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Book Review Ambident Anions. By O. A. Reutov I. P. Beletskaya and A. L

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in a single volume is not an easy task, and, consequently, it
has not been the aim of this book to provide a comprehensive coverage of this wide area of chemistry. Rather a valiant efforts has been made at giving an insight into current
developments in this field by suitable selection of the authors and subjects, and this concept has, in my opinion,
proven successful. This book made a good impression on
me; it can be recommended to all advanced students and
all experienced chemists in industry and university who
are involved in experimental organic chemistry.
Ryoji Noyori [NB 638 IE]
Department of Chemistry, Nagoya University (Japan)
Theoriewandel in der Wissenschaftsgeschichte. Chemie im
18. Jahrhundert. By E . Stroker. Vittorio Klostermann,
Frankfurt am Main 1982. viii, 324 pp., hardback, D M
78.--, paperback, D M 48.-.
In recent years there have been numerous contacts between the history of science and the theory of science that
have proven to be fruitful for both parties: history provides theories on the research methods and the logic of
knowledge in the natural sciences with a medium for confirmation and differentiation, the modern theory of science
provides historical analyses with categories and perspectives that can shed new light even on well-known sources.
Along with other scholars, some of whom were active already in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, mornas
Kuhn in particular has called attention to the idea of progress in the natural sciences and the conditions that determine such progress. The dynamics of the natural sciences
have increasingly come to be seen no longer only in terms
of a gain in knowledge; instead, there is a growing awareness of the limitations and the losses involved here. The
presuppositions for the development of natural science are
ever more often viewed in connection with institutional
changes and social history. Forms of such interaction with
their varying accentuations according to the time and the
specific field involved will prove to become an even more
important theme for future studies, whereby the central
question will be less concerned with the external than the
immanent connections between internal and external dimensions.
The issues provide the background for EIisabeth Stroker’s stimulating and important study. In a concrete combination of theory and history, seventeenth and eighteenth
century chemistry is presented in view of both the original
sources and the scholarly discussion u p to the present.
This study is prefaced by a consideration of the possible
and the already established connections between the theory of the history of science. This book contributes to a n
expansion in our knowledge both with regard to specific
points as well as more general areas. One-sided deductions
and approaches relying on explanations from a single
cause are refuted. Stroker correctly indicates the danger of
projecting later views into the past, for instance Stahl‘s
achievements into the phlogiston theory. The primary emphasis is consistently placed on professional and institutional backgrounds as well as on the scientists’ intellectual
orientations, furthermore, on the scientific mileau and its
effect upon the development of a theory. Stroker shows
that it is not at all possible-or, at least, that it is only in a
relative sense possible-to speak of schools and paradigms
in eighteenth century chemistry; the idea of traditions
turns out to be much more accurate. The development of
practical and technical fields possesses a dynamics of its
234
own and can by no means be made primarily dependent
upon the controversies regarding phlogiston chemistry.
Future investigations will have to clarify the relationship
between technology and the natural sciences further. In
addition to these direct interconnections, there must have
also been social and intellectual conditions which affected
technology and the natural sciences.
This study discusses the reception and transformation of
the phlogiston theory in detail and the genesis of pneumatic chemistry. The all-too-common exclusive orientation
of historical presentations on oxygen is shown to be onesided. Empirical observations led to modifications, changing theoretical and philosophical opinions also had their
consequences. One might add that the phlogiston chemists’
interest in the phenomenon of attraction demonstrates that
this position in chemistry has a significance for the future
which has been ignored by the “progressive” adherents of
the oxidation theory. Professor Stroker points out new
sources and, above all, illustrates new aspects of matters
with which we are already familiar. She emphasizes connections which have been neglected in the usual histories
of chemistry. Kuhn’s model is confronted with historical
developments and structures that indicate the need for this
model to be relativized and made more precise; the idea of
rational argumentation and the augmentation of our
knowledge as essential factors in progress is qualified and
the concept of a scientific community is rendered questionable as well. Stroker advocates neither a univocal preference nor a univocal condemnation of any particular
widespead dynamic approach. T o the historian of science,
this will appear as an advantage; for the theorist of science
this means that he will have to continue his search for
models that are further differentiated and better integrated.
Dietrich von Engelhardt [NB 640 IE]
Institut fur Medizin und Wissenschaftsgeschichte
der Medizinischen Hochschule Lubeck (FRG)
Ambident Anions. By 0. A . Reutov, I . P. Beletskaya. and A .
L. Kurts. Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York
1983. xiii, 338 pp, bound, $ 59.50.
An introduction to the problems of the reactivity of ambident anions is followed by the most important chapter in
this book, 127 pages on enolates and phenolates. The remaining five chapters on nitrites, anions of nitro compounds, cyanides, anions of heterocyclics and on other
ambident anions are considerably shorter.
The Russian text was translated into English by J. P. Michael and was then photoprinted directly from the manuscript. This process has given rise to defects, which make
the book difficult to read. O n the one hand, the typeface is
wearisomely uniform; on the other hand, the numerous
and important tables are poorly arranged and explained.
This is a very great pity in a book containing the systematic
presentation of extensive experimental series. Many tables
d o not indicate the total yields of the alkylization and acylization reactions and it is only by addition to 100% that it
is possible to guess whether the yields reported refer to the
relative or absolute amount of C- or 0-product. The book
is made more difficult to read by the fact that only a few
typed formulas are provided: the very few obvious typing
errors constitute a positive feature.
The book contains almost a thousand references, chiefly
Angew Chem. Inr. Ed Enyl 34 (19S.5) No 3
of results of the reaction of ambident anions with electrophiles. Attempts to interpret and classify the data are primarily made according to the HSAB principle of Pearson;
the more up-to-date concepts of frontier orbital and charge
interaction are largely ignored. There is a lengthy discussion of the influence of the solvent on the structure and
reactivity of the salts.
All in all the book is an extensive summary of experimental results from West and East. The references close
with 17 citations from 1977 and two from 1978. The index
(25 pages) is very good and comprehensive.
Hans-UIrich Wagner [NB 650 IE]
Institut fur Organische Chemie
der Universitat Miinchen (FRG)
Molekiile und Molekiilanhaufungen. Eine Einfiihrung in die
physikalische Chemie. By H.-D. Forsterling and H . Kuhn.
Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1983. xvi, 369 pp., bound, DM
49.00.
This book provides an introduction to physical chemistry that differs in concept from most other introductions.
Instead of the usual arrangement based on the practical requirements of traditional university courses, the present
book is arranged so that in logical order quantum theory
and statistical thermodynamics are presented before classical thermodynamics and the macroscopic description of
chemical systems.
Consequently, the first part of the book opens after a
short review of the experimental evidence for the quantum
structure of matter with a brief and very clear introduction
of the basic concepts of the quantum theory. These concepts are then extended to atoms and more complex molecules. This part which provides the basic knowledge for an
understanding of the theory of chemical bonding is written
so that a good and well-prepared chemistry student can
master the material after the first typical undergraduate
courses in physics and mathematics. It is certainly desirable to provide chemistry students as early as possible with
the basic guides to the nature of chemical bonding, since
both the organic and inorganic undergraduate courses
make successful use of simple qualitative theoretical models for explaining structure and reactivity of molecules.
The second part of the book goes beyond the properties
of individual atoms and molecules. After a clear and detailed discussion of the intermolecular forces, the kinetic
theory of gases and the Boltzmann distribution law the
concepts of energy, heat, work and entropy are introduced.
This provides the basis for the final section which is concerned with the energetics and kinetics of chemical reactions. The book ends with a special section which considers the limitations of the concepts of physical chemistry
and also discusses the evolution problem of life from the
point of view of physical chemical processes.
This book which is replete with excellent explanatory diagrams and tables is highly recommended, both for its
clarity and its readability. It should be of interest not only
for chemistry students as a supplementary physical chemistry textbook, but also for research workers in chemistry
who would like to renew their knowledge of the basic principles of physical chemistry from a different point of
view.
Friedrich Hensel [NB 645 IE]
Fachbereich Physikalische Ckemie
der Universitat Marburg
A n g e w Clltwr. Inr. Ed. Enql. 24 11985) No. 3
Environmental Carcinogens: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. By G . Grimmer. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA
1953. 261 pp, bound, $ 81.50.
This book has been written by a total of 13 authors, led
by G . Grimmer who is an internationally acknowledged authority on the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and covers, in eight chapters, the present state
of knowledge concerning PAHs as environmental carcinogens. It largely consists of an updated English translation of “Luftqualitatskriterien fur ausgewahlte polyzyklische aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe” (Umweltbundesamt, Berlin 1979).
Following a foreword by H . von Lersner and a short introduction by D . Schmiihl the first chapter ( G . Grimmer
and J. Misfeld provides an overview of the strategy for the
identification of PAHs as environmental carcinogens. The
second chapter, from the pen of the editor alone, consists
of, alongside a detailed introduction to the nomenclature,
an explanation of the mechanistic aspects of the formation
of PAHs during incomplete combustion processes and
gives insight into the complicated area of PAH analysis.
The following techniques are discussed: 1. extraction of
PAHs from environmental samples such as fats, oils, foodstuffs, soot and water, 2. enrichment techniques such as liquid-liquid distribution and chromatography on solid
phases, and 3. separation processes, in particular qualitative and quantitative determination by GC, TLC and
HPLC. The third chapter (G. Grimmer) is devoted to the
occurrence of PAHs in the environment. After a detailed
presentation of the PAH profile as a function of the production processes (household fires, powered vehicles, cigarette smoke) the reader is provided with detailed, synoptical information concerning the contamination of air, soil,
crude oil, sewage sludge and smoked foodstuffs by PAHs.
After describing their uptake and distribution (F. Pott and
G. Oberdiirster) the fourth chapter covers their metabolism
(G. Grimmer and J. Jacob). Not only the most important
classes of metabolites such as phenols, arene oxides, catechols, dihydrodiols and dihydrodiol epoxides-which are
thought today to b e the actual carcinogens-but also the
xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (monoxygenases, epoxide hydrolases, glutathione transferases, sulfotransferases
and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases) are discussed. The
fifth and longest chapter (D.Schrniihl et al.) deals with test
systems for investigating the biological activity of PAHs.
The short-term tests (Ames test, cell transformation tests
and sebaceous gland atrophy test) which have some bearing on the carcinogenic activity of PAHs as well as the
long-term tests in animal models (classified in terms of
type of application) are discussed in a well arranged review. This is followed by the sixth chapter (J. Misfeld) in
which in general introduction to the problems of epidemological investigations is followed by a critical review of
studies devoted to the topic “lung cancer and air pollution” with particular reference to PAHs. The seventh chapter (0.Schmiihl,, contains a detailed discussion of the question of the transfer of experimental results from short and
long-term tests to man. The last chapter (S. Dobbertin) contains a “quintessence” of all that has gone before from the
standpoint of the discussion of emission limits for PAHs.
The index greatly facilitates the search for information
in this interdisciplinary area. Each chapter is equipped
with a list of references. However the literature is only covered in detail u p to 1979 with the occasional reference
from 1980/81. If a second edition is contemplated not only
is the correction of several printing errors recommendede.g. in Chapter 8 the atmospheric concentrations of ben-
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