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Book Review Basic Principles of Membrane Technology. (Second edition). By M. Mulder

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BOOKS
Medicine, Membranes, and Mechanisms
Medicinal Chemistry: Today and Tomorrow. Proceedings of the AFMC
Int. Medicinal Chemistry Symposium. Edited by M . Yumakuzi. Blackwell Science, Oxford, 1996. 278 pp.,
hardcover E 49.50.-ISBN
0-63204272-9
This book contains the texts of 41 papers by industrial and academic scientists
that were presented at the AFMC International Medicinal Chemistry Symposium (AIMECS 95) in Tokyo in September 1995, under the auspices of the
Pharmaceutical Society of Japan. These
short papers (typically 4-6 pages) touch
on practically all general aspects of modern research in medicinal chemistry with
relevant examples, although unfortunately they are not grouped under subject areas.
Several contributions are concerned
with the isolation and characterization of
biologically active natural products from
various sources such as marine organisms
or tropical plants, and of microbial
metabolites and biologically active constituents of traditional Chinese medicines.
Some of these articles also describe syntheses of natural products and their
analogs. This leads into a further group of
papers dealing specifically with the synthesis of biologically active natural products (e.g., inositol phosphates, brevetoxin,
oligosaccharides) and with more general
methods such as those that are being developed for achieving enantioselective reactions. The prospects for developing
these into industrial processes based on
conventional chemistry or biocatalytic reactions are discussed in relation to specific
medical indications or targets. These include AIDS, diabetes, receptors for gluta-
This section contains book reviews and a list of
new books received by the editor. Book reviews are
written by invitation from the editor. Suggestions
for books to be reviewed and for book reviewers
are welcome. Publishers should send brochures o r
(better) books to the editorial office: Redaktion
Angewandte Chemie, Postfach 10 11 61, D-69451
Weinheim, Germany. The editor reserves the right
of selecting which books will be reviewed. Uninvited books not chosen for review will not be returned
AnKen C h m . In! Ed Engl. 1997.36,No. 19
mates, for opiates, for angiotensin 11, for
prostanoids, for endothelin, and for
kainates, as well as renin and DNA-gyrase inhibitors. These articles also contain
sections on combinatorial synthesis and
molecular diversity, on drug design and
drug metabolism, polymer-bound pharmaceutical agents, drug delivery systems,
and new strategies for increasing the
membrane permeability of peptides.
Another group of articles is concerned
with biological processes and proteins
that could serve as starting points for developing new or improved therapies.
These include, for example, cytokin and
integrin receptors, apoptosis, the regulation of gene expression, the role of sphingoglycolipids in signal transduction, and
the modulation of carbohydrates in the
expression of recombinant glycoprotein
therapeutic agents.
The symposium also served as a forum
for official bodies: the European Commission, the United States FDA, and the
Japanese Health Ministry each provided a
representative to offer guidelines for the
development of “orphan drugs”, that is,
drugs for the treatment of comparatively
rare conditions, the development of which
tends to be neglected on economic
grounds.
This symposium report contains papers
on a wide range of topics, giving it considerable variety and interest. The excellent
choice of topics and presenters demonstrates the organizers’ keen awareness of
the latest research trends in this field.
Many aspects of modern medicinal chemistry are included, but I regret that some
important ones are absent, for example
tumor suppressors, kinase inhibitors, and
SH2 and SH3 domains. However, that is
not a serious criticism. A symposium such
as this one, dealing with a rapidly developing field of research, can only offer a
snapshot of the current state of knowledge and development. Future snapshots
will, by their very nature, emphasize different topics of special interest at the time.
In accordance with its character as a symposium report, this book is mainly suitable for specialists in the field, rather than
for nonspecialists who may have an interest in the subject but no close familiarity
with it. It wili be read with particular in-
Q WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Wemheim, 1997
terest by pharmaceutical chemists seeking
the latest information about developments in their area of work, and will also
provide useful reading for natural products chemists and synthetic chemists, and
for biologists who wish to learn whether
their research is of possible relevance for
medicinal chemistry, or to enrich their lectures or publications by including interdisciplinary aspects.
Herbert Waldrnann
Institut fur Organische Chemie
der Universitat Karlsruhe (Germany)
Basic Principles of Membrane Technology. (Second edition). By M . Mulder. Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1996. 564
pp., hardcover E 174.00.-ISBN
0-7923-4247-X
“If you are tired of membranes, you are
tired of life”. This remark by Richard
Bowen, cited in the preface of the book by
M. Mulder, highlights the importance of
membranes and their functions for the living cell. The ability of membranes to function as highly selective barriers is also
used in industrial processes. Examples are
simple particle filtration, ultrafiltration
for the retention of macromolecules, or
the recovery of solvents from the gas
phase. This book, now available in its second edition, gives an exhaustive overview
of existing membrane processes and describes the necessary fundamentals. The
book is well structured and easy to understand. The figures are clear and informative. Compared to the first edition the
number of pages has been increased by
200. There are three reasons for this: i) to
cover recent developments new chapters
have been added, for example, those on
nanofiltration and membrane reactors; ii)
the line spacing has been increased, resulting in better readability and clarity; iii) 80
pages with problems and solutions have
been added, which is the most appealing
aspect of the second edition. These exercise problems relate to the principles covered in the text. Examples are simple calculations for the design of membrane
modules, considerations for the selection
of suitable membranes, and more com05?0-0833/9?/3619-2129$ 17 50-t.50 0
2129
BOOKS
plex calculations of the transport through
a membrane using different models. Examples based on everyday problems are
also included: “How long will it take before a bicycle tire is flat?”, or “What is the
principle behind the function of Goretexa or Sympatexz membranes?”
The book is divided into eight chapters,
varying in length between 20 and 130
pages. Each chapter has its own literature
references and problems. Only a few references are from 1995, most of them are
older. Here some more recent data would
have been useful, including selected examples of applications of membrane processes. Some interesting examples can be
found in the problems, but these are not
covered by the index.
The first chapter describes the historical
development and provides the basic definitions. Chapter 2 summarizes membrane
materials, and Chapter 3 gives an introduction to membrane production. In
Chapter 4 methods for the characterization of membranes are described. Chapter
5 summarizes different models used to describe transport through membranes.
These five chapters form the first part of
the book.
The second part begins with Chapter 6
which is the longest in the book (130
pages). Here various membrane processes
are described, such as particle filtration,
ultrafiltration, pervaporation, membrane
contactors or electrodialysis, classified
according to their driving forces. There is
also a short section dealing with membrane reactors. Chapter 7 discusses the
problem of membrane fouling. Finally,
Chapter 8 describes different types of
membrane modules including guidelines
for their design.
To summarize, this is an excellent textbook and reference source for everyone
working with membrane processes. It also
gives valuable advice for the reader who
has a separation problem and is looking
for new approaches to solving it. But it
requires careful reading-there
is no
‘quick solution’. Here the limited number
of applications described restricts the
book’s usefulness. The index contains
some errors: bipolar membranes can be
found on page 390, not on page 277.
There is no index of membrane suppliers.
But a search in the Internet using the keyword ‘membrane’ reveals enough helpful
information.
It is to be hoped that this book will be
read by scientists from a range of disciplines, not solely by process engineers.
However, the high price may be an obstacle to its wide distribution. Difficulties in
the filtration of precipitates or the desalting of samples are typical of everyday
2130
problems that might be solved easily using
appropriate membrane processes.
By the way: a bicycle tire is entirely flat
after 169 days.
Udo Kragl
Institut fur Biotechnologie
der Forschungszentrum Jiilich GmbH
Jiilich (Germany)
An Introduction to Enzyme and Coenzyme Chemistry. By T Bugg. Blackwell Science, Oxford, 1997. 247 pp.,
softcover, 19.95.--ISBN 0-86542793-3
In this book the author, Tim Bugg, has
succeeded well in his aim of writing an
introduction to the modes of action of enzymes and coenzymes from the standpoint of organic chemistry, and of explaining the underlying mechanisms.
Concisely and in clearly understandable
language, the book also provides the reader with much valuable background
knowledge, which is not available elsewhere in so compact a form.
The structure of the book is well suited
for such an introduction. First, in a general overview, the reader learns a little about
enzyme kinetics and enzymatic reactions
in general. The different types of reactions
are then introduced in turn, plentifully illustrated with the help of many two-color
formula schemes: hydrolytic and group
transfer reactions, redox enzyme reactions, carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, addition and elimination reactions, transformations of amino acids,
and isomerase reactions. Lastly there is a
chapter on nonenzymatic catalysis. A
short appendix contains answers to the
questions and exercises that are given at
the end of each chapter.
We consider this book to be very suitable for use by students as an introduction
to the various aspects of enzymatic reactions and the role of coenzymes. However,
our very favorable impression on first
glancing through it was modified to some
extent on closer examination, as there are
a number of errors that suggest a lack of
care in proofreading (see the examples below). The reader already familiar with the
subject would perhaps not be troubled by
these, but it is especially important that
the student using the book as a first introduction should be able to rely on consistent accuracy in both text and figures.
The fact that 21 proteinogenic amino
acids are now known, together with their
corresponding codons, should nowadays
0 WILEY-VCH Veriag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, 1997
be part of every student’s basic knowledge. However, it seems quite unnecessary
to repeat at several places the explanation
of the three-letter symbols for amino acids
in the text and in the figures. The role of
chaperones as “helpers” in the folding of
many proteins should at least have been
briefly mentioned, to avoid giving the impression that folding always occurs spontaneously (p. 12). The formula schemes
do not always accurately identify all the
compounds involved; it is essential to
check in each case to ensure that all the
reactants are shown, as the reader is likely
to be confused if there are omissions. The
definitions of specificity and selectivity on
pages 26 and 27 do not agree with those
usually found in textbooks of biochemistry and in original publications; for example, substrate specificity is normally
taken to mean the selectivity of an enzyme
with regard to the substrate that is converted.
A few printing errors need to be corrected in a subsequent edition of the book.
In addition, however, there are numerous
other mistakes and points that invite criticism, as shown by the following list:
page 4: “Many of the vitamins are in fact
coenzymes . . .”;
page 8: the stereochemistry of the sidechain in threonine is shown wrongly ( S
instead of R);
pages 9 ff: the names for nucleobases, nucleosides, and nucleotides are not always
used correctly;
page 16: hemoglobin is said to consist of
identical subunits;
the determination of the structure of
lysozyme by X-ray crystallography was
the first achieved for an enzyme, not for a
protein;
the statement that the active center is
usually in a hydrophilic environment is
over-simplified; the situation is described
correctly two pages later;
page 17: the definitions of H-donors and
H-acceptors given here are not the usual
ones;
page 46: in giving the specific activity the
protein concentration is referred to,
whereas this should instead be the protein
mass;
page 51: in the legend to Figure 4.5 the
symbol V should instead be v;
page 66: in the first paragraph C-2 should
be C-4;
page 69: the appendix does not give a solution to Problem 3;
page 87: transesterification is incorrectly
printed as “trans-esterification”, which is
likely to confuse (one wonders what cisesterification might mean!);
page 114: in mentioning cytochromes reference is made to Table 6.1. but the word
OS?O-OS33/97/3619-2130 $17.50+ .Sol0
Angew. Chem. I n f . Ed. Engl 1997,36,No. 19
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