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Book Review Chemical Dynamics via Molecular Beam and Laser Techniques. By R. B. Bernstein

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[2] R. Burns, J. Corbett, Inorg. Chem. 20 (1981) 4433; crypt=
4,7,13, I6,2 I ,24-hexaoxa-I , 1O-diazabicyclo[8.8.8]hexacosane.
[31 Calcd. for C64H144N4H&Te12:
C 23.26, H 4.36, N 1.70, Hg 24.29, Te
46.3X0h; found: C 23 75, H 4.78, N 1.89, Hg 24.12, Te 45.83%.
(41 Crystal data for 1 : Monoclinic, space group P2,/n, u = 1665.3(6),
b=2688.8(6), c=2706.8(6) pm, ,9=90.72(3)” at 2O”C, Z = 2 , MoKo
(d=71.07 pm), R=0.057 for 2207 reflections, solved by direct methods.-2: monoclinic, P2,, u = 1040.0(2), h=1732.4(4), c = 1374.2(3) pm,
D=94.02O, 2 0 ° C MOK- (A=71.07 pm), R=0.057, 3939 reflections.Further details of the crystal structure investigations are available on request from the Fachinformationszentrum Energie Physik Mathematik,
D-75 14 Eggenstein-Leopoidshafen 2 (FRG), on quoting the depository
number CSD 51 287, the name of the author, and the full citation of
the journal.
[5] J . Waser, L. Pauling, J . Chem. Phys. 18 (1950) 747.
161 B. Eisenmann, H. Schwerer, H. Schafer, Mar. Res. Bull. 19 (1984) 293.
171 B. Eisenmann, H. Schwerer, H. Schafer, Muter. Res. Bull. 79 (1984)
1 189.
[S] B. Eisenmann, H. Scrod. H. Schafer, Muter. Res. Bull. 19 (1984) 293.
191 P. Bottcher, U. Krestchmann, J. Less-Common Met. 95 (1983) 81.
110) P. Bottcher, U. Krestchmann, 2. Anorg. ANg. Chern. 491 (1982) 39.
1111 R. Fenn, J. Oldham, D. Phillips, Nature (London) 198 (1963) 381.
[I21 K. Aurivillins, C. Stalhandske, Actu Crystullogr 8 3 0 (1974) 1907.
BOOK R E V I E W S
Cyclophanes, Vols. 1 and 2. Edited by P. M . Keehn and S.
M . Rosenfeld, Academic Press, New York 1983. Vol. I :
xxx, p. 1-358, bound, $65.00, ISBN 0-12-403001-7/Vol.
2: xxx, p. 359-725, bound, $ 60.00, ISBN 0-12-4030025.
This set appears as part of the excellent series of monographs chosen by its editor H . H. Wasserman. There may
be an embarras de richesse in updating reviews of the
chemistry of cyclophanes (a series edited by F. Vogtle comprising two volumes, albeit smaller, has recently appeared)
but the present set is more encyclopedic.
The editors have done a fine job in choosing authors
and in parcelling out the vast material to be covered. Inevitably there is some overlap but this is surprisingly minimal.
I agree with the editors’ claim that each chapter stands on
its own. The set opens with a charming chapter by the father of the field; Don Cram’s personal account is a short
overview, past, present, and future. The other chapters
either emphasize synthesis and reactions, or properties and
structure, or, in the best ones, there is a blend of the two.
The more synthetic chapters are by Rosenfeld and Chloe
([n]cyclophanes, 46 pages), Reiss (condensed cyclophanes,
41 pages). Hopf (multibridged cyclophanes, 51 pages), Misumi (multilayered cyclophanes, 55 pages). Those emphasizing properties and structure are by Liebmnn (the conceptual chemistry of cyclophanes, 45 pages), Keehn (the
crystal structure of cyclophanes, 169 pages), Mitchell
(NMR properties and conformational behavior of cyclophanes, 71 pages). The chapters that, to my taste, blend all
aspects and are thus the most useful in giving the reader an
overall review before consulting the primary literature are
those by Paudler and Bezoari (synthesis and properties of
heterophanes, 82 pages) and It6, Fujise, and Fukuzawa
(non-benzenoid cyclophanes, 35 pages). Biological applications are given in two chapters by Odashima and Koga
(cyclophanes in host-guest chemistry, 49 pages), and by
Sutherland (cyclophanes as synthetic analogs of enzymes
and receptors, 46 pages). The first doesn’t touch upon, the
second emphasizes crown ether hosts.
I have a bone to pick with Don Cram’s statement: “It
seems that the selection of certain research problems is
dominated by a subliminal aesthetic judgment.” Subliminal indeed! There is little doubt that symmetry motivates
many chemists in their choice of subject, in full awareness,
explicitly.
Liebman’s excellent chapter covers chemical concepts
which have been clarified through cyclophane chemistry.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 24 (198.7) No. 5
Keehn’s very useful chapter includes a wealth of structural
information accompanied by general explanatory comments. Mitchell’s chapter is not as exhaustive but clearly
shows how NMR techniques have been used to assign rigid stereochemistry or conformation in mobile systems.
Rosenfeld and Chloe include the variegated approaches for
synthesis of [n]cyclophanes. Paudler and Bezoari do a good
job in covering all aspects of heterophane chemistry but
Reiss covers only synthesis of condensed benzenoid cyclophanes. Although he mentions in telegraphic style, e.g.,
that electronic spectra have been measured, his omission
of more detail gives short shrift to important aspects of the
work of Sraab and his group. On the other hand, the It6 et
al. chapter, albeit shorter, covers non-benzenoid cyclophanes in a much better way following Hamlet’s invocation: “There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio,
than are dreamt of in your philosophy.” Reiss can learn
from this. Hopf s chapter, though essentially synthetic, is a
gem in its general approach and pedagogic clarity. Misumi’s chapter covers his subject’s manifold aspects. Both
biochemical chapters are excellent, well-coordinated reviews with no unnecessary overlap between them.
Many of the authors (and the editors who did not correct them) d o not know that one converts 52 into 51, not
to 51. It is amusing to note that the Japanese authors (or
those who do not describe synthetic steps) do not err in
this respect; they do not use the word in their constructions.
This set on cyclophanes is a must in every library; even
those suffering from the steep rise in Journal prices would
be well advised to buy them, as would all wealthy individuals interested in the subject.
David Ginsburg [NB 667 IE]
Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa
Chemical Dynamics via Molecular Beam and Laser Techniques. By R . B . Bernstein. Oxford University Press, Oxford 1982. ix, 362 pp, paperback, E 10.95.
This book is based on the Hinshelwood lecture series
delivered by the author in Oxford in 1980. An introductory
discussion of problems of reaction dynamics is followed
by treatment of the following topics: The connection between reaction cross section and rate constant, the principle of microscopic reversibility, jet stream properties,
43 5
state-specific excitation and detection of educt and product molecules by laser and electrical multipole techniques,
potential models for elastic and inelastic scattering and the
classical deflection function, “glory” and “rainbow” effects, the concept of the scatter phase in the quantum
theory of elastic scattering, reactive scattering problems
such as product angular distributions in the laboratory and
center of mass systems in complex and direct reactions,
“opacity” (reaction probability as a function of the impact
parameter) and “excitation functions” (reaction cross section as a function of collision energy), orientation effects,
the influence of vibrational, rotational, and translational
excitation on reaction velocity, and nonadiabatic (proceeding by various electronic potential surfaces) reactions. The
text ends with a section covering the author’s own field,
the information-theoretical analysis of chemical dynamics
and a survey of promising new fields such as the spectroscopy of transition states and the laser analysis of catalytic
effects.
Such an enormous range of material can only be discussed in highlights in the space of 360 paperback pages.
Exceptions, for example an interesting and detailed calculation for the determination of the degree of excitation of
particles in molecular beams by laser techniques, only
prove the rule. Thus, Bernstein’s book provides (aside from
its price) a welcome guide for the rather confused student
through the flood of specialized texts in this field.
Karl Kleinermanns [NB 652 IE]
Physikalisch-chemisches lnstitut
der Universitat Heidelberg (FRG)
Biotechnology. A Comprehensive Treatise in 8 Volumes.
Edited by H . J. Rehm and G. Reed. Vol. 5: Food and
Feed Production with Microorganisms. Edited by G.
Reed. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim 1983, 631 pp., bound,
DM 425. ISBN 3-527-25767-5.
This series“’ from Verlag Chemie is a welcome addition
to the repertoir of resources for people in the biotechnology and allied fields. Volume 5 , in some respects, continues where Volume 3 left off in the area of food related fermentations. One should look to Vol. 3 for the production
of ethanol, bakers’ yeast, edible mushrooms, starter cultures, acetic acid, citric acid, gluconic acid, lactic acid, amino acids and extracellular polysaccharides-all food related topics. This underlines one of the problems the editors must have faced in organizing the series. I would just
caution the reader that this Volume alone will not cover
the area described by its title.
It begins with a contribution by G. Spicher, who presents
a thorough discussion o n the technology of baked goods,
in particular bread. S. Lafon-Lafourcade gives an excellent
review of the science of wine and brandy production. She
has included some fine photomicrographs of the yeast and
bacteria involved. This chapter however, like several others
in this volume, does not emphasize the commercial aspects
such as production technology, economics, and regulatory
information. Nevertheless, what is covered is covered well.
Later on in this volume is included a discussion on distilled beverages other than brandy, i.e., whiskey, rum, vodka, tequila by L. Bluhm.
[*I
Cf. Angew. Chem. 95 (1983) 758;Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 22 (1983)
893.
436
W. A . Hartwick describes the technology of beer including its history in a very readable chapter. The next two
chapters relate to the dairy industry. E. R . Vedamuthu and
C . Wusham deal with cheese technology. The chapter appears to be not well integrated. For example, the involvement of microorganisms and enzymes is discussed twice in
the chapter. Despite this, the chapter has a lot of good information including excellent summaries of changes occurring during the manufacture of seven different kinds of
cheeses.
A very fine review of the technology of yogurt production and of lactic acid bacteria in fermented dairy products
is given by V. Bottazzi.
The importance of lactic acid bacteria in food biotechnology is recognized through two additional chapters. One
on cabbage and cucumbers (J. R. Stamer) and the other on
olives ( M . J. Fernandez Diez).
Starter cultures in sausage and ham production are discussed by H.-U. Liepe. The emphasis here is on the use of
starter cultures and not on the production of the cultures.
H. Ebner and H . Follmann continue their chapter on acetic
acid from Vol. 3 by focussing on how raw vinegar is
treated before sale. Regulatory aspects are also reviewed.
A commendable addition to the selections in this volume is made by L. R . Beuchat via a presentation on “lndigenous Fermented Foods”. This one provides you with a
chance to learn about the real “classical biotechnology” as
practiced for centuries the world over. A good review of
the literature on cocoa fermentation, with a somewhat
sloppy section on page 556, is presented by D. W . Lehrian
and G . R. Patterson. The Volume is concluded with three
short chapters. These provide introductions to the manufacturing of tea (G. W . Sanderson), coffee fermentation (J.
Castelein and H . Verachtert), and of fermented feeds and
feed supplements ( H . J. Peppler). I would have preferred to
see a greater consistency in the emphasis and orientation
from one chapter to another, a better coverage of regulatory issues, of economic issues and of manufacturing and
engineering aspects. The subjects of single cell protein for
both food and feed production and solid state fermentations for feed production could have been covered here.
However, the editors have a very difficult job and it seems
to me they have succeeded in bringing together a great
deal of useful information in this third volume released.
Bhavender P. Sharma [NB 670 IE]
Genencor, San Francisco, CA (USA)
Oxygen Radicals in Chemistry and Biology. Proceedings of
the Third International Conference, Neuherberg, July
10-15, 1983. Edited by W. Bors, M . Saran, and D . Tait.
Walter d e Gruyter, Berlin 1984. xix, 1029 pp., bound,
DM 250.00.--ISBN 3-1 1-009704-4
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 24 (1985)N o . 5
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