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Book Review Advances in Inorganic Chemistry and Radiochemistry Vol. 5. Edited by H. J. Emelus and A. G

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founded 75 years ago after the discovery of phenacetin. The
first group, “Pharmacology”, is the most extensive. A substantial part of the papers report on drugs with effects on
the nervous system. Other contributions include the application of the Mann-Whitney test to the examination of pharmacological activities. In the field of chemotherapy, reports are
given on thiochromes with schistomicidal activity and 8hydroxyquinoline derivatives with activity against Trypanosoma criizi infections. A series of articles deals with the
production, properties, and activities of semisynthetic penicillins, e . g . the preparation of 6-aminopenicillanic acid by enzymatic cleavage of penicillin G. In the salicyl anilide series,
parallelism between cestocidal activity and the uncoupling
of oxidative phosphorylation was observed. One of the
contributions of the virus research group describes the
cultivation of the foot-and-mouth-disease virus in kidneycell cultures for obtaining antigen. Three contributions are
concerned with the synthesis of‘ ethyleneiminoquinones,
their toxicity and effect o n tumor cells. Chemical papers on
a new vitamin A synthesis and a determination of the vitamin
B12 components in injectable liver extract follow. The 47 contributions provide a clear picture of the range and intensity of
research in the laboratories of Bayer’s pharmaceutical division.
Several contributions not only describe special results, but
also sketch the current status of the knowledge and problems
of the fields concerned, so that they offer information to a
wider circle of interested scientists.
M . Kiese [NB 190/83 IE]
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry and Radiochemistry,Vol. 5.
Edited by H . J. Emel6us and A . C. Slmrpe. Academic
Press Inc., New York 1963. 1st Edit., 1X + 429 pp.,
numerous illustrs. and tables, linen, S 14.50.
The book “Modern Aspects of Inorganic Chemistry” by H.
J. Enzclgus and J . S. Anderson published for the first time in
!938 was received with great enthusiasm by professional
colleagues, research chemists, and even by students, for it
gave short pregnant summaries of va:ious special fields of the
then current iesesrch in inorganic chemistry, called attention
to deficiencies and pyobable errors, and provided numerous
directives and incentives. It is clear lhat this undertaking,
which was started under the influence of the youthful zeal
and dedicatior! of the main author, would surpass his capacities as the extent of his non-scientific duties incl-eased. The
only alternative available for him was to act as editor of a
series of monographs in which prominent research chemists
would report on the newest developisents in their particular
fie!ds. It was with this background that the series on “Advances in Inorganic Chemistry and Radiochemistry” was
commenced in 1959; the fifth volume of the series has now
appeared. In the first five years of its existence, the series has
achieved high recognition, and it is probably nowhere
lacking in institutes dealing with problems of inorganic
chemistry or in the libraries of academic teachers and research
workers associated with the fields discussed
It is perhaps seemly, now that 39 articles covering about
2000 pages of text have appeared, to give a critical survey of
the complete work. By applying a toose classification, eleven
monographs on the chemistry of non-metals, six on the
chemistry of complexes, three on organometallic compounds,
three on structural chemistry, eight on nuclear chemistry and
radiochemistry, three on physical inorganic chemistry, and
five o n inorganic systems in unusual states (fused oxides,
gaseous hydroxides, etc.) can be differentiated ; naturally
there are often no sharp distinctions between the individual
groups of topics. Striking omissions include discourses on
systems and structures of metals and alloys, the chemistry
of semiconductors, and the inert gases. These lapses will
certainly be compensated in later volumes.
There are a few factors which have an unfavorable influence
on the quality of the series. For example, there is generally
an interim of two years between compilation of the manuscripts and the appearance of the printed volumes, and
102
articles on rapidly advancing subjects give the impression
of being outdated despite the insertion of important addenda
during proof - reading. Again, the editor may perhaps not
always have been able to secure the sexices of the most
knowledgeable experts or at least of the most gifted authors
on ccrtain subjects for the “Advances”; there are pronounced
diffexnces i n the quality of the individual monographs. It
detracts from the homogeneity of the work that the editor
has tended to allow the authors to describe their fields from
their own viewpoint and has handled the articles wiih
magnanimous tolerance: nomenclature, physical symbols,
etc. often vary from monograph to monograph. Furthermore, restriction of the pages allocated to each monograph
to approximately 50 sometimes incites the authors to communicate only superficial or abridged information on lhei:
fields. The expert soon recognizes [hat such monographs
cannot be complete, while on the othei hand, those who wish
to become acquainted with .only the main themes of 2
specialized field are shied off by the maze of abundant and
disordered information. In effect, therefore, the “Advances
in Inorganic Chemistry and Radiochemistry” are not esseatially different from review journals. The hope that the
“Modern Aspects of Inorganic Chemistry” would evolve
into a promising 3000-page textbook of specialized inorganic
chemistry in the “Advances” series seems as far from fulfillment as that of the timely appearance of updated - or at
least only three years outdated - volumes cf Gmelin’s Handbook. It appears as if we shall probably have to forbear any
survey over the whole of modern iaorganic chemistry, even
only in broad outline, and n o one is spared the task of
undertaking strenllous literature searches for information on
more limited research topics.
The principle benefit of the “Advances” is to be culled from
their use for preparing lecture series on specialized subjects
and fo: preliminary literature work for commencement i n new
fields. Careful perusal of the ariicles will call so many gaps,
discrepancies, ar,d parallels in our knowledge to the attention
of the rcader that many may feel inclined to start off theii
own research studies at such p2ints.
Volume 5 of “Advances in Inorganic Chemistry and Radiochemistry” contains eight monographs: 1. “The Stabilization
of Qxidation States of the Transition Metals” (40 pp.. 77
references) by R . S. Nyholm and M . L. Tobe, an article
written with fluent (too fluent?) a style; 2. “Oxides and
Oxyfluorides of the Halogens” (49 pp., 211 refs.), in
which M . Schneisser and K . BrSindle have incorporated
numerous unpublished results from their own and other
research into a chapter o n classical preparative chemistry [here inclusion of the compounds 03CIOF and 0 2 N O F in
the treatment would have been desirable; moreover, the
krypto-ionic approach adopted, whereby compounds such as
ClONO2 (“chloronitrate”, which has a CI-0 bond) or
ClNOz (“nitryl chloride”, which has an N-CI bond) are
written simply as C1No3 and N02CI, is somewhat confusing);
3. “The Chemistry of Gallium” (44 pp.. 310 refs.,) in which
N . N. Greenwood describes unusual chemical properties of
this element, but principally its adducts with halides; 4.
“Chemical Effects of Nuclear Activation in Gases and Liquids” (80 pp., 349 refs.) by I. G . CampbeN, for those
interested in radiochemistry ; 5. “Gaseous Hydroxides”,
where 0. Glemser and H . G. Wendlandt give a supreme
description of hydroxides of Li, Na, Be, B, Al, Si, Zn, Mo,
and W in the gas phase at high temperatures (up to 20OO0C);
6. “The Borazines” (47 pp., 197 refs.) by E. K. Mcllon and
J . J. Lagowski, where about 200 derivatives of the borazole
ring system [the nomenclature preferred by these authors,
viz. “borazines”, is just as trivial as the name “borazoles”
and is not derived systematically] are described, stressing the
differences between the aromatic system of benzene and that
of borazole; opinions are expressed which appear to be
derived more from studies of the pertinent literature and
from theoretical estimations than from the authors’ own
experimental work; 7. “Decaborane-14 and its Derivatives”
(39 pp., 88 refs.) by M . F. Hawthorne is a stimulating and
informative chapter, whose length for the description of a
Angew. Chert?.internat. Edit./ Vol. 4 (1965)
No. I
single compound shows the enormous development of boron
hydride chemistry; and finally 8. “The Structure and Reactivity of Organophosphorus Compounds” (52 pp., 192 refs.)
by R . F. Hudson, which ought t o interest the organic
chemist more than the inorganic or organometallic chemist.
Without wishing to depreciate the value of the other contributions, the reviewer finds that the treatises by Schmeisser,
Gleniser, and Hrrwthornc. will prove to be most the fruitful
reading for the inorganic chemist, for whom the series is
actually intended. The quality of this fifth volume is not only
in the same high class as that of its predecessors, but it can
compete favorably with the best of them.
A few errors might be quoted in ccnclusion. Page 43, line 3:
04F2 is not an oxide; page 5 1 : read C13Ti-CIG- and CIO -CIS+
instead of C13Ti-CI- and CIO-CI-; page 63 : the rearrangement equilibrium OzNNOz + NOANOS is incorrectly
formulated; page 66, line 17: FC103 was prepared in a pure
state for the first time i n 1952 by Engelbrecht (ref. 52); Bode
(1951) formulated his product as FOCIO,, but he was
actually dealing with a mixture of FCIOl and FCIO3; page 69,
line 29: O3CIF and O3CIO- are not isosteiic; page 219,
Figure 3: there should be ,E instead of OH; page 268, line 14:
(R-C=H-NBRH)3
is inconceivable; page 274, line 21 :
potassiun thiocyanate is K3[H=C=S]s, not K[CNS] (=
thiofulminate); the reaction of-KNCS with >BCI can lead
only to >B-W= or /‘B-s-,- never to )B-C = bonds.
U . Wonnogut
[NB 300/159 I€]
Neutronenaktivierung als analytisches Hilfsmittel (Neutron
Activation as a n Analytical Tool). By Werner Schulze, in
co-operation with W. Bock-Werthmunn. Vol. 50 of the
series “Die chemische Analyse” edited by G . Jrrnder. Ferdinand Enke Verlag, Stuttgart 1962. 1st Edit., X + 323 pp.,
28 figs., numerous tables, linen, DM 79.- (about $20.00).
Following a short introduction explaining the principle and
modes of application of activation analysis, the authors
describe the methods of p;oducing neutrons, the nuclear reactions that can be effected by neutrons, and procedures for
irradiating samples with neutrons. Further chapters deal with
modes of decay, scaling methods, and the principles of radiochemical separations. The second part of the book contains important measuring data and an extensive collection
(with 1010 references) of known applications of activation
analysis.
Despite the vast amount of mateiial covered, the authors have
succeeded in giving a lucid representative survey of the field.
The diversity of the various aspects of the subject naturally
requires fuller consideration of certain topics. Thus, for example, the counting methods might have been discussed more
critically in order to help users of the book to decide which
method best fits his particular needs. A more intensive discussion of the precision of the analytical methods would have
been useful. I n addition, some corrections are necessary; for
example, the activity measured for an infinitely thick sample
is proportional to the specific activity, and not to the weight
of the sample. Despite these slight flaws, the book can be recommended as an introduction to the methods of activation
analysis. The book contains many tables and these will make
it a valuable work of reference for the specialist in this field.
H. Miinzel [NB 2531111 IE]
Non-stoichiometric Compounds. Edited by L. Mundelcorn.
Academic Press, New York-London 1964. 1st Edit., xiii +
674 pp., numerous illustrations and tables, linen, $22.50.
This monograph surveys the properties of organic and inorganic compounds having slight deviations from stoichiometric proportions of their constituent atoms a n d of compounds having no definite connections with the laws of
stoichiometry. The boundaries between these two groups are
naturally not always clear-cut. The first group includes numerous inorganic oxides and chalcogenides, the second group
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. 1 VoI. 4 (1965) 1 N o . I
includes inorganic addition, inclusion, and complex compounds, e . g . the zeolites. Organic representatives of the latter
group include some molecular compounds and adducts, e . g .
clathrates.
The book is divided up as follows. J . M. Robertson discusses
the analysis of the structures of these compounds using X-ray
diffraction methods. H . Eyring and D . Henderson consider
statistical thermodynamics and the theory of absolute rates
of reaction, particular attention being paid to non-stoichiometric compounds. A comprehensive survey of the lattice
structures of inorganic compounds that exhibit deviations
from stoichiometric composition is given by A . D . WcrdsIey.
0. M . Ktrtz and E. A. Gulbronserr report o n the dissolution
and occlusion of gases, particularly hydrogen, in metals. A
contribution by E. C. Subbcrrcro is devoted to the physical
properties of non-stoichiometric inorganic compounds. R . M.
Borrer reports on iorganic inclusion complexes. The next
three chapters are allotted to non-stoichiometric organic compounds, H. M . Powell reporting on clathrates, L. P . C.
Fetterly o n organic adducts, and F. R . Senti and S . R. Erfonder on hydrates of carbon. L. A . K. Stcrvely then deals with
the physical, thermodynamic, and chemical properties of organic molecular compounds in a chapter entitled “The Physics
and Chemistry of Inclusion Compounds”.
This book will stimulate the interest of everyone who works
with non-stoichiometric compounds.
H.-J. Engell [NB 248/106 1E]
From Vital Force to Structural Formulas. By 0. T. Benfey.
Classic Researches in Organic Chemistry. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston-New York-Atlanta-Geneva, Ill.-DallasPalo Alto 1964. 1st Edit., xi + 115 pp., 4 figs., paperback,
$1.95.
For the young student who finds that his textbooks present
only the curient position of his science, this book uses narrative style to impress upon him the answer to the question how
it came about that a particular structural formula was allotted
to each particular compound. The approach adopted in describing this evolution which culminates in the structural
formulae proposed by KekulG and Couper, is didactically very
clever: references to original publications, indications of
sources of more detailed discussions - mostly articles in the
Journal of Chemical Education - on particular questions for
the interested reader, and the author’s fluent mode of expression combine to give the beginnei the impression of participating in the construction of the edifice of organic chemistry upward from the foundations that were laid by the
“great” chemists. In a country like Germany, where the
history of science is regarded mainly as a “hobby” for
emeritus professors, it should be pointed out that the author
wrote his mansucript during a sabbatical year. The book
belongs to the series “Classic Researches in Organic Chemistry” edited by H . Hart. The idea of bringing the student
of chemistry into contact with classical investigations in this
way is certainly a most welcome innovation.
W. Ruske [NB 258/116 IE]
Fortschritte der Arzncimittelforschung (Advances in Drug
Research) Vol. 6. Edited by E. Jucker. Birkhluser Verlag,
Basel-Stuttgart, 1963. 1st Edit., 423 pp,. 35 illustr., nurnerous tables, h e n , D M 108.- (about $27.50).
Vol. 6 of this series once again contains detailed reviews o n
particular aspects of drug research. “Metabolism of drugs
and other foreign compounds by enzymatic mechanisms” is
reviewed by J . R . Gilette (60 pp.). The principal mechanisms
for the conversion of foreign substances in the body are first
described by means of instructive examples, and then the
agents, either inherent in or foreign to the body, which enhance or inhibit such metabolism, are discussed (413 references).
The next review, by R. V. Heinzelmun and J . Szemuszkcvicz,
is entitled “Recent studies in the field of indole compounds”
103
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