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Book Review Biotechnology. A Comprehensive Treatise in 8 Volumes. Series Editors H.-J. Rehm and G. Reed. Vol. 7a. Enzyme Technology. Volume Editor J. F. Kennedy

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ences extending up to 1985 are provided to facilitate more
advanced study.
The book is attractively printed and contains hardly any
errors (one occurs in the formula for dimethylsulfoxide on
page 72), although more elegant methods are available for
some of the reactions given (e.g. dehydrogenation using
Se, p. 84). The easily comprehensible style makes easy
reading.
It is, quite understandably, not possible to treat all these
topics with anything approaching completeness in 264
pages of text. Accordingly an attempt is not even made at
accounting for all the facts in a logical way, nor at dealing
in greater detail with the reaction schemes and rearrangements that are listed. It is perhaps on these grounds that
the author has avoided giving mechanistic interpretations
in the very long section on syntheses. Nevertheless, this reviewer sees the omission as a significant shortcoming,
since it means that the logical conception of the subject
which the author obviously sets out to promote is here disregarded, and arbitrarily selected facts and examples are
substituted for a proper understanding.
Chemists nowadays are self-taught as regards their
working habits. However, the work is neither a textbook
nor a course book in the conventional sense: it is, in Stowel”s words, a novel experiment. It is a n attempt to give
beginners in chemistry a view of the whole scene and the
interrelationships that exist; according to the introduction
it should be regarded as an aid to making progress in practical organic chemistry, a bridge from basic education into
the diversity of fields of more advanced chemical research.
Consequently the book is hardly suitable as a means of
acquiring a thorough knowledge of the topics that are
treated. Perhaps, therefore, it is just this fragmentary manner of presentation that makes the book especially suitable
for students who wish to test the knowledge acquired in
their studies. It can be thoroughly recommended for this
purpose.
Hartmut Laafsch [NB 914 IEI
Institut fur Organische Chemie
der Universitat Gottingen (FRG)
Biotechnology. A Comprehensive Treatise in 8 Volumes. Series Editors: H.-J. Rehm and G . Reed. Vol. 7a. Enzyme
Technology. Volume Editor: J. F. Kennedy. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim 1987. xii, 761 pp., bound,
D M 495.00/subscription price: D M 425.00.--ISBN 3521-25769-1
Reactions catalyzed by enzymes collectively form the
foundation of biotechnology. This volume on Enzyme
Technology is a very welcome addition to the mammoth
task undertaken by the editors and the publisher. Incidentally, although the title says the Treatise is to have 8 volumes, the series‘’] will really have 10 volumes when all the
work is done.
The aim of this volume is to provide for the reader a
review of the chemistry and biology of enzymes, and of
how enzymes are prepared and used. In this, the authors
have generally been very successful. One should not look
to this volume to learn about the economics of enzyme
[*I Cf. Angew.
1738
Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 26 (1987) 1057
production, or for a perspective on the historical trends in
the industry or the market, or of the commercial potential
of enzymes. Use or potential use of enzymes for hazardous
waste treatment also could have received an emphasis. Despite this, the volume will serve as an extremely effective
and comprehensive resource for any scientific worker interested in enzymes.
There are 15 chapters in all in this volume, many of
them written by people who have made a good name for
themselves over the years with admirable research and development contributions. Three of the chapters (numbers
1, 2 and 6) should be seen as providing the fundamentals
of enzyme kinetics and molecular biology. These appear to
be geared not for the uninitiated but for those who are at
least somewhat familiar with the fields.
Another set of three chapters does a very good job of
describing how enzymes are made via fermentation and
then isolated and purified. The 146-page chapter on enzyme fermentations is in the nature of a scientific review
article, as are many of the other chapters in this volume.
The chapter has a good list of references spanning some 29
pages and generally has an “industrial” type outlook
which helps make u p for the lack of such data. Perhaps the
coverage of the “fermentation engineering” aspects could
have been better.
While there is some repetition in the two chapters on
small scale and large scale enzyme recovery, the chapters
are generally complementary. The chapters include some
excellent comments which will be of great benefit to someone starting work on enzyme recovery. The perspective
provided on ion-exchange chromatography is especially
good. This reviewer would have liked to see a better coverage of cell separation techniques, of enzyme production
economics, and of at least one flow scheme used in making
any of the large volume industrial enzymes.
Two highly readable and well written chapters are on
immobilized enzymes and immobilized cells. They provide
a very good perspective on the types and methods available for immobilization. The authors, who have otherwise
done some very good work in the field, could have elucidated why some of the approaches to immobilization have
been successful on the industrial scale and why others
have not. Synthetic enzymes, or the use of polymers and
macrocyclic compounds to achieve “enzyme like” catalysis
is the subject of another brief and readable chapter.
A chapter on the engineering aspects of enzyme reactor
systems is comprehensive and well written. Here again, repetition of some of the enzyme kinetics already covered in
Chapter 1 might have been avoidable.
How enzymes have been or can be used is the subject of
a group of four chapters by authors severaI of whom have
outstanding credentials. The chapter by veterans Reed and
Peppier on the use of enzymes as food or animal feed processing aids shows one has to appreciate the terminology of
the industry, be it baking or starch processing or brewing
or dairy or wine or meat or whatever. The emphasis is on
process recipes/procedures rather than on the chemistry
involved. A gem here is a listing of some costs of enzymebased processing; e.g., the cost of isomerizing 100 kg dextrose to fructose by a bacterial isomerase is 33-66 US
cents. This reviewer would have liked to see more such
perspectives by other authors in the volume.
Enzymes in their “free” (soluble) or immobilized form
find many uses in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries and are discussed in two chapters. The use of enzymes
in the making of amino acids, organic acids, antiviral compounds, coenzymes, peptides such as insulin and asparAngew. Chem. Ini. E d . Engl. 27 (1988) No. 12
tame, alcohols, detergents, and antibiotics is covered in
varying details.
Any volume of this type had to have a contribution by
the Tanabe Seiyaku Co. team of Chibata. Tosa and Sato
and it does. One of the pioneers and developers of practical scale processes based on immobilized biocatalysts,
their survey chapter is most readable. Being as successful
as they have been, they could have given their readers the
benefit of a discussion of some of the failures; i.e., the reasons why in some of the cases the commercialization efforts did not work out. Some material o n the chemical engineering of enzyme reactors, encountered earlier in the
reaction engineering chapter, is repeated here, but fortunately it adds to the perspective.
The specificity of enzymes can be exploited for the analysis of scores of compounds, and the last applications
chapter surveys the literature on “enzyme sensors”. The
author has many research achievements to his credit and
could have added to the perspective by listing which of the
sensors are o r can be used in a practical o r commercial
sense, and indicating those that are commercially available.
Safety and regulatory aspects of using enzymes is the
subject of a valuable chapter. Some of these aspects are
also covered earlier in the chapter o n the use of enzymes in
food processing. There is repetition of which microorganisms produce which enzymes and the commercial food
uses of enzymes. Nevertheless, the chapter adds a highly
needed perspective on enzyme technology.
All in all, this volume does an excellent job of maintaining the spirit of this series. Of the 10 volumes, the first two
covered the fundamentals in the field. Volumes 3 through
6b have focused on the applications of biotechnology. This
volume is the first of two volumes on the core of biotechnology. We can now look forward to the next volume in
the series: Gene Technology.
Bhavender Paul Sharma [NB 910 IE]
Genencor Inc.,
South San Francisco, C A (USA)
The Chemistry of the Semiconductor Industry. By S . J . Moss
and A . Ledwith. Blackie, Glasgow and London 1987. xiv,
426 pp., bound, L 50.00.-ISBN 0-412-01321-5
This book consists of sixteen chapters in which British
and American experts from industrial, government and
university laboratories describe the chemical aspects of
semiconductor manufacturing and processing. Here for the
first time specialists have set out to explain some of the
chemistry involved in making integrated circuits, by taking
a cross-section through all the relevant stages of production. They are thus able to show to what a great extent, and
in how many different ways, semiconductor devices used
in micro- and opto-electronics are the products of chemistry, with the background of understanding and optimization provided by solid state physics.
First the book prepares the reader by giving an overview: it is made clear that the semiconductor industry is
now in a stage of rapid growth, not only in economic terms
but also as regards its science and technology. In the succeeding fifteen chapters, each with its own bibliography,
the different topic areas are covered in turn, in the logical
sequence of their industrial application.
The first topic discussed is silicon production. The author proceeds from the extraction of raw silicon through
Angew. Chem. lnr. Ed. Engl. 27 (1988) No. 12
its initial refinement to the technique of growing single
crystals, and the production and conditioning of wafers. In
the two chapters on I W V - and II/IV-type compound semiconductors, techniques for synthesizing these materials
and growing single crystals are described; particular attention is given to the growing importance of gallium arsenide
and related compounds. Next come two chapters on the
deposition of thin films from the gas phase, with and without the use of a plasma, for producing epitaxial, polycrystalline or amorphous silicon films, and also thin metal
films and dielectric films; kinetic aspects and technical details are also covered.
Thin epitaxial films of compound semiconductors are
the main theme of the next two chapters, which are devoted to vapor phase epitaxy from organometallic compounds and to liquid phase epitaxy. Here there is a certain
amount of overlapping with material covered earlier, but
the large and growing importance of these techniques justifies treating them in separate chapters. Next there are
chapters on photoresists and o n resists for electron beam
and X-ray lithography. There then comes a detailed treatment of all aspects of the use of wet etching processes in
semiconductor production, in lithographic operations and
in materials characterization. A short chapter is devoted to
polyimides, which are being used increasingly as dielectrics and lacquers.
A chapter entitled “Molecular Electronics” gives a short
survey of current research and future prospects in organic
semiconductors, Langmuir-Blodgett films, and organic
materials for use in integrated optics. On a related theme is
a chapter which considers semiconductor junctions from a
novel theoretical standpoint, not with the usual semiconductor physics approach but instead by using computer
models based on the methods of the quantum chemist; for
example, the models are used to describe crystal growth at
the atomic level, and the incorporation of dopant atoms
into silicon clusters. The final two chapters highlight the
recent striking growth in the importance of plasma etching
processes. The technology and mechanisms of the etching
of structures in semiconductors, dielectrics, silicides and
metals, and of polymer films, are described.
In nearly all cases there is a good balance between the
chemical fundamentals and the technology. The current
scientific and technological situation is well reviewed, and
a clear distinction is made between industrial processes
and laboratory procedures. Reaction equations and the kinetics and thermodynamics involved are included where
these are known and are of importance, whilst those areas
in which empirical knowledge does not yet have a solid
scientific basis are clearly identified. The authors have
consciously omitted a number of topics, such as analysis
and the purification of chemicals used in the processes.
Since it is often necessary in the semiconductor industry to
reduce impurities to sub-ppb levels, it would have been
useful to include a separate description of the techniques
of purification and analysis which have been developed
specially for this purpose.
The material within individual chapters of the book is
clearly arranged in sub-sections, and adequately illustrated
by diagrams, figures and tables. The literature references
extend u p to 1985 in most cases, and allow one to study
topics in greater depth. Some spot checks did not reveal
any incorrect citations.
The book is intended as a survey for use by scientists
involved in research and development in the semiconductor and related industries. Nevertheless, it is written in language which should present little difficulty for beginners
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