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Book Review Arzneimittel. Entwicklung Wirkung Darstellung (Drugs. Their Development Action Preparation). By G. Ehrhart and H

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with relative ease; if reoxidation is hindered, diffusion of
zinc continues until a homogeneous spinel phase is established in which the zinc/iron ratio is determined only by the
oxygen deficiency. Subsequent oxidation affords zinc ferrite
and y-iron(Iir) oxide containing 21 "/, of zinc in solid solution.
The last named phase decomposes above 515'C into zinc
ferrite and or-iron(Irr) oxide. 1 Trans. Faraday SOC.65, 219
(1969) / -Hz.
[Rd 993 IE]
Space-charge layers in surface-proximate regions of single
crystals of zinc oxide have been investigated by B. Hofmnnn
using electroreflection. The technique is based on the periodic
changes in the reflecting power of the surface of the crystal
for light in the region of the ground state lattice absorption
(near ultraviolet) on application of an alternating electric
field oriented perpendicular to the surface of the crystal.
Comparison of the phase of the external field and the alternating component of the reflecting power affords the sign of
the space charge in the proximity of the surface. By raising
the partial pressure of oxygen in the environment of the
crystal it proved possible to observe the change from an
excess layer (electronic transition gas-crystal) to a depletion
layer (electronic transition crystal-gas). The partial pressure
of oxygen at which this change takes place depends on the
intensity of irradiation and o n the concentration of mobile
charge carriers in the crystal. / Z . Physik. 219, 354 (1969)
-Hz.
[Rd 994 IE]
The molecular geometry of thiirane S-oxide was determined
by W.F. White and J. E. Woilrab from the rotation spectrum,
paying particular attention to the orientation of the SO bond
relative t o the C2S ring. As is also evident from N M R and
Raman data, the molecule belongs to the symmetry group C,
(only one plane of symmetry). Values for the CS bond length
(1.821 A) and the angles CSC (48.47') and CCS (65.76')
were taken from thiirane, the C H bond length was set at
1.09 A and the angle HCH at llO.OO;it was further assumed
that the H C H plane bisects the CCS angle. The bond lengths
C C and SO were thus calculated as 1.494 i 0.003 A and
1.473 i 0.005 A, respectively. The angle E between the SO
bond and the plane of the ring (or the bisector of the CSC
0.4'. The bond lengths C C and S:) correangle) is 67.3
spond within the limits of accuracy to those in thiirane and
dimethyl sulfoxide respectively; the considerable widening
of the angle E compared with dimethyl sulfoxide (a % 45 ")
is attributed t o the decrease of the CSC angle owing to ring
formation. The dipole moment of thiirane S-oxide is 3.66 D. ,'
Chem. Physics. Letters 3,25 (1969) / -Hz.
[Rd 995 I € ]
.*
Isolation of protease inhibitors with water-insoluble enzyme
resins has been described by H . Fritz et 01. A technique was
used in which enzymes (trypsin and plasmin) are bound to
copolymers of maleic anhydride. The resulting polyanionic
enzyme resins are suitable for isolation of inhibitors having
isoelectric points above 4-5.
Polyamphoteric resins,
which are formed when bis(methy1amino)ethane is bonded
t o the intact anhydride groups of the enzyme resin, exhibit a
considerably higher specific binding capacity towards inhibitors and are also suitable for isolation of inhibitors having
low isoelectric points. Moreover, such inhibitors are released
at considerably higher p H values from polyamphoteric resins
than from the corresponding polyanionic resins. The binding
capacity of the resins remains constant over several months
of storage between 0 and 4 "C in the presence of chloroform
or phenol. The following inhibitors were isolated: trypsin
inhibitors from pig pancreas, sheep pancreas, guinea-pig
seminal vesicles, soya beans; trypsin-kallikrein inhibitor from
bovine lung. Hoppe-Seylers 2. physiol. Chem. 350, 129
(1 969) -He.
[Rd 996 I € ]
Various qolds p r o h c e Aflatoxin B on fooistuffs, as has been
shown by E. Hanssen. Since Aflatoxin B shows hepatotoxic
and lethal effects in human beings and other animals, and
also has a carcinogenic action on human liver cells, consumption of foodstuffs affected by mold should be avoided.
Even after excision of the mycelium such foodstuffs cannot
be consumed without risk since the poisons are capable of
migration. They could be detected at a considerable distance
from the mycelium. ' Naturwissenschaften 56, 90 (1969) /
--He.
[Rd 997 I € ]
Th? characterization of t-RNA and of aminoacyl-t-RNA
synthetase has been achieved by V. Neuhoffet ni. by analysis
oi picomolar quantities of dansyl amino acids using two
dimensional chromatography. By means of this method it is
possible to determine 10-12 to 10-13 mole of dansylated
amino acid (radioactively labeled) both quantitatively and
quaiitatively. Of the many applications of this method may be
mentioned: The characterization of t-RNA and aminoacyl
t-RNA synthetase; the testing of purity of specific t-RNA (a
minimum of 5 % of each of the desired t-RNA's can be obtai led from a specific t-RNA preparation) and of commercial
udioactively labeled amino acid preparations. / HoppeSeylers 2. physiol. Chem. 350, 121 (1969) / -He.
[Rd 998 IE]
BOOK REVIEWS
Arzneimittel. Entwicklung, Wirkung, Darstellung (Drugs.
Their Development, Action, Preparation). By G . Ehrhart
and H . Rusehig. Verlag Chemie GmbH, Weinheim/Bergstrasse 1968. 1st Edit., 2 vols. totalling xii, 1921 pp., 90
illustrations, 277 tables. Linen D M 248.-.
It is no longer possible to treat problems of drug chemistry
without comprehensive information from the literature.
Thus it is as essential nowadays for the chemist to know the
principles and methods of pharmacology and medicine as it
is for the physician and the pharmacologist to know those of
chemistry and biochemistry. So it is a difficult task to conceive and to bring about a review of the comprehensive information about drugs. That may be why there has hitherto
been no such a work in modern German literature; t o undertake this task it was first necessary to find a team of experi-
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. / Vol. 8 (1969) / No. 4
enced industrial scientists who had all the necessary tools of
industrial and information science. G . Ehrhart and H.
Rusehig, both of them schooled for ten years in leading
positions in a large research team, set themselves this task,
and it may be stated at once that they have met it with great
success. Their reference work is in two volumes, the first
devoted to pharmacodynamics and the second to chemotherapy.
The subject matter is divided uniformly in the two volumes,
into 29 chapters each with four sections, according to
scientific and medical interests.
A n introduction describes the historical development of the
various groups of drugs, together with the general practical
and theoretical principles; it contributes considerably to an
understanding of the detail that follows, and awakens the
29 I
interest and curiosity of the layman. In parts this introduction is very detailed and informative; for instance, chapter 10,
on psychopharmacy, is divided into the following subsections: 10.11 Types of psychopathological condition; 10.12
Historical background of psychiatric therapy; 10.13 Clinical
types of psychopharmacy; 10.14 Applications of psychopharmacy; and 7 0.1 5 Clinical pharmacodynamic aspects.
The material is well chosen; its arrangement is didactically
apt and clarified by representative tables and illustrations.
The next section, o n pharmacological and chemotherapeutic
tesfs, i s particularly valuable for the chemist and biochemist.
That it includes recent developments is illustrated, for
example, by chapter 13 o n coronary vasodilators where attempts to measure sympathoinhibitory action are described
as well as the current methods of determining coronary
circulation. Further, the division of sympatholytics into 01and @-groups and their pharmacological recognition are
treated in detail in chapter 3. It must, however, be clearly
recognized that it can be no object of the present treatise to
describe pharmacological methods in detail; the pharmacological section serves rather to give the reader a rapid
survey whilst inducing him to study the specialist literature.
The development of groups of medicaments is described in
the third section. This section begins, in general, with the
history of drugs and their constituents, leading on to synthetic compounds in chronological series. In this way the
evolution of relationships is described, and all who are
interested in relations between structure and activity will
find much of interest therein. Here also are recorded the
metabolism and toxicity of many of the compounds.
The last section is devoted to the preparation of drugs. The
authors seem to have been remarkably successful in choosing
the most important of the usually numerous alternative synthetic methods, and they have documented them mainly by
reference to patents. Confusion by an excess of material has
been happily avoided. Those concerned with drug synthesis
are sufficiently served by wide-ranging references to the
literature.
A chapter on “The structure and mode of function of the
nervous system” and an appendix o n “The route and behavior of drugs in the organism” contribute considerably to an
understanding of the division into 29 chapters.
The impressive success of this book was confirmed for the
reviewer soon after its appearance in his Institute, where
research on drugs is carried out, t is already one of the
sources of information that is in greatest use and most frequent demand. The picture that it gives of the relations between experiment and medical and scientific theories gives it
an appeal to all, whether it be to chemists, biochemists,
pharmacologists, bacteriologists, biologists, or physicians.
It can also be recommended to students who are interested
in drug research and wish to choose this field for their life’s
work.
Inevitably there are some mistakes, but they are of such
minor importance in relation to the range and achievement
of this book that they will not be detailed here; they have
been notified to the authors so that they may correct the
next edition.
The authors, their co-workers, and the publishers deserve
thanks and recognition for this clearly arranged, well illustrated, and carefully selected review, which will become a
standard work for all who are interested in research o n drugs.
E. Biekert [NB 807 IE]
Molecularbiologie. Bausteine des Lebendigen (Molecular
Biology: Units of Life). Edited by Th. Wieland and G .
Pfleiderer. Umschau-VerIag, Frankfurt 1967. 2nd Edit.,
296 pp., numerous illustrations, bound D M 19.80.
In this volume 20 scientists report in 17 articles “in clear
style on the most important discoveries” that form the
essence of modern molecular biology. An introduction by
292
M . F. Perutr gives an exemplary brief and penetrating
review of the decisive stages in the historicai development and
the “dogmas” of molecular biology, after which the reader
is introduced to the world of subcellular particles. There
follow accounts of the “classical” subsections of molecular
biology: DNS, the genetic code, the structure and synthesis
of proteins, the mode of action of enzymes, molecular evolution. and then finally discussions of photosynthesis, contractile structures, biological membranes, immunochemistry,
the biochemistry of viruses, and neurobiology.
The value of the contributions lies in the fact that they are
not written for the expert. All the authors have taken the
greatest trouble that their material, which is in part far from
simple, shall be as clear as possible, often using colored
illustrations. Nevertheless this is no book for the layman, in
spite of what the publisher says. The text will be intelligible
only to those who already know something about the relation
between chemistry and biology and, in particular, to those
who are familiar with scientifio vocabulary. Such readers can
be advised without reservation t o obtain the book for a first
and reliable introduction into the principles of molecular biology. The success of this volume can best be judged by the
fact that a second edition has become necessary only six
months after appearance of the first; in several respects the
second edition gives a more complete and rounded picture
of the field.
H . Griinewald
[NB 808 IE]
Symnetic Methods of Organic Chemistry, Vol. 22, Yearbook
1968. By W . Theilheimer. From the series: Synthetische
Methoden der Organischen Chemie, Jahrbuch mit deutschem Registerschliissel. S. Karger, Basel-New York 1968.
1st Edit., xxiv, 558 pp., D M 227.-.
The annual “Theilheimer”~i1 has become such a standard
work for preparative chemists that it is almost unnecessary to
mention a new volume. The present volume contains a selection of 996 syntheses from 1966/1967; the well established
though somewhat complicated classification system is retained. All fields of investigation are represented, and a
surprisingly large number of heterocyclic and alicyclic ring
syntheses are included. As before, the concise procedures
given often provide an adequate working basis with no need
to refer to the literature. The text is supplemented with clear
formulas. A detailed keyword index (87 pp.), which also
covers the two previous volumes, greally increases the value
of the book. The six pages on “Trends” are a goldmine of the
latest original methods. The presentation and print are again
excellent.
S. Hiinig
[NB 778 IE]
The Brganic Compounds of Zinc and Cadmium. By N . 1.
Sheverdina and K . A . Kocheshkov. From the series:
Methods of Elemento-Organic Chemistry. Edited by A . N .
Nesmeyanov and K . A . Kocheshkov. Volume 3 . NorthHolland Publishing Company, Amsterdam 1967. 1st Edit.,
x, 252 pp.. many figures, Dfl. 36.-.
In the present book 120 pages are devoted to the classical
preparative chemistry of organozinc compounds and 77 to
that of organocadmium compounds, both topics enjoying
the same comprehensive treatment. A complete chapter is
devoted to the Reformatzky reaction (K. A . Kocheshkov and
L. V. Abramova, 43 pages). The task that the authors have
set themselves can be summarized iil the terms “Preparation
of . . . . . . . . . .” and “Reactions with . . . . . . . .”, and they
have accordingly set out the voluminous subject matter in a
clear manner. Each chapter has its own bibliography. The
chemistry of the alkylzincs was last published as a monograph some 30 years ago, whereas that of the alkylcadmiums
[l] Cf. Angew. Chem. 79, 283 (1967); Angew. Chem. internat.
Edit. 6, 277 (1967).
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. 1 Val. 8 (1969) J No. 4
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