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Book Review Carbon-13 NMR Spectroscopy. By J. B. Stothers

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secretion of collagen. [Biosynthesis of Collagen. Fed. Proc.
33, 1 197-1 204 (1974); 97 references]
[Rd 735 IE-R]
The azide method for peptide bond synthesis introduced by
Curtius is still an important coupling method, since the starting
compounds are readily accessible, little racemization takes
place, and long peptide fragments can be synthesized with
minimal protection of amino acid side chains. A review by
Y. S. K l m s n i v and M. Bortmskj, starts with a description
of hydrazide and azide formation and a discussion of the
side reactions occurring in such formations and in coupling
processes (e.g. in the Curtius rearrangement, azide-isocyanate). Modifications of the azide method, especially those
which should repress amide formation during preparation
of the azides, are exemplified by preparative methods (HonzlRudinger and Medzihradszky method). The formation of small
amounts of dispiro isomers in the azide coupling cannot be
completely ruled out, but is much less likely than, r.y. in
the case of the dicyclohexylcarbodiimide method. The article
deals with the use of the azide method in the solid phase
synthesis of peptides, the cyclization of peptides, and the polymerization of peptide azides. The use of cyclocarbodiimides
for the synthesis of peptides is briefly touched on. [The Azide
Method in Peptide Synthesis. Its Scope and Limitations. Synthesis 1974, 549.-559: 153 references]
[Rd 738 I E -MI
ESR spectra of binuclear transition metal complexes are the
subject of a review by 7: D. Sinirh and J . R. Pilhroiv. The
theory of magnetic interaction between pairs of similar and
dissimilar ions of spin 1/2 is treated extensively. A compilation
of interpreted ESR spectra of binuclear complexes with the
central ionsCu'-.VO'',and Ti3+follows. Some denaturization products of naturally occurring Cu' compounds are
also considered. [The Determination of Structural Properties
of Dimeric Transition Metal Ion Complexes from EPR Spectra. Coord. Chem. Rev. 13, 173-278 (1974): 186 references]
[Rd 741 I€-H]
Recent results in the search for trace elements in nutrition
are discussed in an article by K . S(,hit,urz Such investigations
necessitate very effective isolating systems and feeding of
animals with highly pure substances. The severe damages
caused by selenium deficiency have been known for a long
time. In the meantime it has also been established that this
element is present in higher organisms in glutathione peroxidase and in a special cytochrome. The organism requires
very small trace amounts of tin and vanadium; the exact
biochemical function of these two elements, however, is still
unknown. The same applies to fluorine, which appears to
have other, more general biochemical effects in addition to
being an effective anticaries agent. Silicon, one of the most
abundant elements in the earth's crust, is necessary for bone
formation and growth of connective tissue. A review is
given of other elements which could play a role as trace
elements in organisms. [Recent Dietary Trace Element
Research, Exemplified by Tin, Fluorine, and Silicon. Fed.
Proc. 33, 1748--1757 ( 1974): 53 references]
[Rd 742 IE-R]
Silicon as trace element in organisms is reviewed by E. M.
Curlisle. Lack of this element in higher animals leads to general
irregularities in growth. In calcification of young bones, calcium interacts with silicon; silicon is also found in articular
cartilage and connective tissue, where it probably plays a
role in the crosslinking of protein-mucopolysaccharide complexes. It is also assumed to participate in the biosynthesis of
mucopolysaccharides. Many tissues are more silicon-deficient
in older individuals than in younger ones. [Silicon as an
Essential Element. Fed. Proc. 33, 1758-1766 (1974); 66
references]
[Rd 743 IE-R]
Vanadium as an essential nutrient is the title of a review authored by L. L. H o p k i n s and H . E. Mohi. Animals fed on
a vanadium-fi-ee diet remain stunted-bodily development
and growth of hair and feathers are retarded. The growth
of teeth, bone formation, reproduction, and the survival'rate
of young animals are also adversely affected. Moreover, erythrocyte formation and iron metabolism are far from normal.
Studies on the nutritional requirement would suggest
that normal food does not contain more vanadium than is
absolutely necessary, but rather that there is a general deficiency of this essential element. [Vanadium as an Essential
Nutrient. Fed. Proc. 33, 1733--1775 (1974): 14 references]
[Rd 745 IE-R]
BOOK REVIEWS
Carbon-I3 NMR Spectroscopy. By J . B. Storl1rr.s. Organic
Chemistry-A Series of Monographs, Vol. 24. Academic
Press, New York-London
1972. 1st edit., xi, 559 pp.,
Numerous tables, bound 5 24.-.
The present monograph represents a summary of almost all
the papers on "C-NMR spectroscopy published to the end
of 1970. Followinga short introduction on the theory (Chapter
I ) and methods (Chapter 2) of NMR spectroscopy, Part I1
(Chapters 3-8) describes the "C-chemical shifts of hydrocarbons and their substituted derivatives, organometallic compounds and carbenium ions, heterocyclics, carbonyl compounds, and nitriles. Part I11 is devoted to "C coupling
constants. A general introduction to the theory of I3Ccoupling
in Chapter 9 is followed by detailed treatment of the '"C-'H
coupling constants in Chapter 10 and a review of the '3C-1yF
and 3C-' 3C coupling constants and other heteronuclear
couplings. Applications of I 'C resonance to the solution of
structural or stereochemical problems in organic compounds,
824
polymers, and natural products are briefly dealt with in Part
IV (Chapter I I ) . Examples of the elucidation of reaction
mechanisms and biosynthetic pathways by 'C resonance and
a brief treatment of solvent effects complete the work.
The monograph is well arranged and intelligibly written. Its
perusal will present no great difficulty even to the beginner
in NMR. The I3C chemical shifts are uniformly converted
or given against tetramethylsilane as standard, which greatly
facilitates comparison with recent measurements. It is true
that new routine methods in 13C resonance, e.g. pulse
Fourier transform spectroscopy, are but briefly alluded to,
although the significance of such methods for I3C resonance
was recognized already in 1970. In relation to the scope of
the book, and compared to other NMR monographs, the
illustrations are also somewhat scanty. The provision of comprehensive author and subject indices, as well as of an index
of compounds whose 'C parameters are discussed, tabulated,
or illustrated in the figures, will greatly facilitate the reader's
A n y r w . Chrm. intc,rnat. Edit.
W11.
13 ( 1 9 7 4 )
N o . 12
task. For this reason the monograph, composed by one of
the pioneers of I3C resonance, is not only a comprehensive
reference work (at least until 1970) but, by virtue of its clear
arrangement, a pleasure to use. It will thus be a valuable
aid to all concerned with or interested in NMR spectroscopy.
Eberhard Breitmaier [NB 220 IE]
Electrochemistry of Cleaner Environments. Edited by J . O M .
Bockris. Plenum Press, New York-London 1972. 1st Edit.,
xiii, 296 pp., numerous figures, bound $ 26.-.
It is well known that protection of the environment is a
problem of growing concern to our modern industrial society.
What is probably less well known is that it has been recognized
for some years that a solution to practically all these problems
is to be expected primarily from electrochemistry. The present
book is thus very topical, and its readership should extend
far beyond the narrow field of electrochemistry.
The replacement of combustion-engined cars by electric cars
is unthinkable without electrochemical fuel cells or accumulators. Development is being concentrated on accumulators
at present. The contribution by E. H. Hietbrink et al. presents
a concise survey of this development, covering all the most
important points in full. It is not yet certain which of the
battery systems, e.g. the Pb/PbO,, Zn/MnO,, Fe/air, Liichlorine, or Na/sulfur battery, will one day become the current
source of choice for electric cars. One thing that is certain,
however, is that the production of electrical energy is not
itself a limiting factor.
The electrochemical treatment of effluents ( A . T Kuhn),
whether by electrolysis, electroflotation, or electrodialysis, and
the electrofiltration of gases ( E . C. Potter) are methods that
have been in industrial use for a long time and that will
certainly become more important in the future.
The contribution by 7: A . Henrie and R. E. Lindstrom points
out the possibility of digesting sulfide ores by treatment with
electrolytically produced hypochlorous acid. Instead of SOz,
which pollutes the atmosphere, this yields an aqueous solution
of the corresponding metal sulfate, which can be refined directly by electrolysis. Electrochemistry also provides many
methods for continuous trace analysis (CO, SO2, NO,, etc.),
which are discussed by B. D. Epstein.
R. P. Hammond and D. P. Gregory et al., in their very detailed,
forward-looking contributions, finally examine how the
rapidly growing demand for electrical energy can be met
and distributed. It. is thought that the former can be achieved
by fission or fusion power stations of the order of 10000MW,
floating on artificial islands in the ocean. For distances greater
than 800km, the transport of hydrogen, produced on the
spot by electrolysis of water, is found to be more economical
than the conduction of current. The pipe system filled with
hydrogen also serves as a welcome energy store for use as
a buffer. In the case of this “hydrogen economy”, the consumer
burns the hydrogen to produce heat without harmful exhaust
gases, while part of it is used to produce current in fuel
cells. A superabundance of electrical energy in the future
would also lead to an immense resurgence of electrochemistry,
i. e. the eltctrosynthesis of inorganic and organic compounds.
This point is unfortunately not discussed in the book, an
omission that is all the more surprising in view of the space
devoted to relatively obscure topics such as the increase in
the COz content of the atmosphere (a brilliantly written contribution by G. N . Plass). Several references are made to the
extensive use of hydrazine as a fuel in fuel cells, though in
all probability, even after the production costs have been
reduced, this fuel will be banned because of its toxicity (max.
permissible conc. =0.1 ppm). The metal-selective electrolytic
Anarw. Chrrn. infrrnaf. Edif. I
Val. 13 11974) I No. I2
processing of whole scrapped cars, which the editor seriously
discussed in his introduction, is another idea that will probably
never be realized.
These minor faults and imbalances in the distribution of topics
in no way detract from the solid overall impression made
by this work. It can be recommended to electrochemists and
environmental specialists, and also to a11 those who are interested in learning about forward-looking technical problems.
Fritz Beck [NB 228 IE]
Comprehensive Biochemistry. Edited by M . Florkin and E.
H . Srotz. Vol. 30. A History of Biochemistry. Part I: ProtoBiochemistry; Part I1 : From Proto-Biochemistry to Biochemistry. Elsevier Publishing Company, ArnsterdamLondon-New York 1972. 1st Edit., xvii, 343 pp., 64 figs.,
4 tables, bound 8 25.00.
As a reward, so to speak, after 29 volumes of exact biochemistry[*] (not yet published in full), this volume reads like a
novel. The shrewd, globe-trotting, broadly educated, and independently thinking editor Florkin has taken it upon himself
to write the history of biochemistry. Apart from his international personal connections, his own historical studies qualify
him to deal with the history of medicine at the crossroads
of European intellectual history, the Belgian contact zone
of many traditions since the middle ages. Here he presents
the first part of a history of development that shows how
the relationships between the philosophical concepts of the
observation of nature and the empirically reproducible physical laws interacted and molded one another from the pre-Socratics up to the vitalists, and how inductive research finally
overcame the dominance of a-priori, often esthetically motivated thought patterns and developed from Occam’s razor
to the scalpel of cell biology. However, the scientist, now
freed from the constraints of prejudice, readily falls once again
into new fetters of authority, and the chapters in which Florkin
deals with the cellular concept and Liebig’s theories of metabolism are particularly interesting and stimulating. This is especially true for the partisan-minded reader, who is provided
here with a detached overview. Outstandingly descriptive and
critically argumentative, the book is one of the most worthwhile and most generally instructive that could be found
in a scientific library. The author never yields to the cheap
temptation to present unconventional views without foundation, or to provoke by iconoclasm or vice versa.
One thus obtains new and reflectively inclining insights into
the relationships of the history of thought and the relativity
of our historical views. It is merely mentioned in passing
that the presentation of the book is also excellent. Thus it
is with great suspense, hopefully soon to be relieved, that
we await the two further volumes, which will set the keystone
that holds the arch of biochemistry together.
L.Jaenickr [NB 230 IE]
Kunststoff-Handbuch. Band 8. Polyester (Plastics Handbook,
Vol:8. Polyesters). Edited by R . Vieweg and L. Goerden.
Carl Hanser Verlag, Miinchen 1973. 1st Edit., xxvii, 775
pp., 498 figs., 152 tables, bound D M 275.-.
The present volume deals with three important plastics, i. e.
polycarbonates, polyalkylene terephthalates, and unsaturated
polyesters (UP resins), of which the first and last might well
have merited a special volume each. Nevertheless, it is justifiable to combine them in a single volume, since the polymers
in these three plastics are all built up via ester groups. On
the other hand the U P resins, as thermosets, have entirely
[*] Cf. Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. 10, 361 (1971).
825
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