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Book Review Analytische Methoden zur Prfung gesundheitsschdlicher Arbeitsstoffe (Analytical Methods for the Testing of Hazardous Working Materials). Edited by D. Henschler

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octadiynes and monoacetylenes according to the scheme
( I ) (2) --t (3). C ~ C O ( C Ohas
) ~ proved useful as catalyst.
In addition, strongly strained molecules of type ( 4 ) , anthraquinones, etc. are also accessible according to this scheme.
reagents to give N-acyl derivatives, and with organoboranes
to give primary amines. [0-Mesitylenesulfonylhydroxylamine
and Related Compounds-Powerful
Aminating Reagents.
Synthesis 2977, 1--17; 107 references]
[Rd 934 IE-MI
The Barbier reaction-a one-step alternative for syntheses via
organomagnesium compounds-is dealt with in an article by
C. Blomberg and F. A . Hartog. In contrast to the two-step
Grignard reaction it consists in reaction of organic halides
with Mg, in some cases also with Zn, Ca, or Li, in the presence
+ Mg + COz
Free-radical rearrangementsin telomerizationforms the subject
of a report by R. Kh. Freidlina and A . B. Terent'ev. Telomerization can formally be described by equation (a). However,
products are also observed [see e.g. reaction (b)], which arise
from hydrogen shifts in the growing chain [equation (c)].
I . Ether
2. H20
1. Ether
Compound (2), R = (CH3)&, affords trimethylsilyl-substituted products (3) and (4), which can be converted into
numerous other compounds. Polycycles and heterocycles
are likewise obtainable from ( I ) and (2) by cooligomerization.
[Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Acetylene Cyclizations in Organic Synthesis. Acc. Chem. Res. 10,l--8 (1977); 54 references]
[Rd 936 IE-L]
of a substrate in a suitable solvent. Sometimes the Barbier
reaction is superior to the Grignard reaction, e. g . in the case
of ally1halides ( I ). With C O z in ether (preferably with addition
of hydrocarbon) they form carboxylic acids, with aldehydes
and ketones secondary and tertiary alcohols, respectively.
Other aliphatic halides, e. g. (substituted) 1 -bromo-4-pentanones (2), 5-iodopentane nitriles and 6-iodohexane nitriles
may also be employed, whereupon cyclobutanols, cyclopentanones, and cyclohexanones, respectively, are formed. Benzyl
halides also undergo the Barbier reaction. Reaction of diiodomethane with carbonyl compounds in the presence of Mgamalgam affords unsaturated hydrocarbons, e. g. cyclohexanone -+ methylenecyclohexane, p-chlorobenzaldehyde -+ pchlorostyrene. Spirosilanes can be prepared by reaction of
butadiene with Mg and a halosilane. [The Barbier ReactionA One-Step Alternative for Syntheses via Organomagnesium
Compounds. Synthesis 2977, 18-30; 80 references]
[Rd 935 IE-M]
Transition metal-catalyzed cyclizations of acetylenes form the
theme of a report by K . P . C. Vollhardt. Indanes and tetralins,
for example, can be synthesized from 1,6-heptadiynes or 1,7-
+ H (CH2 CHz )
2. H20
(b )
a,a-Dialkylcarboxylic acids are accessible by a related one-step
reaction from unbranched acids. These products are of interest
in the varnish industry. [Free-Radical Rearrangements in Telomerization. Acc. Chem. Res. 10, 9-15 (1977); 48 references]
[Rd 937 IE-F]
Recent developments in heterogeneous catalysis, especially catalysis by metals, are summarized in a review by J . H . Sinfelr.
An outline of the progress made in the characterization of
the degree ofdispersion of a metal catalyst on a carrier material
is followed by an account of the catalytic activity of a metal
in the hydrogenolysis of ethane in relation to its position
in the periodic system. The review concludes with a report
on catalysis with alloys and related bimetallic clusters. Such
clusters are prepared by impregnating a carrier with aqueous
solutions of salts of the two metals and reducing the salts
with hydrogen. These clusters are often distinguished by their
increased catalytic selectivity. [Heterogeneous Catalysis: Some
Recent Developments. Science 195, 641-646
(1977); 38
[Rd 938 IE-F]
Analytische Methoden zur Priifung gesundheitsschadlicher
Arbeitsstoffe (Analytical Methods for the Testing of Hazardous Working Materials). Edited by D. Henschler. Verlag
Chemie, Weinheim 1976. Vol. 1 : Luftanalysen. 1st edit.,
xiii, 515 pp., 163 figs., loose-leaf edit., D M 124.-. Vol.
C1it.m. Int. Ed Eilgi. 16 ( 1 9 7 7 ) No. 4
2: Analysen im biologischen Material. 1st edit., xiii. 378
pp., 99 figs. Loose-leaf edit., D M I@.--.
The Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, through its Senate
Commission for the Testing of Hazardous Materials, has published, in loose-leaf format, two sets of recommendations for
the determination of harmful materials present in industrial
premises (MAK values), namely those in the atmosphere and
in biological materials. In the selection of methods for such
determinations it is important to have a representative understanding of the action profile, and in this connection special
attention is paid to the labor-medicine relevance. The more
laborious methods are also recommended when necessary.
The two volumes are structured strictly according to the
same scheme. Following an explanation of the basic analytical
concepts such as the material to be measured, the measurement
quantities, sampling, sample preparation, analytical procedures, single- or multicomponent determinations, attainment
and quality (accuracy) of the analytical result, detection limits,
specificity, etc., the application and performance of general
analytical methods are discussed. The latter are the spectroscopic methods, in particular atomic absorption spectroscopy,
gas chromatography, and the electrochemical methods in
which ion-selective electrodes are used. The volume on air
analyses contains preliminary remarks about the specific
sampling methods for this type of work.
About two-thirds of each volume then deals with the specific
methods recommended. All those proposed have been carefully
checked, especially ones taken from the literature. Where no
satisfactory methods had been known, new methods were
worked out and were then recommended if they passed experimental testing in an independent laboratory. Particular
emphasis is placed on the following features : evaluation of
the analytical method, statistical testing of the results, specificity, and detection limits.
The two volumes are perfect examples of careful preparation
and recommendation of analytical methods for industrial analyses of materials in air and in biological materials. They
constitute a worthwhile enrichment of collected methods, stimulate comparable analytical exercises, and can be recommended without any qualification.
Herrnunn Kienitz [NB 365 IE]
Einfuhrung in die Chemie und Technologie der Kunststoffe
(Introduction to the Chemistry and Technology of Plastics).
By F. Runge and E. Tueger. Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1976.
4th revised and expanded edition, xiv, 682 pp., 91 figs.,
70 tables, 4 charts, bound, ca. DM 88.--.
Comparison of the first (1952)with the present fourth edition
of this work shows merely by the almost fourfold increase
in size the rapid strides that have been made in macromolecular
chemistry and its practical applications. There is thus certainly
a need for a modern introduction into this academically and
industrially important field. Since this is a textbook for a
deeper study of the subject, there is a very broad general
discussion of the principles of synthesis and states of polymers.
The description of the syntheses is based on division into
chain and step polymerizations-a principle not yet in general
use, but nevertheless a very practical one and into which
not merely the classical polycondensations and polyadditions
but also the newer “nonclassical” polyreactions such as radical
coupling can be readily fitted in. This part of the book provides
an excellent introduction into the synthetic methods of macromolecular chemistry. However, the subsequent section on the
solid state of polymers and its dependence on structure is distinctly less successful; it is largely restricted to a
general discussion of questions connected with properties of
direct importance for industrial application.
The chapters “From polymers to industrial materials” and
“processing of plastics” are relatively short and purely qualitative; it is true that they contain much about the most important
processes and the necessary auxiliary materials, but there
is no mention of e. g. the methods of testing or of the quantities
important for industrial applications and their determination;
the elasticity modulus is only very briefly mentioned, and
important concepts such as bending strength, elongation, or
melt viscosity are completely absent.
The special part of the book is concerned with the most
important aspects of industrial polymerization and with the
raw materials, manufacturing processes, and the processing of
plastics produced industrially. The subdivision is based largely
on the structure of the basic skeleton (carbon chains, chains
with heteroatoms etc.); the individual sections differ greatly
from one another in arrangement and depth. The literature
references and the tradenames mentioned are also often chosen
rather arbitrarily, but to be fair it must be remembered that
an introduction of this kind to high-polymeric materials always
requires a certain amount of selection, and this naturally
emphasizes the authors’ point of view more than does treatment of general chemical principles. It should be noted that
new developments are covered extensively.
A broad presentation of this kind of an area of chemistry
so diverse in raw materials and industrial applications cannot
be free from simplifications, but in some places a more precise
formulation would have been desirable (for example on page
81, in the treatment of the relationships between the polymerization rate and conversion, where Fig. A 6 is certainly not
correct in the general form given); in a later edition at least
a few references to further comprehensive works should be
added to the general section. In spite of a certain imbalance
between the general and the special parts, the book can be
recommended as an introduction into the chemical principles
of plastics, particularly as hardly anything comparable is
available in this form in German-language literature; for information about the actual raw materials the reader must,
however, turn to an additional textbook.
Dietrich Braun [NB 363 IE]
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AnJew. Chem. l i f t . E d . Enyl. 16 ( l Y 7 7 ) N o . 4
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