вход по аккаунту


Book Review Beilstein Handbook of Organic Chemistry 4th Edition 5th Supplementary Series Volume 171. Edited by R

код для вставкиСкачать
oxidative degradation of polyolefins, polystyrene, polyethylene-polypropylene blends, polycarbonates and polyacetals. On the other hand, only the hydrolytic degradation
is discussed for the polyamides which serve as examples of
poly condensates.
A further short chapter describes stabilization by means
of structural changes, copolymerization and cross-linking,
demonstrating that there are very few possibilities for stabilization in cases of purely thermal degradation without
drastically changing the structure of the polymer. In this
book the author quite rightly places most emphasis on stabilization against thermal oxidation and UV radiation. The
mode of operation of short-term and long-term antioxidants, peroxide decomposers, metal deactivators, of antioxidant combinations, of non-migrating antioxidants
such as carbon black and incorporable antioxidants is explained using polyolefins as an example. Amongst the light
stabilizers an exhaustive discussion is devoted to the hindered amines as the most recent radical quenchers. Naturally the reader also obtains a quick look at the mechanism
of photostabilization by benzophenones and benzotriazoles (without the Jablonski diagrams which are usually
employed for this purpose). The practising synthetic organic chemist is provided with the structural modifications
to UV absorbents and their effects.
The discussion of the mode of operation of anti-ozone
agents is worthy of mention in the chapter on stabilization
against ozone, which is the last of the stabilization chapters.
The importance of test processes as well as their advantages and disadvantages when used to determine the thermo-oxidative and photo-oxidative degradation are brought
together in a separate section. Information is also given
about the importance of tests which are not yet in use for
the recognition of degradation in the early stages by employing chemoluminescence tests.
This book is of less use to the stabilization researcher
who is not working in the polyolefin field. On the other
hand the compact and logical format of the book make it
very suitable for readers who wish to become familiar with
the field of stabilization and degradation of polymers with
polyolefins as an example.
H . M . Meier [NB 665 IE]
Bayer AG, Werk Uerdingen,
Krefeld-Uerdingen (FRG)
Practical Analytical Electron Microscopy in Materials
Science. By D. B. WiIIiurns. Verlag Chemie International, Deerfield Beach, FL, USA 1984. vii, 153 pp., bound,
$ 34.95.-ISBN 3-527-26224-5
The term Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) is in
use for the analysis of elemental composition and crystal
structure in submicron areas by means of a transmission
electron microscope (TEM). This book is an introduction
to elemental analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and by electron energy-loss spectroscopy
(EELS) and to crystal structure analysis by microdiffraction methods.
Chapter 1 introduces the different modes of AEM; it
gives an overview of electron sources and detectors for Xray quanta. Illustrative examples demonstrate AEM capabilities. Chapter 2 deals with alignment procedures for different imaging modes and for EDS and EELS. The success
of AEM in the last decade has its origin in the development of the production of small electron probes with di890
ameters of 2-100 nm by means of the prefield of the objective lens in front of the specimen foil. For localizing the
electron probe, the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) mode has been introduced as an additional
imaging mode of a TEM. Therefore, Chapter 3 compares
the conventional TEM and the STEM modes for bright
and dark field imaging. Quantitative X-ray microanalysis
is first introduced in Chapter 4 with a brief review of the
physics of X-ray production. The author discusses the optimization of an AEM for X-ray microanalysis, including
the elimination of spurious X-ray signals. Quantification
by the k-factor method and by thin film standards is then
outlined and is followed by a discussion of the limits for
minimum detectable masses and concentrations and for
spatial resolution. Chapter 5, concerning EELS demonstrates the possibilities of getting information from the
low-loss region (plasmon losses) and from the high-loss region (ionization edges), including the fine structure of the
ionization edges. Background subtraction and deconvolution methods are discussed for both EDS and EELS.
Chapter 6, which deals with microdiffraction, concentrates
mainly on convergent beam diffraction patterns, including
the fine structure from Bragg diffraction with reciprocal
lattice points at high-order Laue zones (HOLZ). It is demonstrated how much more information is available from
these HOLZ patterns than from conventional selected-area
diffraction patterns.
Considering that the book has only 150 pages, it contains a wealth of information. The reference lists at the end
of the Chapters are also representative and up to date. Because of its size, one cannot expect such a book to give a
complete discussion of the physics of these methods. For
example, the book contains nothing about the dynamic
theory of electron diffraction, and one has to ask how one
can understand and use convergent beam patterns, not being familiar with the basic physics of dynamic theory. Furthermore, the formation of Kikuchi lines and bands is
The book is expensive when compared with other text
books about TEM which run to a few hundred pages and
give more detailed information for the same price. It does
not require just the copyright (by Philips Electronic Instruments) to give one the feeling of advertizing on many of
the pages.
Nevertheless, the book is well written and contains
many practical examples and excellent illustrations.
Ludwig Reimer [NB 695 IE]
Physikalisches Institut der
Universitat Munster (FRG)
Beilstein Handbook of Organic Chemistry, 4th Edition, 5th
Supplementary Series, Volume 17/1. Edited by R . Luckenbuch. Springer Verlag, Berlin 1984, Ixxxvii, 858 pp.,
bound, DM 1620.00.-ISBN 3-540-13418-2
In this volume are covered heterocyclic compounds
of class 10, parent compounds C,H,,O, C,H2,-,0,
CnH2n--40,C,H2,-60 and C,HZnP80. But that is not
what matters and that is not why this particular Beilstein
volume is singled out for review. What matters and what
makes this volume of signal importance is that it is the first
Beilstein volume to appear in the English language. Since
World War 11, like it or not, English has become the lingua
frunca of science. In general, those national journals not
published in English have had diminishing impact, in large
part because of the language problem outside of their
home country. It has become a common complaint o f
Anyew. Chem. In!. Ed. Enyl. 24 (1985) N o . I0
those scientists who publish in such journals that their
work is insufficiently cited.
For the preparative chemist as well as for those scientists
who have a need to know about the properties and reactivities of chemical compounds, three handbooks of chemistry which were published in German have been indispensable almost from the day of their respective founding: the
“Beilstein Handbuch der Organischen Chemie”, the
“Gmelin Handbuch der Anorganischen Chemie” and
“Houben-Weyl Methoden der Organischen Chemie”. Of
these, the Gmelin Handbook already has made the switch
from German to English. And now the Beilstein Handbook has done so as well. A comparison of the present volume with a previous one written in German shows that this
is not really such a very great change. There is little text in
a Beilstein volume and for many of the German scientific
words the English counterparts often are quite similar.
Nonetheless, this change from German to English will be
welcomed by all Beilstein users whose native language is
not German for it will facilitate their use of the Handbook.
It will be welcomed especially by the, alas, many who cannot read German at all.
The Beilstein Handbook celebrated its 100th birthday in
1981: in 1881 the first volume of the initial two volume set
appeared. With the publication of the second volume in
1883 the organic chemists of the day had available a register of about 15,000 compounds. In these two volumes
which totaled about 2200 pages they could find carefully
selected information about the preparation and properties
of these organic compounds, together with references to
the original literature, an immense help to anyone active in
organic research. F. K . Beilstein, the founder of the Handbook, born in Russia of German parents, spent his student
and early professional years in Germany, but returned to
Russia in 1866, at age 27, to become the successor of Mendeleeu at the Imperial Technical Institute in St. Petersburg.
However, his Handbook was published in Germany in the
German language. By the time of his death in 1906, the
third edition of his Handbook had just been published.
There is no doubt that it fulfilled an important need when
it first appeared and it won immediate acceptance by the
organic chemists of that time. Chemists of the latter part of
the 19th century were more literate in foreign languages
than the chemists of today and that the Beilstein Handbook was written in German presented no problems.
I n the succeeding years, through good times and bad,
the Beilstein Handbook has continued and grown. Its impact in the world of chemistry has been, right from the
start, considerable and it has become an indispensible aid
to the organic chemist. It is no exaggeration to say that no
library that services organic chemists can be considered
complete without a set of “Beilstein”. Nowhere else can
one find such a comprehensive coverage of critically selected data of organic compounds of all kinds. It would
appear that no stone is left unturned in this search for
facts. These are culled from original research publications,
patents, the review and monograph literature and theses.
The information provided for a given organic compound
may include its preparation, occurence in nature and isolation, physical properties, an indication of what spectroscopic properties have been reported, chemical reactivity
and transformations, key literature references. It is important to note that this coverage is not exhaustive in the sense
that all such information on a given compound is provided. As the present director of the Beilstein Institute has
pointed out, it is the task of the Beilstein workers to clarify
the inconsistencies found in the original research literature
Angen,. Chem. In/. Ed. Engl. 24 ( I 9 S j j No. 1 0
and omit incorrect data, to critically note ambiguous results, to ignore reported findings that are trivial in nature.
Thus, the Beilstein Handbook has as its commendable objective a critical evaluation of the organic literature. And
what a task this is! As noted already, the first two-volume
edition of the Beilstein Handbook of 1883 contained about
15,000 compounds. By 1940 about 400,000 compounds had
been reported in the research literature: in the ~ O ’ S ,already
one million. Today, one may estimate a count of nearly
five million! The Beilstein Institute at this point is nearing
completion of the Supplementary Series IV of the Fourth
Edition which covers the literature of the period 19501959. The next Supplementary Series V, which will cover
the period 1960-1980, will truly be a challenge since these
two decades have seen a veritable explosion of the organic
literature. We may be certain that the members of the Beilstein Institute will rise to this difficult challenge. The continuation of the life’s work of Friedrich Beilstein is in good
Dietmar Seyferth [NB 692 IE]
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA)
Smectic Liquid Crystals, Textures and Structures. By G. W.
Gray and J . W. Goodby, Leonard Hill, Glasgow 1984.
xvi, 162 pp., bound, L 46.00.-ISBN 0-249-44168-3
Textbooks on the liquid crystalline state or on liquid
crystals are a rarity. It is thus even more pleasing that this
new publication gives the first comprehensive survey. The
book has been written by internationally recognized experts for the practically oriented reader and for those interested in working with liquid crystals. It will contribute significantly towards ending the uncertainty still dominating
the original literature concerning the nomenclature of
smectic phases and thus could become the standard work
on srnectic liquid crystals.
The book consists of a textual section of 157 pages and
another portion with 124 photographs of the characteristic
textures of liquid crystalline phases taken under the polarizing microscope.
The text is clearly arranged. Nine chapters treat smectic
phases A to J and the 10th chapter additionally deals with
the most recent developments in phase classification and
structure. The nine chapters are largely uniformly set out.
A short introduction gives a general overview of the particular smectic phase followed by a description of the historical development of the investigations. The intelligibility of
the detailed discussion of the structure of the phase that
then follows is made easier by the large numbers of very
clear schematic presentations. Finally, there is a description of the textures of the phase with a direct reference to
the diagrams in the second part of the book. It is here that
the intention of the authors is particularly clearly expressed: Reading this part of the book encourages one to
sit at a polarizing microscope with the book and to investigate a known or new liquid crystal. Finally under the heading “Identlfication and Classijkation” significant aspects
of the textures are summarized, standard substances are introduced for mixture experiments, the characteristics of Xray diffraction data are mentioned briefly, and details are
given of the thermochemical data of phase transformations. A detailed list of references is attached to each chapter.
The polarization micrographs reproduce typical texture
pictures that were obtained without specific preparation
techniques. The colored plates are of good quality.
89 1
Без категории
Размер файла
287 Кб
series, organiz, handbook, beilstein, supplementary, 4th, edition, chemistry, volume, book, edited, review, 171, 5th
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа