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Book Review Analyse von Mineral- und Syntheselen mit radiometrischen Methoden (Analysis of Mineral Oils and Synthetic Oils by Radiometric Methods). By G. Brunner E. Dahn and M

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BOOK REVIEWS
Anorganische Chemie (Inorganic Chemistry). By F. A .
Cotton and G . Wilkinson. Transl. from the American by
H. P. Fritz. Verlag Chemie GmbH., WeinheimiBergstr. ’
Interscience Publishers, New York-London 1968. 2nd
Edit., xiv, 1066 pp., 292 illustrations, 145 tables. Plasticcover D M 69.-.
The enthusiastic reception given to the German translation
of Cotton and Wifkinscn’s book “Advanced Inorganic
Chemistry” is now confirmed by the fact that a second
edition has become necessary after barely a year and a half.
Since it is a new edition of a translation there have been no
large alterations, but the opportunity has been taken to correct some misleading typographical errors in the first edition
and also to make some additions to the references.
Naturally some things have been overlooked; for instance,
the so-called y-tin, whose existence has been refuted. Also
the guidelines of the Nomenclature Commission have sometimes not been observed: for example, in the Periodic Table
the element 103 is given the symbol Lw whereas the symbol
Lr was recommended by IUPAC three years ago; further,
the name “zircon” should be reserved for the mineral and
the element should be called “zirconium”. In the structural
chemistry section the reader may be led to false conclusions
where o n page 42 it is stated that cesium chloride, zinc sulfide, and rutile structure types are representatives of “typical
important ionic lattices”, whereas these structure types
include numerous compounds of both mainly metallic and
mainly covalent valence type.
Since this book is certainly not intended for first year students,
it would have been worthwhile to express this in the title.
Although the text has been translated literally and German
idiom suffers occasionally in consequence, literal translation
of the title has been avoided: “Advanced Inorganic Chemistry” could have been rendered by, e.g., “Vertiefte Anorganische Chemie”.
These few remarks should, however, not be taken as serious
criticism of the arrangement, content, or presentation. The
new edition can be expected to enjoy the same favor as was
given to the first edition of this excellent book.
V. Gutinann [NB 806 IE]
Analyse von Mineral- 0 nd Syntheseolen mit radiometrischen
Methoden (Analysis of Mineral Oils and Synthetic Oils by
Radiometric Methods). By G. Brunner, E. Dahrz, and M .
Geisler. Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1968, xii + 225 pp., 40
figures, 38 tables, DM 21.-.
This book surveys the radiometric methods applicable in the
analysis of mineral and lubricating oils. The radiometric
determination of hydrogen is particularly useful, partly
because the hydrogen content of hydrocarbons is correlated
with many important industrial characteristics, and partly
because the conventional determinations of hydrogen are too
involved for routine petrochemical plant control. Nearly half
of the book therefore deals with the determination of hydrogen. By contrast, only about 50 pages are devoted to the
determination of sulfur, which is perhaps even more important (catalysis in the petroleum industry, quality of fuels,
lubricating oil additives), the reason being that only Iowenergy irradiation can be used here. However, the procedure
can be extended to other elements such as chlorine.
The authors also discuss neutron activation analysis, which
is sometimes very sensitive, and is used mainly to determine
traces of metals such as V, Ni, Cu, Mn, Mo, Cr, Zn, and ALI
in mineral oil, and to determine oxygen and additives in
lubricating oils. X-ray fluorescence analysis has also been
used for years to determine metals and additives in oils. The
fourth part of the book deals with the use of radionuclides as
sources of exciting radiation instead of X-ray tubes, and gives
a description of the method modified accordingly.
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. J Vol. 8 (1969) 1 No. 7
Each chapter starts with the physical basis of the technique
discussed. This is followed by the description of the procedure
and the evaluation of the method. Then comes a discussion
of commercial equipment and related problems. Radiometric
methods are compared with one another and with conventional methods in connection with experimental publications
and selected analyses. This part greatly benefits from the use
of instructive tables. Each chapter ends with a bibliography.
While no detailed analytical procedures are given, this book
will be of great help in the choice of fast, nondestructive,
contactless methods for the analysis of mineral and synthetic
oils.
B. Knoll [NB 81 3 IE]
Radiochemisches Lexikon der Elemente und ihrer Isotope.
Wichtige Eigenschaften und Anwendungen. (Radiochemical
Dictionary of the Elements and their Isotopes. Important
Properties and Uses). By M . Haissinsky and J . P . Adloff.
Translated from the English by Peter Mayer. Ferd. Diimmlers Verlag, Bonn-Hannover-Miinchen 1968. 1st Edit.,
229 pp., stitched D M 19.-.
Radiochemical textbooks usually contain a considerable
quantity of theory on radioactive decay, nuclear reactions,
etc. A detailed description of the nuclear properties of the
elements is understandably avoided as a collection of largely
repetitive facts.
The practical industrial scientist, to whom a knowledge of
the radiochemical properties of a n element is a prime necessity for the solution of special problems, has until now had
only the nuclide cards for reference. To be able to extract all
the necessary information from these, however, detailed
radiochemical knowledge is essential. This gap has now been
filled by the present dictionary with a somewhat dry but, for
the practical worker, very useful account of the nuclear
data for all the elements up to atomic number 104. The book
is a sort of supplement to radiochemical textbooks, and
should be particularly useful to practical workers and engineers.
F. Baunigartner
[NB 803 IE]
Grundbegriffe der Kybernetik (Fundamental Concepts of
Cybernetics). By H . J . Flechtner. Wiss. Verlagsgesellschaft
423 pp.. 152 figs.,
mbH, Stuttgart 1969. 4th Edit., xi
stitched; DM 40.-.
+
This is already the fourth edition of this book, which was
first published in 1966. The good reception given to it can be
seen from the fact that the third edition sold out in a few
months. The new edition differs only by “minor changes”,
and it still has 423 pages.
This is an introduction to Cybernetics, but not in the same
sense of the word as used in the titles of textbooks. Instead,
it is intended for those “who are interested in Cybernetics,
but lack the mathematical and technical prerequisites for
studying it as a branch of science”. The indispensible
mathematics is at secondary-school level.
In the first chapter entitled “What is Cybernetics?”, in which
the historical aspects are dealt with, the author gives the
answer: “Cybernetics is the general, formal science of
structure, relationships, and the behavior of dynamic systems”. The fundamental concepts of general Cybernetics
are then discussed under the following headings: Communication (behavior of systems, effect of information, control,
rtc.) ; Information (signs, codes, signals, combinations,
redundance, etc.); Transmission of Information (sources,
channels, decoders, receivers, stores, etc.); Processing of
Information (connections, cybernetic models and machines,
efc.); and Behavior of Systems (learning and thinking in the
cybernetic sense, regulation, etc.). Interesting illustrations are
taken rrom special Cybernetics te.g. theory and construction
533
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