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Banding patterns of the chromosomes of Presbytis cristatus pyrrhus and P. obscurus

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American Journal of Primatology 4:165-169 (1983)
BRIEF REPORT
Banding Patterns of the Chromosomes of Presbytis
cristatus pyrrhus and P. obscurus
M.PONSA', L.E.M. DE BOER',
AND J. EGOZCUEl
'Znstituto de Biologia Fundamental Vicent Villar Palmi and Department of Cell Biology,
Faculty of Science, Uniuersidad Autbnoma de Barcelona, Spain; and 'Biological Research
Department, Royal Rotterdam Zoological and Botanical Gardens, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
The G- and Q-bands and the location of the nucleolar organizer regions
(NOR) in the chromosomes of Presbytis obscurus and the Q- and C-bands of
l? cristatus pyrrhus are described. Their chromosomes are compared to those
of Macaca mulatta and to other Cercopithecidae and Hylobatidae. The origin
of the two different banding patterns of pair no. 1 in our specimen of €?
cristatus pyrrhus is discussed.
Key words: banding patterns, chromosomes, Presbytis cristutus pyrrhus, P. obscurus,
cercopithecidae, hylobatidae
INTRODUCTION
The published data on the chromosomes of the genus Presbytis are extremely
scarce. In 1963, Chiarelli described the karyotype of PI obscurus. In 1964, Ushijima
et a1 incorrectly described the karyotype of F! entellus; the correct karyotype of this
latter species was later published by Egozcue [1972]. In both cases, the diploid
number was 44.More recently, Krishna Murthy et a1 [1979] studied the chromosomes of one female and one male l? entellus, using G-banding techniques. In this
study we describe the G- and Q-bands and the NOR of P obscurus (POB), and the Qand C-bands of €? cristatus pyrrhus (PCR).
METHODS
Blood samples were obtained from one female POB and her son, kept at the
Wassenaar Zoo (The Netherlands), and one female PCR kept at the Rotterdam Zoo
(The Netherlands); this latter female was not captive-bred.
Blood cultures were carried out using standard techniques (growth in F-10
medium with 20% fetal calf serum and phytohemaglutinin and pokeweed mitogens).
Received July 13, 1982; accepted October 11, 1982.
Address reprint requests to Dr. Ponsa, Instituto de Biologia Fundamental Vicent Villar Palasi, Av San
Antonio M g Claret, 171, Barcelona-25, Spain.
01983 Alan R. Liss, Inc.
Ponsa, de Boer, and Egozcue
166
G- Q-, and C- bands and NOR-staining were done using the techniques of Gallimore
and Richardson [1973], Polani and Mutton 119711, Sumner [1972], and Bloom and
Goodpasture [19761.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The diploid number in the specimens of POB studied was 44.All chromosomes
were nonacrocentric with the exception of a small autosomal pair (no. 20) and the Y
chromosomes. G-bands (Fig. 1)were equivalent to Q-bands. The marker pair (no. 21)
with a G-band in the short arms was the carrier of the NOR regions in the secondary
constriction. As in many other cases, the members of the marker pair were heteromorphic.
1
2
3
8
9
10
16
17
18
5
4
11
19
7
6
12
20
13
21
14
15
X
Fig. 1. G-banded karyotype of POB. Note heteromorphic marker pair no. 21. Pair no. 1 may be the
ancestral type of the genus (see text).
Fig. 2. Q-banded karyotype of PCR. Note heteromorphism of pair no. 1. Structural rearrangements are
possibly due to pericentric inversions.
Chromosomes of Presbytis
167
In the female (from the Rotterdam Zoo) PCP, the diploid number was 44 and all
chromosomes were nonacrocentric except pair no. 20. As shown in Figure 2, the two
members of pair no. 1 were heteromorphic. C-bands were centromeric and did not
show any special characteristics except in pair no. 1 where their position was
different due to a pericentric inversion. The marker pair (no. 21) had a pericentromeric C-band (Fig. 3).
Q-banding patterns of the chromosomes of both species were homologous except
for the chromosomes of pair no. 1. One of them (the chromosome on the left in Fig.
2) was similar to chromosome no. 2 of Presbytis entellus [Krishna Murthy et al,
19791. However, the other chromosome showed a structural rearrangement. On the
other hand, the banding pattern of chromosome no. 1in the POB female and her son
was different from that found in P cristatus and from that described in l? entellus
[Krishna Murthy et al. 19791. Since both chromosomes from the I? cristatus female
can be obtained from chromosome no. 1of POB through a single pericentric inversion (different for each chromosome), and one of them (the left chromosome in Fig.
2) seems to be identical to that found in l? entellus, we propose that the ancestral
chromosome no. 1of this genus corresponds to the one found in the POB specimen,
because it implies single inversions to produce each of the chromosomes found in
the P cristatus female and those of I? entellus.
If the banding patterns found in P entellus and in one of the chromosomes of
the I? cristatus female were considered as ancestral, the number of rearrangements
necessary to produce the chromosomes of POB and the other chromosome of l?
cristatus would be higher.
The comparison of the banding patterns of PCR, POB and Macaca mulatta
shows the homologies described in Table I. Since the banding patterns of Macaca
mulatta have been compared to those of Cercopithecus aethiops [Estop et al, 19781,
Miopithecus talapoin [Ponsa et al, 19801, Erythrocebus patas [Ponsa et al, 19811, and
C. cliana; C. l’hoesti C. nictitans, and C. pogonias (unpublished) this comparison can
be extended to other Cercopithecus species. When the banding patterns of PCR and
POB are compared to those of Hylobates lar (HLR), [Warburton et al, 19751, the
homologies are as seen in Table 11. It is difficult to compare the chromosomes of
Presbytis with those of Colobus [Dutrillaux et al, 19811 because no G- or Q-band
studies have been published in this genus.
Fig. 3. C-banded karyotype of PCR. Note pericentromeric C-hand in pair no. 21. (C-bands are obtained
after Q-staining; see Fig. 2).
168
Ponsa, de Roer, and Egozcue
TABLE I. Chromosome Homologies in the
Species P. obscurus (POB), P. crktutus pymhm
(PCK),and Mucuca rnuluttu (MML)*
POB-PCR
MML
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21p
9
*Numbers of MML chromosomes correspond to those in
Estop et a1 119781.
TABLE 11. Chromosome Homologies in the
Species Presbytis obscurus (POB), P. cristutus
p~lrrhus(PCR), and Hubbates lur (HLA)*
POB-PCR
2q
5
8
17
19
21
X
HLA
7
1q
12
19
17
15
X
*Numbers of HLA chromosomes correspond to those in
Krishna Murthy et a1 [1979].
It is evident that pairs nos. 2,4,5,7, 8,9, 11, 14, 17,18, 19,21, and X have been
preserved in the Cercopithecidae. Chromosome pairs 2,5,4q, 7,8,9,14, 17, and X of
Presbytis can also be found in the Hominidae (HSA chromosome pairs 3, 6q, 14, 8,
11,12,13,17, and X, respectively).
Our results indicate that the Colobinae are closer to the Cercopithecinae than
to the Hylobatidae from a chromosomal point of view. This is in agreement with the
phylogenetic tree proposed by Valois [cited by Turleau et al, 19721 and Goodman
[19731 based on the antigenic distances obtained by immunodifussion; with Delson
Chromosomes of Preshytk
169
[19771; and with the conclusions about phylogeny proposed by Dutrillaux et a1 [1981]
after the chromosomal study of two Colobus species.
CONCLUSIONS
1. The chromosome number of I? cristatus pyrrhus and P: obscurus, is 2n
=
44.
2. All banding patterns of the chromosomes of both species are homologous
except for pair no. 1.
3. The Colobinae are phylogenetically closer to Cercopithecinae than to Hylobatidae from a chromosomal point of view.
4.The ancestral banding patterns of chromosome no. 1in this genus probably is
that found in p1 obscurus.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank Prof. P.L. Pearson, Instituut voor Anthropogenetica, Sylvius Laboratoria der Rijksuniversiteit, Leiden, The Netherlands in whose laboratory part of this
work was carried out. We also thank Mr. J.J.N. Louwman, Director of Dierenpark
Wassenaar, Wassenaar, The Netherlands; and Ir. D. van Dam, Director of Royal
Rotterdam Zoological and Botanical Gardens, Rotterdam, The Netherlands for their
permission to obtain the samples. The assistance of the l?undacion Roviralta, Barcelona, is acknowledged for a travel grant to M. Ponsa.
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