as its racial variability, with the Negroes having the highest
frequency.
The interdigital patterns of the human
palm are not the favorite and best variables
of the dermatoglyphic system. Even though
there is a well-defined differentiation between interdigital patterns with accessory
triradii (D) and without accessory triradii
(L) (Cummins and Midlo, 19431, a variety of
superficial notations have been used over the
years by various investigators. Many authors report the frequency of interdigital
patterns of the palm as a unit, regardless of
palmar configurational area, or the presence
of an accessory triradius.
The present study is an effort to expand
our knowledge on the polymorphism of the
third palmar configurational area (interdigitum 3) by observing, on a broader basis,
the occurrence of accessory triradii in this
area.
It is not always easy to determine the
presence of an accessory triradius in interdigitum 3 as its localization shows considerable variability (Fig. la-d). It may be
situated near the inner limit of interdigitum
3, close to line C, or even exactly proximal
to triradius c a t line C (Fig. Id). In the latter
case, one cannot discern whether the configuration is brought about by the third interdigital pad, the fourth interdigital pad, or by
both of them. Under these conditions it is
not possible to determine if the accessory
triradius belongs to interdigitum 3 or 4. Because of this uncertainty, triradii located just
proximal of c were excluded from the present
study.
Another difficulty encountered in the determination of accessory triradius in interdigitum 3 relates to its formation. In several
0 1988 ALAN R. LISS, INC.
instances the accessory triradii are not fully
developed (Fig. lc). Table 1, which contains
the results of the samples of the present study,
offers evidence of the existence of both types
(completely and incompletely developed triradii) separately and pooled. Furthermore,
these results demonstrate the frequencies of
the various forms of accessory triradii by hand
and by sex. A well-developed accessory triradius is associated with a loop, which, on
rare occasions, may enclose a small whorl.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Starting from an extensive collection of
dermatoglyphic material of Bantu and Nilotic tribes of Kenya, made available to us
courtesy of Doz. Dr. E.M. Winkler, we proceeded to observe the feature in question in
a series of different samples of our own material.
Our samples included prints of Bushmen
(Weninger, 1936), of Semang and aborigines
of the Philippines (Weninger, 1952), of Malays of Java (Weninger, 19611, of the inhabitants of MarienfeldlRumania, of mothers and
putative fathers of paternity testsNienna
and surroundings, and of Greeks (Weninger
and Rothenbuchner, 1974).
The Kenya material was collected by Winkler (1984)during three expeditions (1977,1978,
and 1980). Also included in the present study
are samples of the Bantu-speaking Abaluyia
The Editor is grateful to Dr. Chris C. Plato for his assistance
in preparing the final revisions of this manuscript on behalf of
the deceased author.
Received July 3, 1986; accepted December 11, 1987.
246
M. WENINGER
fig. 1. Accessory triradius in palmar interdigitum 3. a:
Without accessory triradius (male, Batsotso 205; Winkler,
1978). b: With accessory triradius (male, Bukusu 175;
Winkler, 1980). c: Accessory triradius incomplete (male,
Isukha 43;Winkler, 1978). d Accessory triradius proximal of triradius c(Paternity test, male, 305/3;Weninger).
and Abagusii,and of some Nilotic tribes (Deiyo,
Luo, Marakwet, Teso, and Sabaot) of Western
Kenya. The Abaluyia, who settled in the western highland of Kenya, are composed of several intermarrying subtribes of Merent origin.
The prints of the Bushmen were taken during the R. Poch expedition 1907-1909 from a
watering hole in the middle of the Kalahari.
The material of the Semang/Malayan peninsula and of the Philippines was collected by
Schebesta (1952). Our study also includes
prints from Asiatic Pygmies (Semang, Aeta of
Luzon), of Mangyans of Mindoro and Igorotes
of Luzon, so-called Protomalays, and of Ilokano, Christian Malays of Luzon. The prints
of Java Malays were brought to us courtesy
of H.H. Noosten, a physician in PandongIJava.
The samples of MarienfeldIRomania were obtained during an expedition of the Anthro-
pological Institute of Vienna in the 1930s from
individuals from Vienna and the surroundings. The samples of Greeks were taken in
Athens in 1970 by G. Rothenbuchner.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 1 shows that accessory triradii in
the third palmar interdigiturn occur more
often on the right hand. They are seen less
frequently on the left hand or bilaterally. No
sex differences were observed.
The frequencies of the feature in question
among the Abaluyia subtribes are almost always higher than those of our other African
samples. The frequency of the Bantu-speaking Abagusii males is nearly identical with
that of the Abaluyia, whereas the Nilotic
tribes, with the exception of the Sabaot fe-
247
ACCESSORY TRIRADII IN HUMAN PALM
TABLE 1. Accessory triradii in palmar interdigitum 3 of the samples observed in this paper
8 6'
Abaluyia
565 68,531 0 9
Abagusii
50 88,51 P P
Keiyo
107 6 6 , 1 0 2 0 P
Luo
126 6 6 , 1 1 7 9 9
Marakwet
77 $ 6 . 6 3 P P
Teso
58 6 8 , 4 6 P P
Sabaot
126 6 8 , 8 3 0 P
Bushmen
20 $ 8 , 1 2 P O
Semang
33 6 6 , 2 3 0 P
'AetaLuzon (1.76)
117 d d . 73 P P
Mangyanhlindoro
2686,3PP
IgorotedLuzon
14 6$,15 P P
Ilokanohuzon
766,1399
%alaydJava
83 88.18 P P
M&ienfeid
52666,560PP
Paternity test
240 6 6 . 1 9 0 0 P
Greeks
95 8 8 , 1 0 2 P 0
0
4.4(14r,lr with w,4r inc,
11,ll inc, 4 bill
PL
4.7(13r,lr with w,
21-inc, 21J1 with w,
4bi1,Zbil with w)
4.O(lr,lbil)
0.9(11)
2.0(2r)
2,4(1r,lr with w , l l )
3.4(2r,lr inc, 11)
1.3(lr)
4,8(1r,lr inc, 11 inc)
3.4(2bil)
2.2(lr inc)
1.6(1r,lr inc)
8.4(3r,lr with w , l l
with w, 11 inc,lbil)
0.7(1r,ll)Malays
+ Negritos
0.95(5r)
1,61(7r,lrwith w , l l )
0,83(1r,ll)
1.05(2r)
l.l(lr)
l.O(lr)
'Values preceding parentheses are frequency percentages.Abbreviations:r = right;1 = left; bil = bilateral; inc = incomplete;
w = whorl.
'These frequencies are somewhat different from those given in former papers (Weninger, 1952, 1961), where some cases
of an accessory triradius localized just proximally of the regular triradius c had been included.
males, show, for the most part, somewhat
lower values.
In contrast to our African series, the Asiatic
samples of Negritos and Malays are nearly
devoid of accessory triradii in interdigitum
3. Our extensive European samples (Greeks,
Marienfeld, and those of the paternity tests)
have very similar, low, frequencies of interdigital triradii in interdigitum 3.
Tables 2a, 2b, and 2c show the frequencies
of accessory triradii in the third interdigital
area in some populations reported in the literature. Also, Plato et al. (1975) and Plato
(1984), while reviewing the worldwide distributions of all dermatoglyphic traits, presented the means and the ranges of frequency
distributions of accessory triradii in the third
interdigital area in the major human groups.
While accurate statistical comparisons cannot be made owing to the heterogeneity of
the ascertainment and evaluation of these
data, it becomes evident from the tables of
this study, as well as the earlier reviews,
that the African groups have higher frequencies of accessory triradii in the third
interdigitum than the Caucasian, Asiatic,
Oriental, Australian, or the Amerindian
populations.
There are several reasons that no statistical procedures were carried out on these
comparative data. First, some of these samples are very small in size. Second, it is questionable whether one can avoid inclusion of
unrelated individuals in the ascertainment
of many of these samples. Indeed, it is almost impossible to obtain samples devoid of
248
M. WENINGER
TABLE 2a. Accessorv triradii in ualmar interdiPitum 3 (in %): Africa
PP
66
r
Bambuti (Geipel, 1956)
223 6 6 , 225 99
Bambenga Zaire Wrydagh Laoureux, 1980)
33 66
Cio (Congo) (Matznetter & Weninger, 1980)
82 6 6 , 8 4 9 9
Guinea Espaiiola (Pons, 1954)
Bubi 282 6 6 , 6 1 P P
Pamue 338 6 6 , 1 4 5 0 0
Combe 189 6 6
Angola (Brehme, 1972)
Bieno Bantus 72 6 6 , 72 P P
Luimbe Bantus 89 6 6 , 7 6 P P
Mocambique (Matznetter, 1970)
Bitonga 99 6 6,109 0 0
Chope 105 6 6 ,97 P P
Mateve117 6 6 , 9 1 P P
Hottentotten (Fleishchacker, 1934)
42 6 6 , 8 P P
Bushmen (Geipel, 1956)
297 6 6 , 3 5 9 P P
1
66
1
r
+ PP
1 r+l
r
6.5
9.1
1.2
1.2
1.4
3.4
5.6
1.1
1.4
3.1
2.9
0.9
2.0
1.9
0.9
2.1
1.1
1.3
0.9
1.1
4.5
TABLE 2b. Accessory triradii in palmar interdigitum 3 (in %): East
PP
6d
r
Armenier (Jungwirth, 1960)
63 6 6
Iranian Muslims (Mebdipour & Farhud, 1979)
100 66.100 P P
India (Biswas, 1936)
1
r
66
1
+ PP
r
1 r+l
4.2
1.2 2.7
1.0
m
__ 88
I
I
Vorderinder (Geipel, 1961)
124 66,112 P 0
Tonkinesen (Jungwirth, 1959)
45 6 6
Annamiten (Jungwirth, 1959)
15 A d
BalinGs Wrydagh Laoureux & Breguet, 1981)
BaliEst5866,68PP
Bali Isolat 106 6 6 , 111 P P
New Guinea (Plato et al.. 1978)
498 6 6 , 1 6 4 P P
Avom Pygmies, New Guinea (Geipel, 1958)
21866,71 P P
Yap, Micronesia (Mavalwala & Hunt, 1964)
Landlords 233 6 6 ,right hands only
2 other groups 58 6 6, right hands only
Japanese (Wilder, 1922)
83 66,112 P P
Chinese (Wilder, 1922)
50 6 6 , 5 0 P P
Eskimos (Midlao & Cummins, 1931)
30 6 6 , 3 4 P P
Eskimos & American Indians (Garruto
and Plato, 1979)
Eskimos
North and South American Indians
I
1.72
1.86
0.89
0.2
0.2
1.0
0.5
0.4?
1.2
1.0'
'The results for a great many of these populations are rather poor. In most of them data for the accessory triradii do not exist. The
frequency of 1.0% for North and South Americcan Indians is a casual one.
249
ACCESSORY TRIRADII IN HUMAN PALM
TABLE 2c. Accesson, triradii in Dulmur interdieitum 3 (in %): EuroDe
66
England (Fang, 1950)
462 6 6 , 4 6 4 P 0
DDR (Jaeger & Bach, 1976)
300 $8,300 P P
Switzerland (Schefiahn
Kumin, 1980)
415 6 6.298 P P
Belgium &rydagh Laoureux, 1982)
187 $ 6 , 1 5 3 P P
CSR (Mala, 1961)
52686.474 9 9
CSR (Lorencova & Benes, 1965)
100 ATrs.98 P P
Poland(Lasinski, 1952)
580 66
Spain (Vrydagh Laoureux, 1982)
203 6 6 , 1 5 9 0 P
Vascos, SDain (Pons. 1954)
100 bd
Greece (Barcsocas et al.,1982)
205 66.190 P P
1.0
99
r+l
1
r
1.0
1.0
r
2.7
1
0.3
0.8
r+l
0.8
1.31
0.0
0.66
1.5
0.0
0.6
0.7
0.6
0.6
1.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.0
0.2
0.6
0.1
0.1
0.1
1.26
0.0
0.63
2.0
1.0
1.1
0.6
0.8
0.7
2.0
1.4
My first thanks are due to Doz. Dr. E.M.
WinklerAnstitut fur Humanbiologie d.
Universitat Wien for having placed his extensive dermatoglyphic Kenya material at
1.4
0.5
1.3
0.53
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
1
1.5
1.06
related individuals during scientific expeditions, many of which took place several
decades ago. In our own samples, for instance, the values for the Nilotic Sabaot
women deviate strongly from those of the
other Nilotic tribes. The Sabaot are a vanishing tribe consisting of only a few hundred
individuals (Winkler, 1982). In this case endogamy will have to be taken into consideration. This is true for most of these tribes
living in isolation. Third, methodological differences and subjective judgments among
investigators with variable training, equipment, and facilities may also introduce strong
uncertainties and errors in the data files.
For example, in the feature dealt in this report, it is impossible to differentiate exactly
the incomplete triradius from the vestige.
Certainly the variable interpretation of the
investigators will result, to a larger or smaller
degree, in discrepancies in the frequency distribution of the observed feature.
In summary, the results of the present
study show interpopulation differences in the
frequencies of accessory triradii in the third
interdigital area of the palm. Frequencies of
comparative data reported in the literature
support this conclusion.
r
my disposal. I am grateful to Dr. G. Mulled
Anatomisches Institut d. Universitat Wien,
who let me know the special details of the
anatomical basis of the observed region,
likewise to R. WyteWChefprogrammierer am
EDV-Zentrum der Universitat Wien, to whom
I owe the comparative statistical treatment
of the samples studied.
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