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Behavior-induced auditory exostoses in imperial Roman society Evidence from coeval urban and rural communities near Rome.

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AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 851253-260 (1991)
Behavior-Induced Auditory Exostoses in Imperial Roman Society:
Evidence From Coeval Urban and Rural Communities
Near Rome
GIORGIO MANZI, ALESSANDRA SPERDUTI, AND
PIETRO PASSARELLO
Dipartimento di Biologia Animale e dell’Uomo, Universita di Roma “La
Sapienza,” 00185 Roma, Italy
KEY WORDS
Auditory exostoses, Paleopathology, Imperial Rome
ABSTRACT
Presence and features of auditory exostoses were investigated in two cranial samples of Roman imperial age (1st-3rd century A.D.).
The skeletal material comes from the necropolises of Portus (Isola Sacra) and
Lucus Feroniae (Via Capenate), two towns along the Tevere River, in close
relation with the social and economic life of Rome. Deep-rooted differences
between the human communities represented by the skeletal samples (83 and
71 individuals, respectively, in this study) are documented both historically
and archaeologically. The results show lack of exostoses in the female sex, a
negligible incidence among the males of Lucus Feroniae, but a high frequency
in the male sample from Isola Sacra (31.3%).Auditory exostoses are commonly
recognised as localizedhyperplastic growths of predominantly acquired origin.
Features of the exostoses found in the male crania from Isola Sacra (particularly in relation to the age at death of the affected individuals) support this
view. Furthermore, several clinical and anthropological studies have pointed
out close links between the occurrence of auditory exostoses and prolonged cold
water exposure, generally due t o the practice of aquatic sports, or to working
activities involving water contact or diving. In this perspective, the differences
observed between the two Roman populations and between the sexes (in Isola
Sacra) appear to result from different social habits: the middle class population of Portus habitually used thermal baths, whereas it is probable that
thermae were seldom frequented (if at all) by the Lucus Feroniae population
represented in the necropolis (mostly composed by slaves or freedmen farm
laborers). As regards the relation with sex observed in Isola Sacra, the
paleopathological data presented here seem to indicate some differences in
thermae attendance and utilization between men and women, which has not
been clearly documented so far by historical and archaeological sources.
Auditory exostoses (A.E.) are hy erplastic
bony growths that may form in t e medial
tract of the external auditory canal, which
have been studied by anatomists, clinicians,
and anthropologists since the late 19th century (DiBartolomeo, 1979; HrdliEka, 1935;
Kennedy, 1986).Following the work of Berry
and Berry (1967), A.E. have also figured in
lists of cranial nonmetric traits despite the
fact that their e igenetic nature has been
r s t i o n e d (e.g., %ennedy, 1986). The incience of A.E. is widely believed to depend
heavily on environmental factors (Altmann,
1951;Gregg and Bass, 1970; Harrison, 1951;
K
@ 1991 WILEY-LISS,INC.
Hrdlicka, 19351, in view of the predominantly non-hereditary nature of the character and the demonstrated close relationship
between incidence of A.E. and prolonged exosure to cold water (Adams, 1951a, 1951b;
iBartolomeo, 1979; Field, 1878; Fili o et
al., 1982; Harrison, 1951, 1962; HrdEtka,
1935; Kennedy, 1986; Moore, 1900; Seftel,
1977).It has been hypothesized that thermic
6
Received July 11,1990;accepted January 29,1991.
Address reprint requests to Dr Giorqo Manzi, Museo di Antropolo ‘a,Dip to Biologia animale e dell uomo, Universita di Roma
“La fapienia,” P.le A. Moro, 5-00185 Roma, Italy.
Fig. 1. Geographical location of the vanished towns of Portus and Lucus Feroniae in relation to the city
of Rome, with particular reference to the necropolisesofboth the Isola Sacra (Portus)and the Via Capenate
(LucusFeroniae) areas.
,
0
'
"
I
km
40
255
INCIDENCE OF AUDITORY EXOSTOSES IN IMPERIAL ROME
shock-resulting from exposure of the auditorycanal tocold water-wouldlead to hyperemia and local excitation of the periosteum
and, hence, to osteoblastic activity (Fowler
and Osmun, 1942; Harrison, 1951).
As long ago as the 1930s (Van Gilse, 1938;
cf. Ascenzi and Balistreri, 1975), such considerations gave rise to the rediction that a
high incidence of A.E. woul(Pbe found among
the wealthier classes of the ancient Roman
world in view of their habitual use of thermae and fondness for swimming. Though
suggestive, the hypothesis has hitherto not
been borne out by experimental data from
sufficiently representative sam les.
Studies now under way on s eletal samles from Isola Sacra and Lucus Feroniae
Argenti and Manzi, 1988; Manzi and S erduti, 1988; Manzi et al., 1989) have ma e it
possible to bring forward new data in this
connection. Human skeletal material was
brought to light during recent archaeological
excavation of two necropolises of the city of
Portus (known as the necropolis of Isola
Sacra) and of Lucus Feroniae (the necro olis
of Via Capenate). Both necropolises Rave
been archaeologically dated to the imperial
age (1st-3rd century A.D.) and are associated with towns at no great distance from the
city of Rome (roughly 30 km in both cases;
Fig. 1)possessin close links with the social
and economic li e of the center of the Emire. The data available (Bartoccini, 1960;
Festaguzza, 1970) pinpoint the existence of
marked socioeconomic differences between
the two towns, one (Portus) being the result
of urban growth around the Portus Romae,
an important seaport of the imperial age
situated at the mouth of the Tevere (Tiber)
River, whereas the other (Lucus Feroniae)
was a rural center situated near the Tevere
to the northeast of Rome.
Consideration of the characteristics of the
two burial grounds (Baldassare, 1978,1984,
1987; Calza, 1940; Gazzetti, 1986) also
brings out a difference in social composition
between these human samples. In the case of
Isola Sacra, the epigraphical data, decoration, and monumental layout of the necropolis indicate that those buried belonged to a
middle class (craftsmen, sho keepers, etc.)
who were economically we1 off (see also
Pellegrino, 1984). Conversely, the type of
grave used and the almost total absence of
ave goods at Via Capenate near Lucus
Rroniae suggest that this necropolis was
assigned to manual laborers of humble ori-
K
P
cp
H
P
n (slaves, freedmen, war veterans; G.F.
pers. comm.).
Eazzetti,
The cranial sam les under examination
g
thus provide a suita le test case for the claim
put forward by Van Gilse (1938, p. 346): “On
devra trouver un pourcentage d’exostoses
dans les cranes des classes aisees du peuple
rornain du temps glorieux de l’empire;
l’existence des thermes indique l’habitude
du bain et de la nage” (thus, occurrence of
auditory exostoses should be found on the
skulls of those individuals belonging to the
higher classes of the imperial Roman opulation, since the existence of thermal aths
indicates the habits of bathing and swimming).
The habitual use of thermae is known to
have represented an im ortant hygienic and
social aspect of the dai y life of the ancient
Romans. The bath of the im erial a e originated in contacts with the reek co onies of
southern Italy and with countries of the
eastern Mediterranean and assumed its own
canonical characteristics over the years (see
Vitruvius, VI, 10).The guiding principle was
always the same, consisting as it did in
warming the body with saunas and hot baths
and then subjecting it to the drastic thermic
shock of immersion in cold water (in the
frigidarium, commonly a real swimming
pool or piscina). Public and private thermae
are found at both Portus and Lucus Feroniae, as in all Roman towns, great and small.
However, the differences identified between
the two sites (an urban port vs. a rural town)
and between the two necropolises (rich vs.
poor) su gest a distinction also in terms of
social ha its (including the use of thermae)
between the two grou s of inhabitants. The
thermic traumas proc fuced in a damp environment as a consequence of frequenting
thermae are like1 to have produced different percentages o A.E. in the samples under
examination.
E
P
c P k
%
P
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Studies were carried out on 258 acoustic
meatuses belonging to 149 individuals, subdivided accordin to sex and a e at death. In
the case of Isola acra, a samp e of 83 crania
was selected by means of state of preservation, absence of pathological manifestations,
and age at death (over 18-20 years). For
Lucus Feroniae, the same criteria were followed in selecting a sample of 71 cranial
remains.
8
7
256
G. MANZI ET AL
Sex and age determinations were carried
out in accordance with standard criteria (Ascadi and Nemeskeri, 1970; Buikstra and
Mielke, 1985; Ferembach et al., 1979; Krogman and &an, 1986). For the Isola Sacra
sam le, where it proved impossible to reassem le the individual skeletal elements
(Manzi et al., 19891, the determination of sex
and age was carried out solely on the basis of
cranial morphology. In this case, diagnoses
of sex were made independently b two observers using the index introduced y Acsadi
and Nemeskeri (1970, pp. 87-91; cf. Ferembach et al., 1979). The two observers agreed
in 92.8% of cases. For the remaining 6 cases a
third determination was made and the majorit opinion adopted. In estimating a e at
deat , examination of the synostosis o cranial sutures was backed up by comparative
evaluation of dental wear in accordance with
Miles (1963) and Brothwell (1981).
For the identification of A.E., both the
meatuses of each individual (when present)
were examined with regard to the morphology, number, degree of expression, and position of the exostoses (Gregg and Bass, 1970;
Gre g and McGrew, 1970; Harrison, 1951;
Hrdficka, 1935; Roche, 1964). Particular
care was em lo ed in the observation of
morphologca c aracteristics providing a
basis for macroscopic distinction between
exostoses and osteomata (DiBartolomeo,
1979; Filipo et al., 1982; Graham, 1979;
Sheehy, 1958).
i
g
f
K
PE
RESULTS
All the exostoses observed resent the
same macrosco ic morphology ( ig. 21, being
characterized) ! l y a very broad base and a
articular1 compact ivoy-like outer layer.
{his morpgolo , couple with the invarithe exostoses in the medial
able location oi@
tract of the auditory canal and the fre uency
of bilateral or multiple occurrence, ru es out
the presence of osteomata in the two samples.
As Table 1shows, A.E. were found at Isola
Sacra in 22 acoustic meatuses belonging to
15 individuals, all of them males (31.3%;
N = 48), but were com letely absent in the
female sample (N = 35f At Lucus Feroniae,
only two males resented exostoses, the
samples examine being comparable in size
with those of Isola Sacra (29 males and 42
females). Further analysis was therefore
limited to the male sample of Isola Sacra,
which was divided into three age groups
8
7
if
(adult, mature, and senile, following Vallois
[1960]) in order to ascertain the relationship
between the individual’s age and the presence, degree of expression, number, and position of exostoses.
A greater frequency of individuals with
A.E. is found in the older age groups (Table
1).While the degree of expression is always
slight in the adult group, the other two
groups present higher degrees of expression
with frequencies above 30% (Table 2). An
increase associated with age is also observed
in the number of exostoses (Table 3) and in
bilateral cases. Finally, in the senile group
(usually in multi le cases) an increase in
exostoses is foun on the superior and inferior margins, which are rarely affected in the
other age groups (Table 4).
Considerin the group of individuals affected by A . 8 as a whole, a low degree of
expression and single exostoses prove to be
more frequent (66.7% and 53.4%, respectively) than more substantial exostotic formations (Tables 2,3).
The position occupied by each individual
exostosis within the meatus was scored as
anterior osterior, superior, or inferior
(Table 4j. $he adult group showed a predominance of the posterior position over the others (5/6 cases). The anterior and posterior
positions proved most fre uent in the mature group while similar 9;requencies were
found for all four positions in the senile
oup. No difference a peared between the
Eft and right sides wit respect to exostosis
location.
The exostoses observed were mostly bilateral. Out of the ten crania with both acoustic
meatuses preserved, seven had bilateral exostoses. In these cases, the number of formations and their degree of expression were
found to be equal on both sides. Moreover,
not counting individuals with on1 one preserved meatus, the male sample rom Isola
Sacra, as a whole, revealed no predominance
of either side (23.1% right and 20.5% left;
CQ
K
F
N
=
39).
DISCUSSION
The male sample from Isola Sacra thus
reveals: 1) an incidence of A.E. per individual of over 30%, one of the highest reported
in the literature (cf. Alciati et al., 1981,
tables 3-9; Hauser and De Stefano, 1989,
table 45; Kennedy, 1986, tables 1 3 ) ; 2) a
marked redominance of bilateral cases, as
is norma ly found in samples with high fre-
P
INCIDENCE OF AUDITORY EXOSTOSES IN IMPERIAL. ROME
257
Fig. 2. The specimen 24 (NIS.47a)from the Isola Sacra sample, showing a single auditory
exostosis (posterior,grade 3) within the right acoustic meatus.
quencies (DiBartolomeo, 1979; HrdliEka,
1935; Roche, 1964); 3) an increase in the
number of individuals affected by A.E. in the
higher age groups; and 4) again in the higher
age groups, a greater degree of expression
and an increase in cases of multiple exostoses and in the number of positions (other
than the posterior) at which exostoses occur
within the meatus. Taken together, these
elements support the hypothesis of an acquired genesis of exostoses in the male population of Isola Sacra.
The frequency of the male sample of Isola
Sacra also differs sharply from those hith-
erto recorded for samples (including coastal
populations) of Italian origin (e.g., Ardito,
1975; Cosseddu et al., 1979;Vecchi, 1969) as
well as from those of the female sample from
the same necropolis and the samples (male
and female) from Lucus Feroniae. The hyothesis may thus be advanced that the
ftalian samples hitherto examined-albeit
falling within the risk latitude indicated by
Kenned (1986bdo not belong to PO ulations w o exploited either marine or resh
water resources through diving or other activities involving direct contact with cold
water.
B
F
258
G. MANZI ET AL
TABLE I . Incidence of auditory exostoses in Isola Sacra and Lucus Feroniae (male samples)
Isola Sacra
Individuals
0
%
N
Ageclasses
N
Adult
Mature
Senile
Total
18
4
22
8
48
8
3
15
22.2
36.4
37.5
31.3
Meatuses
O
5
12
5
22
31
38
13
82
TABLE 2. Male sample from Isola Sacra: degree of
expression of the exostoses
Age classes
N
Adult
Mature
Senile
Total
4
8
3
15
Grade 1
0
W
4
4
2
10
100.0
50.0
66.7
66.7
Grade 2 _ Grade_
3
~
0
W
0
%
0
3
0
3
0
37.5
1
1
20.0
2
12.5
33.3
13.3
As the introduction to the present paper
recalls, there is general agreement concerning the relationship between the formation
of exostoses and prolonged exposure to cold
water. Behavioral differences (exploitation
of environmental resources, social habits,
and so on) among and within
may therefore be reflected in di
dences of A.E.For example, a
between the higher incidence of exostoses in
the male sex and factors of cultural nature
has been suggested with regard to water
sports (DiBartolomeo, 1979; Filipo et al.,
1982; Seftel, 1977; Van Gilse, 1938) and
activities involving immersion in water or
contact with the sea (Frayer, 1988; Kennedy,
1986; Roche, 1964). Conversely, in populations with documented shellfish-gathering
activities carried out by women, the incidence of A.E.has proved to be confined to
the female population alone (Pietrusewsky,
1984).
In the case under examination, the different incidences found between the two populations and between the sexes (for Isola
Sacra) again raise questions bound up with
the historico-archaeolo 'cal data available
for the two burial groun s and the associated
towns. In this connection, central importance is assumed b the social extraction
of the human samp es under examination
and their characterization in archaeological
terms. Certain h potheses may be tentatively ruled out. Jarticularly, there appear
f
Y
Lucus Feroniae
Individuals
Meatuses
N
O
9%
N
0
(XI
16.1
31.6
38.5
26.8
0
2
0
2
10
18
1
29
17
31
2
50
11.1
6.9
0
2
0
2
'R,
6.5
4.0
TABLE 3. Male sample from Isola Sacra: number of
exostoses per meatus
One
_
Ageclasses
N
0
Adult
Mature
Senile
Total
4
8
3
15
3
3
2
8
Multiple
_Two
_ _ _
_
0
'XI
0
W
%I
75.0
37.5
66.7
53.4
4
25.0
50.0
0
5
33.3
1
0
1
1
2
12.5
33.3
13.3
to be no grounds for claiming contact with
the sea as a factor influencing the sam le of
the inhabitants of Portus documented ere,
which would entail the presence of a high
proportion of sailors, fishermen, and those of
similar professions (e. urinatores or divers
emplo ed in the port; kvolini, 1986) among
those uried in the necropolis. This is not
archaeological1 documented for the sector
of the necropo is that furnished the specimens examined, which a parently sample a
middle-class urban popu ation.
The hypothesis best satisfying the known
data appears rather to involve discrimination in social terms between the wealthy,
urbanized community of Portus and the Lucus Feroniae sample, composed as it is of
manual laborers and peasants of humble
extraction. Habitual use of thermae as a key
factor in the etiolo of A.E.,as mentioned
above, appears fort e moment more likely in
the case of the middle-class sample of Isola
Sacra. Converse1 , in the case of the poor
sample of Lucus eroniae, the use of public
baths may reasonably be regarded as infrequent, to say the least.
Wh then, are A.E.not found in the female
samp e from Isola Sacra? The scanty historical documentation concerning differential
use of thermal baths by the female sex seems
not to invalidate the hypothesis that the
male exostoses reflect bathing practices.
Women are known to have frequented public
baths less than men-though this would de-
R
1
P
P
r
P
P
259
INCIDENCE OF AUDITORY EXOSTOSES IN IMPERIAL ROME
TABLE 4. Male sample from Isola Sacra: position of the exostoses
Anterior
Posterior
Age classes
N
0
%
0
Adult
Mature
Senile
Total
6
20
7
5
6
1
83.3
30.0
14.3
33
12
36.4
Superior
Inferior
9%
0
%
0
%
9
2
16.7
45.0
28.6
0
3
3
15.0
42.9
0
2
1
10.0
14.3
12
36.4
6
18.2
3
9.1
1
pend on the city, the class of the woman, the
artly financed out of funds made available
period and cultural fashion, and the type and gy the Italian M.U.R.S.T. (40%).
structural characteristics of the baths
LITERATURE CITED
(Manderscheid, 1988). It is also known that
J (1970)History of human life
Acsadi
G,
and
Nemeskeri
the utilization of the different chambers of
span and mortality. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado.
the thermae (public baths) and of the balnea Adams WS (1951a) The etiology of swimmers’ exostoses
(private baths open to the ublic) could also
of the external auditory canals and of associated
changes in hearing. Part I. J. Laryngol. Otol. 65133vary in relation to sex: or instance, the
153.
contact with cold water was rather proWS (1951b)The etiology of swimmers’ exostoses
longed for men who were used to swim in the Adams
of the external auditor canals and of associated
frigidarium, and, more generally speaking,
changes in hearing. Part ?I. J. Laryngol. Otol. 65:232the women’s bath is thought to have been a
250.
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Civolani F (1981)A proposito di variabili anatomiche
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54:115-139.
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P
f
P
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We should like to thank the Soprintendenza Archeologica di Ostia (Isola Sacra)
and the Soprintendenza Archeologica per
1’EtruriaMeridionale (Lucus Feroniae), who
kindly made available the skeletal material
here examined. Particular thanks are due to
colleagues Ida Baldassarre, Gian Franco
Gazzetti, Chiara Morselli, and Franca Taglietti, who were responsible for excavatin
the necropolises-skeletal samples inch ed-and contributed t o the ori inal and bibliographical aspects of archaeo ogical com onents of the present paper. We thank Pau T.
Metcalfe for his care in translatin our
manuscript into English. The researc was
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near, exostoses, induced, auditors, roman, communities, rural, imperia, romeo, behavior, urban, society, evidence, coeval
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