вход по аккаунту


Book Review Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry. Vol. 2. Edited by V. Gold

код для вставкиСкачать
implications. It would be only too easy for those who take no
direct part in this work t o lose sight of the broad lines of the
development, only too easy for interest in questions that are
currently in the forefront to diminish attention to other problems. It was therefore a good idea to recall to memory the
milestones of progress by republishing selected papers from
the years 1913-1963 in their original form. I t is, of course,
not to be expected that a complete picture can be reconstructed from 46 publications. The editor was himself aware of this
difficulty and has therefore writter introductory prefaces to
the five sections of the book (Biochemical Genetics, The Nature of Genetic Material, D N A Structure and Replication,
Genetic Recombination, The Function of Genetic Material),
these prefaces showing the relation between the papers that
are reproduced and giving references to papers that have not
been included.
Clearly n o selection can be made entirely without arbitrariness. The editor has been a t pams to find that paper - or at
least a very early report - which has opened the door to each
development: truly no light undertaking! Nevertheless, after
reading this book, one is tempted to think, in periphrasis of a
well-known phrase, that “la biochemie de l’heredite est une
corresponds to the facts in
science anglo-saxonne” many but not quite all respects.
Yet the book is to be recommended, in particular to the student seeking an introduction into biochemical genetics.
H. Griinewald [NB 450/303 IE]
Biochemistry of Phenolic Compounds. Edited by J . B. Hurborne. Academic Press, London-New York 1964. 1st Edit.
X 618pp., 1 plate, several illustrations, 30 tables, G 6.6.0d.
A combination of several factors, such as the improvement
of physical methods of extraction, the isolation and elucidation of complex organic substances, the revival by Birch of
Collie’s acetate theory, the introduction of labelling with
14C, and the development of enzymology and microbiology,
has led in the past 20 years to an enormous growth of interest
in phenolic compounds of natural origin. It is now recognized
that the phenols and their derivatives are not insignificant
end products of the natural processes, but sometimes play
an important part jn the animal or plant metabolism. There
was therefore a real need for a review of the biochemistry of
natural phenols.
The present book contains 14 chapters written by 17 experts
of world-wide renown. The subjects discussed include: the
structures and reactions of natural phenols (Thomson, 29 pp.),
methods used for the isolation and identification of phenols
from biological material (Seikel, 39 pp.), the occurrence of
phenolic aglycones (Harborne and Simmonds, 45 pp.) and
glycosides (Harborne, 36 pp.), the genetics of phenols (Alston, 30 pp.) and their metabolism in animals (WiNiums,
40 pp.) and plants (Towers 40 pp.), the biosynthesis of
phenolic compounds (Neish, 50 pp.) and of lignin and the
tannins (Brown, 33 pp.), the enzymology (Conn, 31 pp.) and
physiology (Siegelmym,16 pp.) of the biosynthesis of phenols,
the physiology and pharmacology of phenols in animals
(Ramwell, Sherratt, and Leonard, 48 pp.) and plants (Cruikshank and Perrin, 27 pp.), and finally the taste of phenol
glycosides in citrus fruits (Horowitz, 24 pp.).
The literature up to the end of June 1962 has been taken
into account in most cases. More than 2000 references and
2200 n a m s in the index testify to the value of this book as a
reference work. Almost 900 structural formulae, some 1IS0
entries in the subject index, and 950 names in the excellent
class index will be very useful in searches for informatjon.
The scope of the book is possibly rather narrow. Many
purely chemical model experiments in connection with biochemical problems would have merited some mention, and a
detailed, separate chapter o n phenolic alkaloids would have
been welcome. No mention is made of the giberellins.
In its present form, however, the book must be recommended
to the phytochemist, the taxonomist, and the plant physiologist, and in short, to all biochemists who are concerned with
phenolic natural products. J. M . Harkin [NB 445/280 IE]
The Oligosaccharides. By J. Stanck, H. b e r n l , and J. Paccik.
Academic Press, New York-London. and Publishing House
of The Czechoslovak Academy of Science, Prague 1965.
1st Edit., 567 pp., numerous tables, linen $ 21.-.
“The Monosaccharides” cll by Stane’k and his collaborators,
published in 1963, has now been followed by the second part
of the comprehensive monograph, also in English. As is
stated in the preface, this is not merely a translation of the
Czechoslovak edition that appeared in 1962, but has been
partly rewritten, with incorporation of publications up to the
middle of 1964.
All who are interested in oligosaccharides, whether as chemists, biochemists, or biologists, will be glad that the authors
have undertaken the tedious task of a general oversight of the
oligosaccharide material that has accumulated over the years
and have brought order into the myriad of results. The number of references - nearly 4500 - shows how thoroughly they
have gone to work.
Division into many short chapters with their own lists of ref erences greatly clarifies the text, and the very numerous
formulae are a further help. Comprehensive tabulation of
oligosaccharide classes, arranged according to molecular
size, type of linkage, and type of derivative, made it possible
to keep the text short and precise. Particularly noteworthy
are a comprehensive table of oligosaccharides of natural
origin and a collection of the oligosaccharides that have been
obtained by enzymic degration and synthesis. Chemical syntheses and reactjons of oligosaccharides and formation of
derivatives of this class of compound are treated exhaustively,
as are oligosaccharides with a basic or acidic function and
even such a recondite class of compounds as the glycosylinositols. Moreover, several chapters are devoted to chromatographicandelectrophoreticmethods of analysis and separation.
However, the section on enzymatic synthesis could have been
rather more detailed, for the benefit of the reader particularly
interested in this field. The kinetics of interaction of enzymes
and oligosaccharides are not mentioned, and it is only the
kinetic study of these complex reactions that throws light on
the simultaneous synthesis, hydrolysis, and resynthesis of the
various combinations of reactants. Further, the titles “Transglycosylation of maltose, isomaltose, lactose, etc.” are unhappily chosen; it would have been better to collect these
sections under the titles “Transglucosylation, transgalactosylation, etc.” The sections on the use of physical methods
such as X-ray analysis and infrared spectroscopy for structure
determination of oligosaccharides are also rather too short.
However, these matters and a few erroneous references can be
corrected in a new edition which will certainly be necessary
within a few years.
Finally it can be stated that this book will be a welcome help
to chemists and biologists. Together with “The Monosaccharides” it can be included among the most valuable reference works for carbohydrate chemistry.
J. Lehmann
[NB 455/308 IE]
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry. Vol. 2. Edited by
V. Gold. Academic Press. London-New York 1964. 1st
Edit., xii + 288 pp., numerous illustr., E 3.3.- (ca. $ 8.80).
The second volume of this series contains four sections : 1. C .
J. Collins, Isotopes and Organic Reaction Mechanisms
(84 pp.), 2. W. E. Whalley, Usebf Volumes of Activation for
Determining Isotope Reaction Mechanisms (65 pp.), 3 . H .
Zollinger, Hydrogen Isotope Effects in Aromatic Substitution (33 pp. , 4. A . P. Wou, The Reaction of Energetic Tritium and Carbon Atoms with Organic Compounds (87 pp.).
The first contribution describes in particular the less usual
applications of isotopes, e . g . the use of compounds with two
or more labels, the combination of isotope and kinetic experiments, and of isotope and stereochemical experiments. Fi_ _ __
[l] Cf. Angew. Chem. 77, 687 (1965); Angew. Chem. internat.
Edit. 4 , 723 (1965).
Angew. Chem. infernat. Edit.
/ Vol. 5 (1966) / No.
nally, kinetic isotope effects are discussed very critically,
mainly from the experimental standpoint.
In the second contribution the experimental methods and
theory are discussed in relation to a few types of reaction, and
then the potentialities of the method are outlined. However,
in this report little attention is paid to knowledge of reaction
mechanism that was derived by other methods and recorded
in the most recent literature. In the third section a narrower
complex of questions is treated, in this case exhaustively. In
the fourth contribution A . P. WoIf aimed at writing less a
review article than a (most successful) introduction to a field
that is highly interesting from a mechanistic point of view and
in which few “experts” have hitherto worked.
The editor has been particularly successful in obtaining as
contributors men who are leaders in their fields. They have
been equal to the demands made on them.
H. Simon [NB 4.541307 IE]
A New German/English Dictionary for Chemists. By H. H.
Nevifle, N. C. ~ohnston,and G. V. Boyd. Blackie &Son Ltd.,
London-Glasgow 1964. 1st Edit., xviii + 330 pp., 6 2.15.0
(about $ lo.-).
Elsevier’s Dictionary of Industrial Chemistry in Six Languages:
English,American/ French/Spanish/Italian/Dutch/German.
Compiled and arranged by A. F. Dorian. VoI. 1: A-0 and
Vol. 2: P-Z. Elsevier Publishing Comp., AmsterdamLondon-New York 1964. 1st Edit., 1220 pp.. D M 130.(about $ 33.-).
The first of the two works to be reviewed here is intended as
a German-English dictionary for chemists “with little knowledge of German”. It is adapted wholly to the needs of a user
to whom English is the mother tongue or almost as familiar.
Thus, for instance, the various English equivalents of the same
German word are not differentiated; since such differences are
known to an Anglo-Saxon that is justified in the authors’
view, but it will be regarded as a serious deficiency by the user
who does not come from an English-speaking country. Occasionally one gets the impression that the authors themselves have only “little knowledge of German”, as, for in
stance, when the first three of the four translations given for
“abfiillen” - “to empty, to draw off, to decar a, t o bottle” do
not correspond to the German word at all, but rather to ausgieoen, abziehen, and abgieDen, respectively; or when “Nachlag’ is ascribed the translatiohs relaxation, remission, diminution, reduction”, of which the first three mean Nachlassen.
Apart from this, the choice of the aboat 20000 German entries can be considered successful.
The last remark can unfortunately not be applied to the sixlanguage “Dictionary of Industrial Chemistry”. Manylanguage dictionaries have their own problems and are so
seldom satisfactory that it is difficult to understand why such
lexicons continue to appear. In the present case the difficulties begin with the fact that a two-volume work of 1220 pages
contains only 8426 entries. It cannot be considered that the
vocabulary of “industrial chemistry” is even approximately
exhausted thereby. Necessarily the choice has remained arbitrary. One might wish to know what an opacifier, a dialyser,
or a centrifual pump is in one of the six languages, but must
then turn to some other dictionary. The reviewer does not
find that “enjoyable” (to use a word from the Preface). Some
compensation for the small number of entries is provided by
short explanations given with each entry. In this way the two
volumes acquire the character of a reference work as well as
H. Griinewafd [NB 4491302 IE]
that of a dictionary.
Nobel Lectures, Physiology or Medicine 1922-1941. Elsevier
Publish. Comp., Amsterdam 1965. 1st Edit., xii + 548 pp.,
Dutch fl. 240.- @a. $ 66.-) (3 vol.).
This middle volumerll of the collection of Nobel lectures on
physiological or medical subjects contains much that has al[ l ] Review of 3rd volume: Angew. Chem. 77, 632 (1965); Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. 4, 617 (1965).
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. J VoI. 5 (1966) J No. 4
ready become history or a firm ingredient of our textbooks.
Precisely that lends it a particular interest, because the laudarions and the lectures of the prize winners lead us back to
the early days, to the time when, for instance, the effect of insulin therapy on diabetes mellitus was not self-evident (the
prize for the discovery of insulin was awarded to Bunting and
MacIeod in 1923), or to a time when we did not know that
typhus was carried from the sick to the healthy by lice and so
were delivered helpless to an epidemic. It was in 1928 that
the Frenchman Charles Nicolle received the Nobel prize for
tracking down the route of typhus infection in Tunisian hospitals and prisons. In his Nobel lecture he said: “If in 1914
we had been unaware of the mode of transmissio~of typhus,
and if infected lice had been imported into Europe, the war
would not have ended by a bloody viclory but in an unparalleled catastrophe, the most terrible in human history.”
The histoPy of scienee during the first half of the twentieth
century is to be found in a nitshell among the Nobel lectures
of this period; and it were hardly possible to relive this development more directly than by reading the lectures collected
in this book. The volume is therefore most warmly recommended to all scientists (not only to physiologists or doctors),
and particularly to the younger among us.
H. Griinewald [NB 448/301 IE]
Rodd’s Chemistry of Carbon Compounds. Edited by S. Coffky.
Vol. I, Part A: General Introduction, Hydrocarbons, Halogen Derivatives. Elsevier Publishing Comp., AmsterdamLondon-New York 1964.2nd Edit., xix +569pp., numerous
figs. and tables. Volume price Dutch fl. 80.- (about E 8.0.0).
The first edition of this new version of Richter’s “Chemie der
Kohlenstoffverbindungen” established itself during the last
decade as a valuable source for rapid, preliminary literature
Now, only two years after appearance of the last volume of
that work, we have the first three parts of the second edition.
The new edition of this encyclopaedic work - itself a valiant
effort in view of the rapid development of organic chemistry
- is considerably larger than the first. Volume I, previously
in two parts, is now issued in seven single volumes. It is
questionable whether such a systematic treatment of organic
chemistry, whose compilation necessarily takes several years,
can in the future compete with the numerous up-to-date
monographs and reviews.
The arrangement of subject matter in the new edition does not
differ materially from that in the old. The present Part I, A
(19 authors) is again divided into general and special chapters. Twelve short sections, some completely rewritten, include: theoretical organic chemistry (acid-base theory, H. D.
Springall; stereochemistry, I. G. M , Campbell; reaction mechanism, D. V. Banthorpe; free radicals and homolytic reactions, D. H. Hey and W. A. Waters; wave mechanics, W.
Byers-Brown) and methods (quantitative analysis, R . Belcher;
physical properties, W.D. Springall; crystallography, A . F.
Wells; spectrosmpy, I. E. Page; labeled compounds, H. R .
V. Amstein). Although the Iiterature is covered up to 1960
(partly up to 1963) the coverage of these important fields in
barely 350 pages is unsatisfactory and gives only superficial
informations; this applies especially to photochemistry
(1 page), and ESR (1112 pages), NMR (2 pages), and mass
spectromekry (’/a page).
In the three following special chapters syntheses, properties,
and reactions of the alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and their halogen derivatives are handled briefly and clearly. Numerous
references (up to 1962) and some short mechanistic indications make this part of the volume a welcome reference book
which, if one is not looking for the completeness of Beilstein,
will provide information rapidly on the most important new
results in organic chemistry.
It is to be hoped that the individual volumes of the second
edition will appear in rapid succession, for the “New Rodd”
will doubtless be a valuable and much used reference work in
every library.
K. Hafner [NB 470a/323 IE]
Без категории
Размер файла
345 Кб
physical, chemistry, advanced, book, organiz, gold, edited, vol, review
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа