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Book Review Applications of Neutron Diffraction in Chemistry by G. E. Bacon. Topic 11 Vol. 1 of International Encyclopedia of Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics

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benzophenone as sensitizer. The expression “chemically sensitized” used in the book does not convey much information
t o the reviewer. Moreover, the publications of G. 0. Schenk
[Angew. Chem. 69, I77 (1957)J should have been cited, for he
described this addition earlier. The same applies t o the
photodimerization of coumarins (p. 758), for again there
is no reference t o G. 0. Schenck’s work [cf. Chem. Ber.
95, 1409 (1962)], although he discovered the relationships between the substrate, sensitizer, and sterochemistry of the
photodimerized coumarins.
7 . R. Kuthe (not Kuhre) does riot deal with dehydrogenation
of diols in his paper cited in footnote 5 o n p. 718, but with the
production of dialkyl phthalides.
8. Why is it that “Krystalle” and “krystallisieren” have been
spelled with “y”throughout the book? The procedures given
on pp. 491 and 806 contain the old-fashioned method of expressing quantities in “Teilen” or “TI” (parts); these procedures can perhaps be modernized in a later edition.
On the whole, however, the book represents a magnificent feat
for which the authors, the editor, and the publisher can all be
equally congratulated. It succeeds in coordinating results
which are strewn throughout inorganic and organic literature
and in organizing them according to both methods and materials into a lucid arrangement; it will thus form an extremely
useful advisor for the organic chemist engaged in preparative
work. Even for a chemist who has worked for a long time in
one special field, e.g. lactone chemistry, this volume is an extraordinarily rich treasure trove. F. Kurte [ N B 294,152
Inorganic Polymer Chemistry. By F. G. R. Gimblett. Butterworths & Co., Ltd., London 1963. 1st Edit., x + 452pp.,
numerous illustr. and tables, linen, 64.10.0 (about S12.50).
The field of polymeric inorganic compounds has undergone
a n unforeseen development within the past few years.
It is therefore a great credit t o the author that he has devoted himself t o presenting the essential features of this
field in a systematic treatment. His main aim has been to approach the principles governing the formation and structure
of inorganic polymers particularly from the physico-chemical
standpoint and thus to afford incentives for further developments in this field. The basis for his systematic arrangement
is formed by the methods for obtaining the polymers: 1 . condensation reactions and 2. addition reactions. The reviewer
agrees that this is the best basis for dealing with the subject,
for it permits a readily surveyable systematic treatment.
In the introduction, the nature of the bonding in inorganic
polymers is discussed and compared with that of the bonds in
organic polymers. This is followed by a discourse on condensation processes at high temperatures (with a relatively detailed treatment of polyphosphates and metaphosphates and
of silicates), and then cationic aggregation processes in aqueous and non-aqueous solutions are described. Next comes a
special chapter on “Coordination Polymerization”, which
deals with polymers whose formation is due more or less t o
the tendency of a cation t o coordinate, e . g . in the complex incorporation of BezL into a bis-1,3-diketone. The next section
deals with anionic aggregation processes in aqueous solution,
such as the formation of iso- and heteropolyacids, and includes a short description of the condensation of dialkylsilanediols t o give silicones. The relatively few cases of addition
polymerizations (S, Se, Te, and phosphorusnitrile chlorides)
are then discussed. A relatively large chapter is devoted
t o the structures of crystalline and glass-like polymers; this
deals with borides of transition elements and with nitrides
(e.g. BN), efc. The phenomenon of depolymerization is also
described in detail. In conclusion, the latest developments in
the chemistry of inorganic polymers are presented, and a very
clever selection is made from the numerous publications by
Andrianov, for example.
The book is very easy t o read and conveys the general impression that the author is well acquainted with the material
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. I VoI. 4 (1965)
No. I
and has thought it all over carefully. Its topics are stimulating
and can be heartily recommended especially to those who
want t o start work in the field of inorganic polymers.
0. Schmitr-DuMurrt [NB 297/155 I€]
Einkristalle. Wachstum, Herstellung und Anwendung (Single
Crystals - Growth, Production, and Use). By A . Smcrkuln.
Volume 14 in the series: Technische Physik in Einzeldarstellungen, edited by W. Meissner and M . Nabnuer. Springer, Berlin-Gdttingen-Heidelberg 1962. Jst Edit., VIII,
pp.431,240illustr., 160 tab., linen,DM 76.- (about $19.00).
The author has set out t o give a comprehensive review of the
present status of the knowledge of crystal growth and of the
methods for the growth of single crystals. This intention is
most welcome, since as yet there have been only few books of
this kind, and important work scattered throughout the
literature can be found only with difficulty.
The first part, about one-third of the book (Aufbnu und Abbnu
der Kristalle), deals with the properties of crystal structural
elements, crystal structure, nuclei formation, crystal growth,
crystal analysis, dislocations, and theories of crystal growth.
The second part, about half of the text (Methuden der Kristtrllherstellung), deals with the preparation of crystals, i. e. crystal
growth from solution, high temperatures and their measurement a n d control, crystal preparation from melts, and flamefusion, vapor-phase recrystallization, and electrolq tic methods, as well as with “whiskers”. The short third part (Anwendung der Einkristalle) is devoted t o the applications and
manipulation of single crystals.
The book is written simply and intelligibly, maintaining the
correct balance between thcoretical and empirical considerations; owing t o the variety of experimental possibilities here,
this approach is especially suitable for treatment of the subject. The text is illustrated with numerous flow-sheets,
sketches of apparatus, and diagrams; about a quarter of the
illustrations are photographs - enough t o assist comprehension of the text, but not so many that the result is a “picture
book”. One can overlook the one or two minor points of
error, for example the designation of crucible floating zone
purification as “flotation” (this designation should be reserved, as has hitherto been customary, for the action of foam
on solids) or the omission of a discussion o n the fundamental
work on zone melting by G. Schreiber and R . Schcrbert [ Z .
physik. Chem. 206, 102 (1956)l. A book of this scope on a
specific topic must naturally develop into a reference book;
as such it can be thoroughly recommended to the novice or
the expert, and t o the physicist, chemist, or engineer alike.
G. Mntz [NB 220/89 I€]
Applications of Neutron Diffraction in Chemistry, by G. E.
Bacon. Topic 11, VoI. 1 of: International Encyclopedia of
Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics. Published by
Guggenheim/Mayer/Tompkins. Pergamon Press, Oxford141 pp.,
London-New York-Paris 1963. First edition. xi
82 illustrations, some Tables, linen, E2.2.0.
Neutron diffraction has two advantages, besides a number of
disadvantages, as a method for studying the spatial arrangement of atoms in solids. Because of the irregular variation of
the neutron scattering amplitude with atomic weight, it is
possible t o fix the postilions of light atoms even in the presence of many heavy ones and to distinguish between neighboring elements. Moreover, because of the interaction
between the magnetic moments of neutrons and unpaired
electrons, information can be obtained on the location, orientation and magnitude of the magnetic moments in ferro-,
antiferro- and ferri-magnetic materials. It is not surprising,
therefore, that neutron diffraction has led to highly important
results in the field of structure chemistry, and this book is an
account of them. As one would expect of Dr. Bacon, it is
very competently written. The theoretical and experimental
background is treated only very briefly, and the reader in
search of more detailed information in this direction should
turn instead to the same author’s “Neutron Diffraction”
(2nd Edition, 1963, Oxford); the two books overlap to some
extent. The newer book is shorter, but i t could easily have
been made shorter still, simply by cutting down the size of
many of the eighty-two figures and condensing their somewhat lengthy and repetitive legends.
J. D. Dunitz [NB 251/109 IE]
Classical Thermodynamics of Non-Electrolyte Solutions. By
H . C. van Ness. Pergamon Press, Oxford-London-New
York-Paris 1964. 1st Edit., VIII 166 pp., 38 figs., 2 tables,
linen, E2.0.0 (about S 5.50).
On the basis of the fundamental equations of thermodynamics, a discussion is given of the thermodynamic properties
of liquids, the alterations of these properties o n mixing, and
the partial molar quantities. Systems of equations are developed which can be used to calculate thermodynamic dsta
from measured quantities in order to apply the former to the
solution of practical problems.
As an exampleof the broad scopeof applicationof the systems
of equations, vapor-liquid equilibria are dealt with, in
accordance with their impsrtance for distillation, but
without going into the t h e x y of distillation. The author
restricts his discussion to simple systems at low pressures.
After studying the monograph, the reader should be in a
position to acquaint himseli“ easily with the the:modynamics
of multicomponent systems.
The presentation of the subject matter is terse and abstrrtct,
and the equations derived are only rarely illustrated in the
text or in graphic presentations by practical examples. I n
consequence, the book will probably not be easy to read for
the practical experimenter. However, anyone who enjoys
grappling with the formal and logical skeleton of therrnodynamics will be amply rewarded for perusal of this book.
U . Sdrindewolf
[NB 305/164 IE]
Registered names, trademarks, efc. used in thisjournal, even withouf specific indication thereof, are not to be considered unprotected by law.
0 1965 by Verlag Chemie, GmbH. - Printed in Germany by Druckerei Winter, Heidelberg.
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Angew. Chern. internat. Edit. / V d . 4 (I965) Nu. I
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