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Aspects of southwestern paleoepidemiology. By Stephen J. Kunitz and Robert C. Euler. vii + 55 pp. bibliography index. Athropology Reports No. 2 Persott College Press Prescott Ariz. 1972. $2

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their possible causes are summarized. This
is followed by a similar summary of the
evolution of infectious diseases and one of
stress as a disease-related entity. Chapter four reviews what is actually known
of infectious diseases in the Pueblos, beginning with the report of Castaneda of
the Coronado expedition. Chapter five considers the role of nutrition in population
decrease. The authors speculate that climatic changes (which are also somewhat
speculative) may have resulted in decreased protein and hence led to increased
infant mortality. They do not consider
this a direct cause of population decline,
but rather an indirect cause through the
influence of nutritional factors on disease. They suggest a test of this hypothesis through a radiographic study of long
bones from sites spanning several centuries of time.
The topics of spongy hyperostosis and
birth rates are also discussed. The authors
relate both to nutritional factors and
hence indirectly to disease.
This report should be of interest to
students of paleopathology for two reasons. First, it summarizes the literature
related to paleoepidemiological studies.
The sources are not limited to those dealing with the southwest even though this
region is the focus of the authors’ interest. The bibliography, which is 22.5% of
the book, is its most useful feature and
University of California, Davis
can save students a good deal of searching. Secondly, there are specific suggestions for the testing of hypotheses concerning the role of disease in population
PALEOEPIDE-growth and decline. These also have genMIOLOGY. By Stephen J. Kunitz and Rob- eral applicability.
My one negative reaction to the report
ert C. Euler. vii
55 pp., bibliography,
index. Anthropology Reports No. 2, is its uncritical acceptance of Harris’ lines
Prescott College Press, Prescott, Ariz. as indicators of disease increase in spite
of studies casting doubt upon the validity
1972. $2.50 (paper).
of this technique (Marshall, ’68). To sum
This report is an epidemiological survey up on a positive note, the book is brief,
of the prehistoric Pueblo region. The au- but stimulating and useful.
thors are concerned with the possible relaETHELBONITA FOUSTE
tionship between disease and population
Cypress College
fluctuations in the American southwest.
The attempt to establish such a relationLITERATURE CITED
ship is not original research, however; the
report is a synthesis from existing lit- Marshall, W. A. 1968 Problems in relating the
presence of transverse lines on the radius to the
occurrence of disease. In: The Skeletal Biology
In the first chapter, published reports
of Earlier Human Populations. D. R. Brothconcerning population movements and
well, ed. Pergamon Press, Oxford.
perpetuates the speculation that orangs
in the wild are more social than recent
field studies demonstrate them to be. In
this regard he states, “Orang-utans sind
also vielleicht nicht weniger sozial als
andere Pongiden, sondern haben nur anders Ausdrucksformen entwickelt.” In fact,
recent field studies indicate that it would
be more appropriate to compare the social
behavior of orang-utans with that of the
nocturnal prosimians than with the behavior of chimpanzees and gorillas!
This is an excellent catalogue of the
behavior of captive orang-utans, but it
suffers from a lack of a consistent analytical technique. In description of locomotion, of nest-building and of use of
various objects Jantschke develops part
of an ethogram of zoo orang-utans. The
ethogram is a useful tool, and in these
cases he employs it to make an interesting
analysis of relationships between “real”
behavior and, for example, play behavior.
The author uses a quantitative approach
to description of social conflicts and dominance relations, of female interest in other
females’ offspring and of aspects of objectoriented behavior, but the book is for the
most part a subjective account of behavior. A consistent quantitative technique
or a precise ethological analysis throughout would have improved it.
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1972, report, aspects, roberts, euler, ariz, index, athropology, persott, bibliography, kunitz, prescot, vii, southwestern, paleoepidemiology, stephen, college, pres
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