close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Book Review Advances in Chemical Physics Vol. 50. Dynamics of the Excited State. By K. P

код для вставкиСкачать
ganize the applications volumes according to industry, e. g.
energy, food, pharmaceutical, waste utilization, etc. But
perhaps such an approach was considered and found not
to be practical.
Volume 1 starts with a review by A . Kockova-Kratochvilovu of the taxonomy of animal, plant and microbial viruses as well as the prokaryotes and the eukaryotes. C. L.
Cooney provides an overview of the methods of measurement of microbial growth and of how the nutritional and
environmental factors might affect such growth. H . W.
Doelle devotes nearly 100 pages to a presentation of the
basic pathways through which the microorganisms derive
energy for growth and maintenance. J. F. Martin and P. Liras extend this topic to the formation of secondary metabolites.
Volume 1 also contains well-presented contributions on
the principles of genetics (R. P. Elander, A . L. Demainj
and the techniques used in its practice: Mutation (G. K .
Jacobson), Hybridization ( K . Esser, U. Stahl), Genetic Engineering (A. Piihler, W. Heumann). K . Nakayama and A .
Dietz present compIementary chapters on the sources and
the maintenance of cultures in industry. Y. Vossius introduces the topic of patent protection in this special sector.
A. Fiechter reviews the batch and continuous culture of
cells, appropriately including plant and animal cells. I
agree with this author that plant and animal cell biotechnology will continue to gain in importance and I hope that
one of the future volumes will devote more attention to
this topic.
Volume 3 is the first of two volumes devoted to microbial products. The microbial cell mass as the product in itself is discussed in four chapters on “Biomass” and five
chapters on “Special Applications.”
E. Oura begins the subject by considering carbohydrates
as the substrate (glucose, molasses, spent sulfite liquor,
whey, starch). A . Einsele extends the discussion to higher
alkanes as substrates. U.Faust and P. Prave deal with methane and methano1 as substrates. The production of phototrophic microalgae is thoroughly analyzed by A . Richmond. There then follows an illustrated account of the cultivation of Edible mushrooms (fungi) by F. Zaraiil and K .
Grabbe.
The “special applications” considered in this volume
are: Starter cultures for milk and meat processing (R. K .
Robinson). Microbes for the improvement of plant and soil
health (H.-J. Rehm, B. Novak), Nitrogen fixation and the
production of legume inoculants (H. Maretkovaj, and The
in-vitro and in-vivo production of microbial insecticides (R.
J. Quinlan, S . G. Lisansky). These chapters should be considered brief introductions to the topics. The remainder of
volume 3 deals with products other than cell mass. Perhaps
the most comprehensive chapter of these two volumes is
the one on ethanol fermentations (N. Kosaric, A . Wieczorek, G . P. Cosentino, R . J. Magee, J. E. Prenosil). An overview of acetic acid and citric acid as microbial products is
presented by H . Ebner and H . Follman and by M. Rohr, C.
P. Kubicek, and J. Kominek. The latter group of authors
also briefly introduces the production of gluconic acid.
Another brief presentation is on the production of lactic
acid ( K . Buchtaj. This author introduces several other organic acids that could become of interest depending upon
the trend in world oil prices, e. g . itaconic acid, malic acid,
and oxogluconic acid.
The production of amino acids by microbes and by enzymatic synthesis is reviewed by K . Soda, H . Tanaka, and
N. Esaki. I . W . Sutherland discusses strain development,
production, product recovery, and the uses of extracellular
894
polysaccharides. Microbial emulsifiers and de-emulsifiers
are dealt with by N . Kosaric, N . C. C . Gray, and W. L.
Cairns. G . W. Barnard and D . 0. Hall conclude volume 3
with a discussion of the production of ethanol and methane from biomass.
In some of the chapters, the authors seem to have been
forced to sacrifice depth of coverage in order to mention
more of the microbes and the products reported in the literature. There is some redundance. For example, aspects
of ethanol production, as well as a few points on microorganism growth, are covered in more than one chapter. It is
incumbent upon the reader to integrate these. However, I
do not see this as a major problem. In a diverse field such
as biotechnology, a comprehensive but fully unified treatment would be an extremely difficult endeavor.
Since the series is intended to be a comprehensive treatise, the authors of future volumes may wish to include information on product uses, costs and production volumes.
Not all the authors of volume 3 have done this. Comments
on competing production schemes both inside and outside
biotechnology would also help the reader gain a better perspective of the field.
The only other concern is that the very nature of a series
such as this dictates that several years would pass before
the entire series is published. This creates a time lag in the
information presented and makes an integration of the
topic more difficult. And, the detailed listing of the contents would not be known until much later. Despite all
this, the editors and the publisher are to be sincerely commended for undertaking this formidable task.
Where might this series find a place among its possible
surrogates such as Kirk and Othmer’s Encyclopedia of
Chemical Techno[ogy (Wiley Interscience), Advances in
Biochemical Engineering (Springer), Microbial Technology
and Annual Reports on Fermentation Processes (Academic
Press), and Topics in Enzyme and Fermentation Technology
(Wiley) etc. should become clearer after further volumes of
this work are released. These two volumes suggest the
place would be an honorable one.
Bhavender P. Sharma [NB 595 IE]
Corning Glass Works, Corning NY (USA)
Advances in Chemical Physics, Vol. 50. Dynamics of the Excited State. By K. P. Lawley. John Wiley & Sons, ChiChester 1982. vii, 667 pp., bound, & 35.90.
The purpose of the series “Advances in Chemical Physics” is to provide the reader with access to those areas of
chemical physics in which he himself does not specialize
but which are of interest to him. The rapid development
taking place in many areas and the abundance of original
publications create a great need for review articles from
the pens of experts. The present volume fulfills this need in
an exemplary manner, as does the series as a whole.
In the last few years laser spectroscopy has opened up
new vistas in the experimental investigation of excited molecular states. Parallel to this, new theoretical models have
been developed. The present volume contains nine reports
concerning important areas which impressively cover the
experimental and theoretical progress, in particular in the
study of the excited states of small molecules and of the interaction of such molecules with each other and with the
field of radiation.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 22 (1983) No. 11
M . A . A . Clyne and I . S . McDermid report on laser-induced fluorescence as a method of investigating the electronically excited states of small molecules. Much has
been learned about the dynamic and spectroscopic properties of small molecules and radicals, which have been excited under precise, defined conditions, by means of tunable, narrow band dye lasers. The experimental technique is
also comprehensively described. As much progress has
also occurred in the area of multiphonon excitation with
infrared quanta. D. S . King reports on chemical reactions
influenced by such excitation, molecular dynamics, energy
transport and distribution of excitation energy among the
products following multiquantum infrared excitation.
The subject of the contribution by A . M . F. Lau is laser
predissociation and autoionization by photons. S . R .
Leone discusses the results of single photon ionization and
dissociation of molecules. The distribution of the endproducts, the dissociation time, the fluorescence polarization and the angular distribution of the products allow a
detailed insight into the primary photochemical processes.
Excited metal atoms can pass on their energy in collision
with molecular gases. W . H . Breckenridge and H . Umemoto
report on this area which is of such great importance for
laser technology. I. V. Hertel’s contribution is concerned
with the energy exchange between electronic and vibrational excitation. The measurement of effective cross sections, angular distributions and polarization are discussed.
Exclusively or mainly theoretical methods and results
are discussed by M . Quack (The Reaction Dynamics and
Statistical Mechanics of the Production of Highly Excited
States by High Intensity Infrared Radiation), by D. M .
Hirst (Calculation of the Potential Surfaces of Excited
States) and T. A . Brunner and D . Priichard (Fitting Laws
for the Treatment of Rotation Inelastic Collisions).
Taken as a whole this book allows an insight into the basic concepts and into the latest results in some areas of molecular physics where-because of the advent of the laser-there have been especial advances in recent years. The
individual contributions are well written, fit quickly and
understandably into the general scheme, and include a tremendous number of literature references. Such books are
of inestimable value to the molecular physicist and the
physical chemist. The production is excellent, the price acceptable.
H. C. Wolf [NB 582 IE]
Physikalisches Institut
der Universitat Stuttgart
Electrical Properties of Polymers. Edited by D. A . Seanor.
Academic Press, New York 1982, xi, 379 pp., bound, $
52.00.
The tendency of publishers to assemble a range of individual reports of varying quality and with only a slight
connection with each other and to market them is unfortunately increasing. This book is an example of the abuse.
In the first chapter D . A . Seanor gives a cursory review
of electrical phenomena, measuring techniques and the
electrical properties of various material classes and states
of aggregation of polymers, under the title “Electrical
Conduction in Polymers”. The polymers with metal-like
conduction (e.g . the polyacetylenes), which are decisive in
recent work, are only mentioned here, as in the rest of the
book, in passing. The section on ionic conduction in polymers is interesting, although, here too, there is no menAngew. Chern. Int. Ed. Engl. 22 (1983) No. I 1
tion of the PEO salt complexes which are relevant for electrochemical applications.
It is characteristic of the quality of the article and of the
book in general that the problem of the connection between the electrical properties and morphology of partially
crystalline polymers are discussed in terms of an outdated
model proposed by Flory (not Florey as given in the legend
to Fig. lo!) dating from the year 1953!
Under the ambitious title “Structure and Charge Generation in Organic Molecular Self Assemblies”, J . H. Perlstein deals in Chapter 2 (30 pp.) solely with thiapyrylium
salts dispersed in polycarbonate. It becomes clear that not
even the structure of the interstitial complex has been unequivocally established.
The topic “Photophysical Processes, Energy Transfer
and Photoconduction in Polymers” is treated by R . F. Cozzens in ca. 30 pages in Chapter 3. Without going into details there is a very elementary introduction, attended by a
plethora of historical citations concerning the photoconductivity of polymers and its technical application.
Chapter 4 (80 pp.) by V. Y. Merrit, entitled “Photovoltaic Phenomena in Organic Solids”, devotes all of 11 lines
to the subject of polymers. The author’s remark that polymers behave in a very complex manner is diverting in the
context of this book.
The subject matter of the 5th chapter by H. Carr (20 pp.)
has been treated several times recently in other monographs and progress reports. The same applies to the remaining chapters of the book; in some cases similar reviews have recently been published elsewhere by the same
authors. An example is G. M . Sessler’s contribution “Polymeric Electrets” in Chapter 6 (40 pp.). The two remaining chapters deal with “Contact Electrification of Polymers” ( D . K . Davies, 40 pp.) and with “Dielectric Breakdown Phenomena in Polymers” (P. Fisher, 45 pp.).
Whoever buys this book will at least enjoy its solid getup
and the careful work of the bookbinder.
Gerhard Wegner [NB 591 IE]
Institut fur Makromolekulare Chemie
der Universitat Freiburg
Anthracycline Antibiotics. Edited by H. S . El Khadem. Academic Press, New York 1982. xii, 285 pp., bound, $
25.00.
This volume is a compilation of the presentations at the
Anthracycline Symposium held in New York in August
1981. The choice of topics takes account of the interdisciplinary character of anthracycline chemistry-ranging
from pharmacology through microbiology to total synthesis.
In the first report Narayanan et al. present the National
Cancer Institute’s (NCI) screening programme for anthracycline derivatives. Besides an introduction to the evaluation of screening results a good summary is given of the
range of substances (ca. 400) prepared to date by derivatization of daunorubicin. Scientists not working in the field
will note that the NCI’s screening results occasionally differ from those of other groups. Next Arcamone et al. report
on the results of investigating doxorubicin (adriamycin).
The group from Farmitalia has made important contributions, both in the area of structure effectivity relations and
in the isolation and synthesis of new glycosides. It is sufficient here to mention the syntheses first reported of a
furanoglycoside and of enantio-4-demethoxydaunorubicin
which, as expected, is biologically inactive. T. Oki summarizes the work of the Sanraku Ocean group in his contribution. This Japanese company is to be thanked for the
895
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
290 Кб
Теги
advanced, chemical, book, physics, state, dynamics, excited, vol, review
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа