вход по аккаунту


Book Review Biochemie (Biochemistry). By A. L. Lehninger. Translated by K. Fischer and R. Ries

код для вставкиСкачать
reactions involving neighboring group participation. Examples
are the BF,-induced transformation of epoxyalkenoic esters
( I ) into cyclopropane oxoesters (2) and the acid-catalyzed
f 2)
cyclization of polyhydroxy acids (3) to tetrahydrofuran derivatives ( 4 ) . (Only partial structures are given in each case.)
[Some New Chemical Properties of Unsaturated C I 8 Acids.
Acc. Chem. Res. 9, 34-40 (1976); 26 references]
[Rd 848 IE-L]
A survey of hormone-receptor interactions has been written
by E. J . M . Helmreich. It is not yet known how the hormonereceptor reaction is transformed into biological action. An
important, though not universal, mechanism involves the activation of adenyl cyclase which generates the “second messenger” 3‘,5’-cyclic AMP. Hormone-receptor complexes are
extremely long-lived; half-lives of 15 to 40min have been
measured for the complex of insulin. This tends to rule out
any regulatory function of the complex in the overall process.
It must therefore be asked how the interaction between hormone and receptor is modulated. One proposal is that of a
negative cooperativity facilitating dissociation of the complex,
and another one, applying in cases of positive cooperativity
or none at all, assumes that regulation occurs beyond the
stage of hormone-receptor interaction, say in an interaction
between hormone-receptor complex and adenyl cyclase. [Hormone-Receptor Interactions. FEBS Lett. 61, 1-5 (1976); 25
[Rd 850 IE-R]
The bioenergetics of mitochondria in brown adipose tissue is
considered by D. G . Nichols. In these cell organelles, found
mainly in hibernating animals, a cold stimulus leads to generation of heat by oxidation of fatty acids. A mechanism must
therefore exist for circumventing the coupling of oxidation
rate to ATP production occurring in normal cells. This
mechanism is seen in a nucleotide-dependent enhanced proton
conductance by the membrane whose characteristics are in
accord with in uivo thermogenesis. Uncertainty still surrounds
the modulation of proton conduction in viuo. [The Bioenergetics of Brown Adipose Tissue Mitochondria. FEBS Lett. 61,
103-1 10 (1976); 43 references]
[Rd 851 IE-R]
The legume storage proteins legumin and vicilin are the topic
of an article by E. Derbyshire, D. J . W i g h t , and D. Boulter.
Their localization and distribution in the seeds are described
and methods for their extraction, purification, and characterization viewed in the light of modern biochemical practice.
The physical, chemical, and immunological properties of the
“classical” preparations from Pisum satiuum are surveyed and
compared with those of similar legumin and vicilin preparations from other leguminous plants. [Legumin and Vicilin,
Storage Proteins of Legume Seeds. Phytochemistry 15, 3-24
(1976); 271 references]
[Rd 853 IE-R]
Molekiilgeometrie. Elektronenpaar-Abstossung und molekulare Struktur (Molecular Geometry. Electron Pair Repulsion
and Molecular Structure). By R. J . Gillespie. Translated
by J . Grobe. Verlag Chemie, GmbH, Weinheim 1975. 1st
Edit., xiii, 232 pp., 153 figs., 62 tables, paper, D M 29.80.
T~YLWJfis~i+Vvb~&~. T&L,
mxeo&. 4- +LW.XSS=
quences, to molecular geometry, of electron pair repulsion
in the valence shell of molecules (Valence Shell Electron Pair
Repulsion theory, VSEPR model) have proved extremely useful
for systematizing the existing structural data and for predicting
previously unknown structures. The simplicity of the model’s
principles promotes its use in teaching and study and makes
the “theory” an important didactic and heuristic aid. It is
therefore good to see this book by one of the model’s founders,
on the evolution and successes of the VSEPR concept, in
a German translation. Thus, in an externally attractive form
and at a reasonable price, teachers and students in the widest
sense can discover for themselves the breadth of a concept
whose beginnings go back to G . N . Lewis, but which has
now been thought through afresh on the basis of much more
extensive factual material. In so doing one is astonished to
find how many structural details, often puzzling when looked
at in isolation, can now be fitted in with very little difficulty.
This last phrase “with very little difficulty” must, however,
be looked at more carefully for in spite of the very clear
explanations and the many and successful illustrations, one
cannot avoid the impression that things really cannot be
quite so simple. The striking appeal of the model must not
be allowed to overshadow the fact that much can indeed
now be systematized anew, but fundamentally is not better
“understood”. This becomes clear on the introduction of ideas
such as the “secondary valence shell” which is essential e.g.
for the interpretation of the bonding state in the oxygen
molecule. Here one would like to see some mention of the
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ L . . w . ~ ~ ~ b t- ~. i~ ?, .t .~i ~
f i , w ~ s , a ~ - t c ” a - ~ W
answer to this problem. For such a courageous comparison
of the capabilities of the relevant models one must wait until
the last 15 pages, and then it is too late. It is hoped that
the reader will not succumb to the temptation of this little
book and willingly throw overboard all that he had previously
learnt about bonding and structural matters: he may still
need it.
Hubert Schmidbaur [NB 307 IE]
Biochernie (Biochemistry). By A . L. Lehninger. Translated by
K . Fischer and R. Ries. Verlag Chemie, GmbH, Weinheim
1975. 1st Edit., xv, 747 pp., 468 figs., 94 tables, paperback
D M 68.--, bound D M 78.--.
Since the first edition appeared four years ago, Lehninger’s
“Biochemistry” has set a standard as the most comprehensive
one-man textbook of biochemistry that is also modern in
conception. This standard is confirmed by the almost universal
agreement in reviews and has been exceeded by hardly any
other textbook. Lehninger has rightly become the favorite
textbook for the advanced biochemist, since it presents the
coordinated filigree work of the functional interactions
between cell components, i. e. the “molecular logic of the
Angew. Chem. l n t . Ed. Engl. f Vol. 15 ( 1 9 7 6 ) No. 5
organism”, in an easy, readable, and nearly always correct
manner. Verlag Chemie have taken the risk of bringing a
translation of this compendium onto the much more limited
German market, and have succeeded technically and linguistically, for one sees many students carrying the monster book
and finds the fat blue volume in numerous libraries.
The advantage of the German translation is obvious, even
for one who believes he gets on passably with English, for
one can complete a search faster if one is not chasing linguistic
details. The translation is consistently successful, even if a
little lifeless ; it misses the sparkling spirit and the rhythm
of the original. O n the other hand, the translators have also
carefully but silently managed to remove many of the factual
errors in the original and to extend the reference lists by
numerous easily accessible reviews in the German literature
and international monographs, thereby providing a real service
to the German reader. The conversion of calories into joules
is often carried out with excessive confidence in numbers,
but the priggish and unspeakable “katal” is not yet
included. The weaknesses of the original in the thermodynamic
chapters, in the stereochemistry, and in the set problems naturally appear also in the translation, but these minor failings
can be overlooked in view of the extraordinary didactic and
factual merits of the book. Nevertheless, the avoidable
externals are really disturbing: the oversize format of a pulpit
bible-still harder to handle than the English edition-the
poor contrast of the colors in many illustrations that are
more vividly colored in the original, and above all the shiny
yellow paper on which the whole book is printed; no one
can work with it at night without troublesome and continuous
adjustment, and anyone who likes to underline as an aid
to memory will have no joy with this book. Finally, the
purchaser will feel slightly cheated when he discovers that
simultaneously with this translation an improved and
expanded English edition has appeared at about half the price.
All this hardly decreases the value of this textbook for the
student, who will find in it much more than he is generally
able to assimilate. In any case, the German Lehninger will
undoubtedly become as greatly liked by students and teachers
in Germany as its counterpart is in America, and that with
complete justification.
L. Jaenicke [NB 308 IE]
Allgerneine und Anorganische Chemie (General and Inorganic
Chemistry). By V Gutmann and E. Hengge. Verlag Chemie,
GmbH, Weinheim 1975. 2nd revised and expanded edit.,
xi, 397 pp., 160 figs., 124 tables, paperback D M 39.-.
In spite ofall the enthusiasm with which “general chemistry”
was introduced in recent years into various universities, this
textbook also shows that general chemistry should not be
taught in isolation from experimental chemistry. Accordingly,
the material is divided into two parts: general chemistry and
inorganic chemistry. The chapters in the first part describe:
1) atomic structure and the periodic system; 2) the nature
of chemical reactions with new sections on free energy and
reaction kinetics; 3) the chemical bond; this chapter has been
extensively reworked from the first edition; 4) states of matter
(such as gases, liquids, and solids) and crystal structure; 5 )
a newly arranged chapter on electron-acceptor-donor interactions which underlie the known concepts of redox reactions,
coordination-chemical interactions, solubility, and ion formation. There follow: 6) acid-base considerations; 7) electrochemistry; 8) magnetochemistry, and 9) the structure of complexes (VB methods, ligand field theory, 7r-complexes).
The second part provides in terse form basic knowledge
on the chemistry of the main-group and subgroup elements.
T o each section in the second part are added problems whose
A n g r w . Chem. l n t . E d . Engl. J Vol. I S ( 1 9 7 6 ) N o . S
answers can be discovered from the text. Although some sections, e. g. those on the hydrogen spectrum, electronegativity,
ion-exchangers, and magnetochemistry, are treated very
briefly, this textbook contains much to stimulate the student
and the teacher and can be recommended as a text to accompany a course on general and inorganic chemistry. Clear
illustrations and carefully chosen tables aid understanding,
particularly since the publishers have been able to improve
the printing of the second edition.
Hk. Miilk-Buschbaum [NB 310 IE]
Analysis of Water. By J . Rodier. Translated from the 5th
French edition. Israel Program for Scientific Translations,
John Wiley & Sons, New York-Toronto, and Keter Publishing House Ltd., Jerusalem 1975. 1st Edit., xvii, 926 pp.,
numerous figs. and tables, bound $ 76.50.
This analytical handbook is divided into the following main
sections: analysis of natural waters (447 pp.), of waste
waters (108 pp.), and sea water (by Laporte and Kovacsik,
42 pp.), bacteriological analysis (Geoffray and Vial 82 pp.),
biological quality of fresh water (Verneaux, 23 pp.). and
interpretation of results (78 pp.). In addition, there is an
appendix (138 pp.), with sections on, inter a h , instrumental
methods, statistical control and evaluation procedures, sediment analysis, degradation of detergents (not the OECD test),
and numerous ancillary tables. The main chapters devoted
to the three types of water are subdivided in the same way
and consider sampling, immediate evaluation of a sample
and determination of its physicochemical characteristics, and
determination of the constituents and typical sum and action
parameters by classical and modern methods ( e .g. polarography, atomic absorption spectroscopy, use of ion-sensitive electrodes), including radioactive measurements. With respect to
the bacteriological investigations, questions of collecting and
handling the samples are treated, as well as testing for bacteria
that indicate fecal pollution and important pathogens, while
for the assessment of the water quality consideration is given
to methods based on Saprobia systems, various fish tests,
and biocenotic analysis.
The choice of the methods considered naturally shows individual streaks. Thus, the main weight is beyond doubt placed
on the study of drinking water. The methods discussed there
cannot, however, always be so simply applied to waste waters
as is made to appear in Chapter 2. Furthermore, evaluation
ofthe results of chemical analysis is restricted to one parameter
and hardly at all concerned with comparable interpretation
of several analytical values; this is unavoidable for usable
and waste water in order to obtain information not directly
measurable on the water under study. On looking through
the book an error of translation-and
a serious one-was
noticed: “une eau residuaire urbaine frakhe” for obtaining
inoculation material for the BOD determination became “fresh
urban tap water”.
Considered as a whole, the book is a collection of prescriptions of wide range and notable completeness, in which, as
the references cited show, the complete technical literature
of the Western hemisphere has been considered, even if in
particular German-language literature is not always given
equal weight. Unfortunately, the work is not as up to date
as would be desirable: the few citations from the 1970’s are
almost all from French sources, and very few of them are
original papers. Thus, the book does not contain some important new developments, e. g. nitrification inhibition in the
BOD determination; at the same time, it contains some data
that have been revised, e. g. the table of temperature corrections
for measurements of the electrical conductivity.
Rudolf Wagner [NB 31 3 IE]
Без категории
Размер файла
279 Кб
lehninger, biochemie, translator, book, ries, biochemistry, fischer, review
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа