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Book Review Analysis with Ion-Selective Electrodes. By P. L. Bailey

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Mechanisms of polymerizationsin the solid state are discussed
by G. Wegnrr for the example of the four-center polymerization
of diolefins, which lead to polymers with cyclobutane rings
in the main chain, and the polymerization of diacetylenes.
Both processes afford highly crystalline products, and in some
cases it is possible to obtain macroscopic crystals practically
devoid of defects. The reaction course as well as the crystal
and molecular structure of the product depend upon the packing of the monomer molecules in the starting crystal. [SolidState Polymerization Mechanisms. Pure Appl. Chem. 49,443454 (1 977); 36 references]
[Rd 971 IE]
Literature available about di- and polysulfides is extremely
extensive. A survey of this field by L. Field lists 282 publications
to have appeared up to 1973. About one third of them are
review articles. Papers on disulfides and their oxidation products predominate, but surprisingly few of them are concerned
with disulfides of biological importance. S-S bridges are
of importance for the spatial structure, and hence for the
physiological activity, of numerous proteins. The report deals
with the physical properties and reactions of disulfides and
methods for the synthesis of these compounds. [Disulfides
and Polysulfides in S. O L K : Organic Chemistry of Sulfur.
Plenum Press, New York 1977, pp. 303-382; 282 references]
[Rd 967 IE]
The photolysis of saturated alcohols, ethers, and amines is
considered in a survey by C. von Sortittag and H.-P. Schuchmarrn. These compounds are transparent in the near ultraviolet.
only beginning to show significant absorption (except the
amines) in the region of 200 nm. Although this spectral region
is readily accessible experimentally, only little is known about
the photolytic behavior of saturated alcohols, ethers, and
amines, and the present report was written with the intention
of stimulating research in this area. [Photolysis of Saturated
Alcohols, Ethers, and Amines. Adv. Photochem. 10, 59-145
(1977); 195 references]
[Rd 977 IE]
Protein inhibitors of a-amylase in wheat are reviewed by 1/:
Buonocore, T Petrucci, and I/: Siluno. Their localization, molecular properties, and biological significance are discussed.
Further topics are their specificities of inhibition, the structural
requirements necessary for an interaction between the enzyme
and the inhibitor, and the significance of the presence of
the inhibitors in foodstuffs. The article finally deals with the
genetic aspects of inhibitor synthesis and the possibility of
improving the nutritional value and insect resistance of wheat
by the cultivation of new varieties. [Wheat Protein Inhibitors
of cc-Amylase. Phytochemistry 26, 81 1-820 (1977); 87 references]
[Rd 980 1E)
The influence of drugs and hormones on lipolysis in heart is
the subject of a report by J . J . Lech, G. J . Jesnzock, and
D. N . Culvert. In contrast to the lipase from adipose tissue,
which has been shown to be directly influenced by cyclic
AMP, hormonal control of the heart enzyme has so far only
been indirectly inferred. The activation of lipolysis in heart
muscle by hormones, drugs or physical exertion is thus possibly
due to a mechanism which generally comes into action when
endogenous substrates have to be used because of an increased
energy requirement. [Effect of Drugs and Hormones on Lipolysis in Heart. Federation Proc. 36, 2000-2008 (1977); 76
references]
[Rd981 IE]
BOOK REVIEWS
Analysis with Ion-Selective Electrodes. By P. L. Bailey. Heyden,
London-New York-Rheine 1976. 1st edit., xii, 228 pp.,
various figures and tables, bound, DM 43.50.
This is an interesting addition to the literature that has
already appeared in this field, since it differs somewhat in
its organization and in the selection of material from other
comprehensive accounts of ion-selective electrodes. While it
gives very exhaustive and clear information on all practical
aspects, the theory must be said to be cut short to some
extent. For example, a systematic presentation of potential-formation mechanisms would be welcome, and the beginner
has to refer to other books in this field to understand the
electrode processes.
The arrangement of the material is clear. In addition to
sections on the general properties of ion-selective electrodes
and on methods of measurement, each electrode type is treated
in an independent chapter, the following classification having
been selected: glass electrodes with the exception of pH electrodes, solid-state electrodes based on inorganic salts, electrodes based on organic ion exchangers and neutral complexing agents, and gas-sensitive electrodes. There is also a
section on special types such as enzyme electrodes and tenside
electrodes, and a detailed treatment of reference electrodes.
Finally. general constructional principles are treated briefly
804
and directions are given on the construction of ion-selective
electrodes.
Since the book was conceived primarily as a practical introduction to the technique of potentiometric analysis, great
value is placed on a critical account of electrode properties.
This applies to the downright optimistic data published by
many electrode manufacturers, to the various perturbing
influence, and to the basic limits of sensible application of
ion-selective electrodes. The term "selectivity" is treated as
is customary in English-language literature: selectivity coefficierits referred to specified conditions are used, and the value
of selectivity consfants for characterizing electrodes is fundamentally questioned. However, this concept is not undisputed.
In the measurement techniques, all methods including the
continuous processes are described in real detail and the advantages and disadvantages of each are very realistically compared, This provides the beginner with a useful guide. In
this connection a discussion is also given of the conditions
under which ion-selective sensors, more sensitive than glass
electrodes, can be used for the severe conditions of plant
supervision.
Original papers up to 2975 have been taken into account
and are abundantly cited, so that the book constitutes the
most up to date literature review available at the present
time. It is this in particular that makes it valuable for an
analyst already familiar with the field. For the beginner it
is a useful practical introduction.
C. Harzdorf [NB 379 IE]
Handbook of Marine Science. Compounds from Marine
Organisms. Vol. I. By J . 7: Baker and I/: Murphy. CRC
Press, Inc.. Cleveland 1976. 1st edit., 226 pp., bound, $
29.95.
This book closes a large gap in the literature of this field.
The authors review very comprehensively the investigations
up to 1973 (445 references, 504 compounds isolated from
marine organisms) and give tables showing molecular formulas. structural formulas, trivial names, and the biological
activities of these compounds, arranged in order of increasing
number of carbon atoms. This is followed by a section in
which some of these compounds are discussed; here the compounds are arranged according to their structural characteristics. In these respects this book is valuable and the work
that has gone into it must be applauded.
Unfortunately, it is impossible to avoid errors in a book
of this kind. The reason for this is largely the long production
time of three years; for example, the structural formula of
saxitoxin has meanwhile been revised. There is also another
shortcoming that should be avoided in the next edition: alongside the chemical classification it should be possible to find
the substances according to the organism in which they occur
(this is in fact most important for marine chemists and marine
biologists). For example, on page 53 the constituents of the
sponge Phukellia jlubellata are mentioned and the relevant
paper is cited in the bibliography. If, however, one wishes
to work in reverse, i.e. to find what substances have been
isolated from a given species, this appears to be impossible.
One looks in vain in the index under “Phakellia”; under
“Sponges“ too there is nothing to be found, and yet pages
have been devoted to sponge substances. The same is true
for the keyword “Starfish” and the species names “Asterias”
and “Acanthaster”. Names are, however, given for species
from which fewer substances have been isolated. Again, surugatoxin cannot be found under “S”, but under “M”, where
it is included as a “mydriatic parasympatholytic agent”; the
same situation occurs with tetrodotoxin, which is found under
“H” (“hypotensive”) and not under “T”. This unreliable index
considerably reduces the usefulness of the book which is a
pity since so much trouble and labor has gone into it.
Nevertheless, the marine chemist will welcome the appearance of this Handbook; in spite of the above failings, its
purchase will be worthwhile to all working in the field of
marine chemistry.
Gerhurtl Habermehl [NB 384 IE]
Stereochemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds, Part 2: Oxygen,
-Sulfur, Mixed N, 0, and S, Phosphorus Heterocycles. By
W L. F . Armmego. From the series “General Heterocyclic
Chemistry Series”. Edited by E. C. 72jlor and A. Weissberger.
John Wiley & Sons, New York 1977. xvii, 494 pp., bound,
$ S4.00.-ISBN 0-471-03322-7
Organic Syntheses Via Metal Carbonyls, Vol. 11. Edited by
I. Wender and P. Pino. John Wiley & Sons, New York
1977. xiii, 742 pp., bound, $ 57.OO-ISBN 0-471-93367-8
Advances in Chemical Physics, Vol. XXXVI. Edited by I. Prigogine and S. A. Rice. John Wiley & Sons, New York 1977.
ix, 541 pp., bound, S 46.00.--ISBN 0-471-02274-8
Presse-Taschenbuch fiir Naturwissenschaft und Medizin
1977/78. Published by Boehringer Mannheim GmbH. KrollVerlag, Seefeld/Obb. 304 pp., flexible PVC, DM 25.--.
Viscosity & Diffusivity. A Predictive Treatment. By J . H .
Hildebrand. John Wiley & Sons, New York 1977. xiv, 109
pp., bound, $ 12.00.-ISBN 0-471-03072-4
Metal-Ligand Interactions in Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Parts 1 and 2. Edited by B. Pullrncrri and N .
Goldblum. Vol. 9 of the series “The Jerusalem Symposia
on Quantum Chemistry and Biochemistry”. D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht/Boston 1977. Part 1 : x, 396
pp., bound, $ 39.50-ISBN 90-277-0771-5: Part 2: viii, 400
pp., bound, $ 39.50.--ISBN 90-277-0754-5
Liquid Fuels From Coal. Edited by R. 7: Ellington. Academic
Press, New York 1977. xvii, 273 pp., bound, $ 14.50.-ISBN
0-12-237250-6
Koordinations-chemische Katalyse organischer Reaktionen. By
J . Prcicejus. Volume 64 of the series “Technische Fortschrittsberichte”. Edited by H. Fiirst. Verlag Theodor Steinkopff, Dresden 1977.287 pp., bound, ca. DM 43.-.
Modern Practice of Gas Chromatography. By R. L. Grab. John
Wiley & Sons, New York 1977. xvi, 654 pp., bound, $
28.00.--ISBN 0-471-01564-4
Foreign Compound Metabolism in Mammals, Vol. 4. Senior
Reporter: D. E. Harhwaj. The Chemical Society, London
1977. xiii, 41 1 pp., bound, f 27.50.-ISBN 0-851 86-038-9.-A volume in the series “Specialist Periodical Reports”.
Chemistry and Physics of One-Dimensional Metals. Edited
by H . J . Keller. From the series “NATO Advanced Study
Institutes Series, Series B: Physics”. Plenum Press, New
York 1977.viii, 426 pp., bound, $54.00.--ISBN 0-306-357259
Diagnostik hamorrhagischer Diathesen. Edited by A . Eit(q1hurti
and H . Lornmel in collaboration with L. Rdkrr and W G.
A . Ohler. Volume 4 of the series “Methodische Fortschritte
im medizinischen Laboratorium”. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim 1977.203 pp.. bound, DM 58.--.--ISBN 3-527-25659-8
Treatise on Solid State Chemistry, Vol. 4: Reactivity of Solids.
Edited by N . B. Hannuy. Plenum Press, New York 1977.
xvii, 721 pp., bound. $ 54.00.--ISBN 0-306-35050-5
Airgrrc. Chriti. I u f . Ed.
Eiigf
I6 l J Y 7 7 ) No. l l
Semiempirical Methods of Electronic Structure Calculation,
Part A: Techniques. Edited by G. A . Segal. Vol. 7 of the
series “Modern Theoretical Chemistry”. Edited by W H .
Miller, H . F. Schaefrr I l l , B. J . Beme, and G. A . Sryul.
Plenum Press, New York 1977. xvii, 274 pp., bound, $
39.50.--ISBN 0-306-33507-7
805
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