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Book Review Chemical Evolution. Origin of the Elements Molecules and Living Systems. By S. F

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50
40 - .
t
30
ps
[nC cm 9
20 -.
10-
c
j
'
-
04
75
a
------I
1
-
125
100
T"C]
150
Fig 7 Temperature dependence of the spontdneous poldrlzation for some
equimolar complexes of polysiloxane 2 and optically active stilbazole 3 [a]
[2di313[bl [W31
in dipolar ordering that occurs with increasing temperature
as a consequence of increased rotations about the molecular
axis. The increase of P,with increasing temperature observed
for complex [2b/3] is rather unusual, though a similar phenomenon has recently been reported for a polyacrylate.lz'l
Table 2 X-ray diffraction studies [a]of equimolar blends of polysiloxanes 2a2d and optically active stilbazole 3
Complex
7-I"CI
Layer spacing
d [A1
[2431
110
140
145
110
140
120
130
140
110
11s
135
140
150
155
45 5 (s) 7 2 (d)
44 1 (s) 7 6 (d)
42 8 (s) 8 0 (d)
40 1 (s) 7 5 (d)
38 4 (s) 7 6 (d)
45 0 (s) 21 9 (w) 7 6 (d)
4 6 4 (s) 7 6 (d)
4 9 6 ( s ) 7 6(d)
43 7 (s) 21 8 (w) 7 7 (d)
44 1 (s) 22 1 (w) 7 9 (d)
43 2 (s) 21 7 (w) 7 9 (d)
42 8 (s) 21 3 (w) 7 7 (d)
42 1 (s) 21 4 (w) 8 0 (d)
41 6 (s) 21 2 (w) 8 0 (d)
[2bi31
~
3
1
~
3
1
[a] Complexes are crystalline below their crystalline + smectic transition temperdtures, the diffuse ring dt around 4 5 A is present in all samples, (s) sharp,
(w) wedk, (d) diffuse
The large difference in the magnitude of P, between [2d/3]
and [2b/3] is probably related to the more hindered rotation
of the H-bonded mesogen about its molecular axis in the
latter complex because of the proximity to the polymer backbone.
X-ray diffraction data of the annealed unoriented samples
are given in Table 2. An intense ring (sometimes accompanied by its second-order reflection) together with the spontaneous polarization, point to a smectic C phase comprising
two overlapping H-bonded moieties such as 1. Although
DSC traces do not indicate a S, -+ S, transition, investigations with optical microscopy suggest the possibility of a
higher temperature S, phase.
Our approach, the self-assembly of a complex from two
complementary compounds, provides excellent opportunities for the preparation of materials with defined mesophase
stability, polarization, dielectric anisotropy, viscosity, and
refractive index. New developments may thus be anticipated
in the study of liquid crystals.
Received: May 18. 1992 [Z 5358 IEI
German version: Angen,. Chem. 1992, f04. 1545
[l] N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 1980, 36, 899.
[2] a) V. P. Shibaev, M . V. Koslovsky, L. A. Beresnev, L. M. Blinov, N. A.
Plate, Polym. Bull. 1984. 12, 299; b) M. Dumon, H. T. Nguyen, M.
Mauzac, C. Destrade, M. F, Achard, H. Gasparoux. Murromolecules
1990, 23, 355; c) S. Uchida, K. Morita. K. Miyoshi, K. Hashimoto, K.
Kawasaki, M o i . Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 1988, I S S , 93; d) T. Suzuki, T Okawa,
T. Ohnuma, S. Yohatd, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. 1988, 9 , 755;
e) H . J. Coles, H. F. Gleeson, C. Scherowsky, A. Schliwa, Mol. Cryst. Liy.
Cryst. Lett. 1990, 7, 117.
[3] a) T. Kato, J. M. J. Frechet, .l
Am.Chem. SOC.1989, 111, 8533; b) T. Kato,
J. M . J. Frechet, Mucromotecules 1989, 22, 3818. T. Kato, H. Adachi, A.
Fujishima, 1. M. J. Frechet, Chem. Lett. 1992, 265.
[4] G. W. Gray, Molecular Structure und Properties of Liquid Crystals. Acddemic Press, New York, 1962.
151 J. W. Goodby, T. M. Leslie, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cry.st. 1984, 110. 175.
[6] U. Kumar, T. Kato, J. M. J. Frtchet, J. Am. Chem. SOC.1992,114, in press.
[7] 3: M.y. 111 " C ; [a]" -28.8"; 'IINMR (300 MHz, CDCI,. 25°C):
6 = 8.52, 7.32 (C,H,N), 7.48. 7.22, 6.91. 6.85 (C,H,, CH = CH). 3.98
(OCH,), 3.75 (CH), 3.47 (OCH,), 1.29 (H,CH).
[8] S. E. Odinikov, A. A. Mashkovsky, V. P. Glazunov, A. V. logansen, B:V.
Rassadin, Specrrochitn. Acta A 1976, 32, 1355.
[9] a) C. B. Sawyer, C. H. Tower, Phys. Rev. 1930,3S, 269; b) K. Yoshino, T.
Uemoto, Y. Inuishi, Jpn. J. Appi. Phys. 1977, 16, 571.
(101 S . T. Lagerwall, B. Otterholm, K. Skarp, Mol. Crysl. Liq. Cryst. 1987,152,
503.
BOOK REVIEWS
Book Reviews are written by invitation from the
editor. Suggestions for books to be reviewed and
for book reviewers are welcome. Publishers should
send brochures or (better) books to the following
address: Redaktion Angewandte Chemie, Postfach 10 I 1 61, D-W-6940
Weinheim, Federal Republic of Germany. The editor reserves the right of
selecting which books will be reviewed. Uninvited
books not chosen for review w
ill not be returned.
Angeu Chcm Int Ed Engl 1992, 31, No 11
0 VCH
Chemical Evolution. Origin of the Elements, Molecules and
Living Systems. By S. F. Mason. Clarendon Press, Oxford,
1991. IX, 317 pp., hardcover L 19.50.-ISBN 0-19855272-6
Stephen F. Mason, the author of this book, has made
contributions towards answering many unsolved problems
of chemical evolution, in particular by studies of stereochemistry, optical activity, and chirality. He has also become well
known for his historical studies, and for his book on the
history of science. It is becoming increasingly recognized
that not only biology, but also chemistry, has an important
historical aspect. It is from this standpoint that the book
Yerlugsgesellschujt mbH, W-6940 Weinheim, 1992
o570-0833/92/lfff-lS33%3
SO+ 25/0
1533
reviewed here has been written by a chemist who is well
versed in the history of the subject, and who thinks of it
historically, reflecting all the many different aspects of chemistry. The particular strength of this account is that it unites
chemistry, the history of chemistry, and the history of the
chemical elements. The early stages of these are described
best and in greatest detail, whereas the treatment of prebiotic
chemistry and related research is rather brief. Thus one finds
an excellent analysis of the early stages of chemical evolution
and the contributions of chemists such as Bunsen, Kirchhoff,
Fisher, and van’t Hoff, whereas the origins of the chemical
basis of life and the corresponding work of Oparin, Haldane,
Bernal, Urey, Miller, Calvin, etc. are not discussed so thoroughly. To that extent the book does not entirely fulfill the
claim of accurately reflecting the state of knowledge at the
end of the 1980s, but despite this it can be strongly recommended.
The author gives an excellent description of the formation
of the lighter chemical elements in the “big bang”, then leads
the reader on through the formation of the heavier elements
in the stars, and describes the origin of the solar system and
of geological minerals. He treats with equal thoroughness
the interstellar medium, interstellar dust, meteorites, and
comets. The account of the chemical basis of life is divided
into the separate aspects of bioenergetics, replication, and
polymerization. The last chapter deals with the question of
chirality, where the author bases the discussion on his previous work, starting from the concept of the amplification of
weak electrical asymmetry.
Subject to the reservations mentioned above, the book can
be recommended for study by chemists, physicists, biologists, geologists, and astrophysicists who are interested in
chemical evolution. It should also be of considerable interest
to scientific historians.
Werner Ebeling
Institut fur Theoretische Physik
der Humboldt-Universitat Berlin (FRG)
Microscopy. 2nd edition. (Series : Physical Methods of
Chemistry, Vol. 4.) Edited by B. FV Rossiter and J. l?
Hamilton. Wiley, Chichester, 1991, XI, 539 pp., hardcover
L 109.00.--ISBN 0-471 -08026-8
This book describes methods of microscopy by which images can be obtained through different “illumination methods”. The volume encompasses ten contributions, each fitting well with the others, from internationally recognized
specialists. The contents are best indicated by the chapter
titles, given here in order of the contributing authors:
1, Introduction: Principles and Practice of Electron Microscopy, 3. Electron Microscopy of Defects in Crystals
(Medium Resolution), and 7. Special Electron Microscopy
Techniques, by John M. Cowley; 2. Electron Microscopy of
Biological (and Organic) Materials, and 4. High-Resolution
Imaging of Crystalline and Amorphous Materials, by David
J. Smith; 5. Electron Diffraction and Microdiffraction, by
John C. H. Spence; 6. Microanalysis by Electron Energy
Loss Spectroscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis,
by Peter Rez; 8. Scanning Electron Microscopy, by Ludwig
Reimer; 9. Light Microscopy, by Walter C. McCrone;
10. Determination of Particle Size, by George L. Beyer.
Two-thirds of the book is devoted to electron microscopy,
which indicates the importance of and the increasing interest
in this method. Modern developments are also to be found
in light microscopy, and the contribution about light mi1534
0 VCH
Verlugsgesellschuft mbH, W-6540 Weinheim,1952
croscopy makes it clear that this field should in no way be
forgotten. The contribution on particle size determination
provides a practical example of, among other things, the
application of light and electron microscopy (also for automated measurement methods).
With the development of electron microscopy to higher
resolution it is increasingly the differences and not the analogies between light and electron microscopy that emerge.
Electron microscopy has therefore been considered in this
book as consistently as possible from the standpoint of the
theory of coherent images, whereas light microscopy was
usually described using the concept of incoherent images.
The wave properties of electrons and the corresponding diffraction effects are set in the foreground. This volume does
not attempt to describe the field completely with results, but
sufficient reference is made to the literature for examples of
applications and further methods. The emphasis on methods
contributes to clarity because the fundamental principles are
not concealed by detail. This book shows both where the
value and the limits of each method lie and gives an impression of the necessary expenditure of time and effort. All
important ideas are explained in an easily comprehensible
form. The good general index makes the keywords, otherwise to be found scattered in specialized publications, easily
accessible. The individual contributions are so fluently written that one will not only consult them but read further with
interest.
The fact that transmission electron microscopy constitutes
the book’s main theme shows that, in this area alone, unusuallyfast and significant advances have been made in the last
few years. All types of equipment and imaging techniques
now available are introduced, for example, diffraction in a
convergent beam, possibilities for imaging and analysis with
scanning transmission microscopy, image processing, and
simulation procedures. Even the very promising method of
holography with electrons is mentioned. Some of these
working methods have only become available for normal use
by outfitting apparatus with digital technology and by employing computers. All the modern methods of contrast generation, scanning microscopy, and image processing are described in the section on light microscopy. Every chapter is
well provided with diagrams, schemes, and illustrations.
This volume, which presents a sound, up-to-date survey,
can be highly recommended to all scientists who want to be
informed about these methods, their theoretical basis, and
the necessary equipment.
Wilhelm Merten
Institut fur Anorganische und Analytische Chemie
der Universitat GieBen (FRG)
Reductions by the Alumino- and Borohydridesin Organic Synthesis. By J Seyden-Penne. VCH Publishers, New York/
VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim/Lavoisier TEC &
DOC, Paris, 1991. XIII, 193 pp., hardcover DM 108.00.ISBN 1-56081-099-813-527-28247-5,
Alumino- and borohydrides can be used to achieve selective reductions in high yields, requiring only a simple protocol, and they have therefore rapidly become an indispensable
aid to organic synthesis. Because of the wide variety of special reagents now available, and the large number of efficient
reductions that have been described in the primary literature,
there was a pressing need for an up-to-date review. This
report on the latest situation by J. Seyden-Penne does not
claim to be complete, but by reviewing 605 publications,
0570-0833/92/1111-1534 $3.50+.25/0
Angefi,. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 1992, 3f. No. 1 1
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