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Book Review Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry. By J. D. Roberts and M. C. Caserio

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Colloidal Surfactants. Some Physicochemical Properties. By
K . Shinoda, T. Nakagawa, B. Tamamushi, and T. lsemura.
Physical Chemistry. A Series of Monographs, Vol. 12.
€dited by E. Hutclzinson and P . van Rysselberghe. Academic Press, New York-London 1963. 1st Edit., 310 pp.,
numerous figures and tables, linen, $11.50.
This book is divided into four sections dealing with I . the formation of micelles, 2. physicochemical studies in aqueous solutions of nonionic surfactants, 3. adsorption phenomena, and
4. monomolecular layers.
In parts 1 and 2, an extensive discussion is given of micelle
formation, the critical micelle concentration (CMC), and
the various factors effecting this concentration (e.g. the
structure of the surfactant, additives, or mixtures of surfactants). This text is based on a particularly broad review of the
literature. In part 3, the fundamentals for calcuiating adsorption and the influences on adsorption at air/solution, solution/
oil, and solution/solid interfaces are dealt with. Also some
special aspects of adsorption are described, viz. the adsorption at a solution/mercury interface and the interaction between surfactants and hydrophobic or hydrophilic colloids. In
part 4, the behavior of films of surface-active compounds and
polymers, particularly synthetic polymers, is discussed.
K . Shinoda and his colleagues have successfully evaluated recent literature in order to give a review mainly of micelle formation and adsorption phenomena from the standpoint of the
physicochemical properties of surfactants, paying particuIar
attention to Japanese publications. Many important research
communications in this field were written in Japanese and
were thus difficultly accessible to scientists in other countries.
P . Kurzendorfer
[NB 340/198 IE]
is given. There are several hundred - occasionally very
difficult - questions and exercises interspersed in the text,
which can only be answered by proper application and combination of these principles, not by unconnected knowledge of
facts. These “Problems” often go beyond the material dealt
with in the hook. This raises a problem only when the answers to such questions are essential for a n understanding of
the subsequent text or when important reactions appear only
in the exercises (e.g. sugar extensron or sugar degradation reactions or peptide syntheses with carhodiimides).
There is very little fault to be found with the excellently illustrated text: the bridged bromonium radicals rejected on p.
189 have been positively detected in the meantime by Skell;
the preference of a two-step mechanism for the Diels-Alder
reaction is not necessarily correct (p. 268) ; the intermediates
ofthe Bucherer reaction (p. 909) are tetralonesulfonic acids
and not bisulfite adducts of the keto form of naphtholes ( A .
Rieche 1960); Goldschmidt’s 9-chlorophenanthroxyl (p. 916)
does not give an electron spin resonance signal and is probably a dimeric quinol ether (E. Mufler 1959).
This didactically outstanding textbook can be heartily recommended to every student of chemistry and to chemists who
wish to refresh or renew their knowledge. It should be especially worthwhile for beginners to work through the not altogether easy text alongside their organic chemistry courses.
0. Riichardt
[NB 379J237 IE]
Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry. By J. D . Roberts and
M. C. Caserio. W. A. Benjamin, Inc., New York-Amsterdam 1964. Ist, edit., XXV + 1315 pp., numerous figs.
and tables, clothbound S 15.30.
This book is a successor to the 1935 edition of “Organic
Chemistry” by H . J. Lucas, and is no less original than its predecessor. Despite the conventional subdivision according to
substance classes, the authors manage to place the fundamental
principles of synthesis, structure and stereochemistry, honding
phenomena, and reaction mechanisms in the forefront of their
discussion. They also succeed in cleverly applying the latest developments in the subject in a didactic fashion without either
becoming unintelligible for the beginner or giving only superficial treatments. In all discourses on reaction mechanisms, they
carefully stress the pertinent experimental background.
The introduction t o spectroscopic methods in Chapter 2 is
particularly striking. Structure and bonding relationships
are given a solid theoretical foundation on the basis of
spectroscopic, thermochemical, and thermodynamic results.
Atomic and molecular orbitals are introduced critically
alongside the theory of resonance. The modern character
of the book is emphasized by its chapters o n the biogenesis
of terpenes and steroids, color photography, organic photochemistry, polymers, and organosiIicon, organophosphorus,
and organoboron chemistry, efc. No important facet of
organic chemistry has been overlooked.
The authors have successfully introduced a subdivision
according to reaction types subordinate to their main
division according to compound classes. For the compound classes, the modes of preparation are given only
in tables, and a detailed discussion of their scope, the
reaction conditions, and synthetic importance Is then to
be found under the reaction type. Thus, for example, “Aliphatic Substitution and Elimination” are to be found in the
chapter on alkyI halides, and “Addition Reactions” under
alkenes. Reaction mechanisms are always given if they are
required t o contribute to a n understanding of the reaction.
A separate index of methods of preparation of all classes of
compounds shows how much importance the authors justifiably attach to adequate training in methods of synthesis.
The length of the book is not caused by a n excess of material,
but by the thorough discussion of essential principles that
The valuable series on “Advances in Organic Chemistry”
continues with this third volume, which contains four
review articles. The first contribution by R . I. Reed o n
“Mass Spectrometry as a Structural Tool” discusses the most
important applications of mass spectrometry to structure
elucidations (74 pages). The literature is reviewed effectively
only until 1959; since then, good monographs o n this subject
have appeared, which also take the latest rapid developments
into account. However, the reviewer does not claim to be an
expert judge in this field.
The next essay by D . M. Brown on “Phosphorylation” gives
a surprisingly comprehensive survey in 83 pages. Such a
complete review of this subject was hitherto not available.
The report is critical and comprehensive, easy to read and
well organized. The fact that it will nonetheless not always
be easy for the newcomer to this field to find the most
suitable phosphorylation methods for his purposes by mere
perusal of this article, is probably due to the complicated
nature of the phenomenon of phosphorylation.
The following articles by R. A . Boissonnas on amine protecting groups for peptide syntheses (31 pp.) and by J. F. W.
McOmie on “Protective Groups” (103 pp.) fully discuss
these topics without any significant overlapping. The review
by McOmie is especially interesting and contains a wealth of
information: it was a n excellent idea of the editing committee
to include articles containing a review of all protective groups.
The series, particularly Vol. 3, belongs in every chemiF. Cramer
[NB 356/214 IE]
cal library.
Advances in Organic Chemistry: Methods and Results. Edited
by R . A . Raphael, E. C.Taylor, and H . Wynberg. Vol. 3.
Interscience Publishers, a Division of John Wiley & Sons,
New York-London 1963. 1st edit., 333 pp., several illustrs.
and tables, linen E5.5.0 (about S 14.50).
Physical Organic Chemistry. By K . B. Wiberg. John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., New York-London-Sydney 1964. 1st Edit.,
VIII f 591 pp., numerous illustrations and tables, linen,
E 4.0.0 (about S 11.00).
In the foreword to this book, K. B. Wiberg says that he has
made a n attempt to write a useful textbook which concentrates on the physical- chemical aspects of “Physical Organic
Chemistry”. By this he means the theoretical background of
physical measurements on organic compounds, the mathematical treatment of experimental data, and the physical interpretation of empirical relations. This also includes the quantum-mechanical theory of the chemical bond, which is disAngew. Ciicm. iriterimt. Edit. J Vol. 4(1965) / No. 7
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