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Book Review Chemical Kinetics of Gas Reactions. By V. N. Kondrat'ev translated form the Russian by J. M. Crabtree and S. N. Carruthers edited by N. B

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two different polysaccharides, and by the numerous products
which contaminate it. I t is therefore to be welcomed that a
volume on starch has been published in the series o n “Methods in Carbohydrate Chemistry”. Sixty-one authors combine
to discuss the entire field in six chapters: 1. Production of
starch and its fractions; 2. Chemical analysis; 3. Physical analysis; 4. Microscopy; 5 . Degradation reactions; and 6. Derivatives and modifications (oxidation products).
A great advantage of the book is that the individual sections
have been written by acknowledged experts and that the
practical procedures given can be repeated without reference
to further literature. However, the divison into very short contributions has also some disadvantages which cannot be overlooked. For example, there is unavoidably a lack of objectivity, since understandably, every contributor places his method in the forefront. One result of this is that, as in the volume
on cellulose, German publications are hardly mentioned, although this would in fact be highly justified. The uniformity
also suffers as a result of the book having so many authors;
thus, sometimes only starch is discussed, and at other times
only amylose and amylopectin are considered, without any
recognizable organizing principle. This finds its expression in
the highly differentiated and frequently inadequate characterizations given; data o n the degree of degradation effected by
the individual reactions or o n the characterization by viscosity measurements throughout would greatly simplify use of
the volume.
The treatment of the physical methods does not appear to be
very fortunate; the basic priniples of diffusion, light scattering,
and ultracentrifugation are described, topics which can be read
up in many monographs, but practically no examples are
given. It would be more important for the reader if tables of
substances that have been investigated by these methods were
compiled.
The book is suitable as a guidebook for introductory preparative work in the field of starch. For more intensive work on
the subject, other monographs or original publications must
be consulted.
E. Husemnnn [NB 282/140 IE]
Complexation in Analytical Chemistry. A Guide to the
Critical Selection of Analytical Methods Based on Complex Formation Reactions. By A . Ringborn. Chemical Analysis: A Series of Monographs on Analytical Chemistry and
its Applications, Vol. XVI. Edited by P.J. Elving and I . M.
Kolrhoff: Interscience Publishers, a Division of John Wiley
& Sons, New York-London 1963. 1st Edit., x + 395 pp.,
numerous illustrations and tables, linen S15.00.
This excellent book by the well-known Finnish analyst deals
with complex formation in aqueous solution using a theoretical approximation which permits simple prediction of important quantitative data with sufficient accuracy to satisfy
the practitioner, e.g. on the most favorable experimental conditions, on the effect of interfering side-reactions in conventional analytical procedures, or on suitable methods for solving a particular analytical problem. Here the concept of “complex” is used in a rather broad sense and encompasses inter
nlia acids and bases as well. Complex formation is discussed
with regard to masking, complexometric titrations, acid-base
titrations, ion exchange, extraction, and electrochemical and
photometric analysis. In these sections the theoretical basis
of each method is discussed without giving comprehensive
literature surveys or special working procedures. The application of the approximation method is illustrated by numerical examples. An appendix comprising eighty pages contains
stability constants e f c .
For the analyst who has a good knowledge of the theory of
aqueous electrolyte solutions, this very valuable book will
help him to avoid much experimental groundwork in appraising any specific analytical procedure. For those who are
less familiar with the field, especially students, i t will serve as
a n easily inteiligible introduction to the subject, since the text
is lucid and readily comprehensible.
We/-rterFischer [N B 243/ 10 I I€]
Angew. Cheni. interncrt. Edit. / Vol. 4(1965)
No. 3
Interfacial Phenomena. By J . T. Davies and E. K . Riderr/.
Academic Press, New York-London 1963. 2nd Edit., viii
+ 480 pp., numerous illustrations and tables, linen $15.00.
This book deals with the phenomena associated with the interfaces between non-miscible liquids, between liquids and gases,
and between solids. The treatment is intelligible even to those
who are not experts in this field, and the text is supplemented
by abundant references; it is directed mainly at chemists and
biologists. The principal theme is about the fundamental
problems of interfacial phenomena; the more technical aspects
of the subject fade somewhat into the background. Theory
and experimental methods are discussed in detail. Separate
chapters are devoted to electrostatic and electrokinetic
phenomena, adsorption at interfaces, the properties of
monomolecular layers (including the damping of waves),
reactions at interfaces, and diffusion through interfaces. The
final chapter deals with the most important properties of disperse systems and with adhesion insofar as they are related to
the fundamentals disclosed earlier in the book. This chapter
includes a discussion of aerosols, emulsions and suspensions,
and phenomena such as foaming and lubrication, and also
wetting problems are analysed. A . Snupe [ N B 272/129 I E ~
Interpretation of Mass Spectra of Organic Compounds. By H .
Budzikiewicr, C . Djernssi, and D . H. Williams. Holden-Day,
Inc.,SanFrancisco 1964. 1st Edit., xiii+ 271 pp., numerous
illustrations, linen $8.75.
The impetus for the publication of this book came f r o m
the papers (over fifty in number) which appeared over
somewhat less than three years. In these papers Djercrs.,i
and Budzikiewicz have discussed their work on mass spectrometric investigations of organic compounds. The book is
directed exclusively towards the organic chemists, and typical mass spectrometric fragmentations, e.g. of alcohols,
ethers, thiols, carbonyl compounds, amines, amides, halides,
and nitriles, are described i n detail with recourse to the
complete literature. The sections on heterocyclic and aromatic compounds are particularly good.
The only departure from the general approach adopted in the
book is the too detailed discussion of a few highly specialized
classes of compounds (cyclic ketones and amides). The sections o n tobacco alkaloids and steroids are superfluous, since
the same authors have announced their intention to publish
separate books on these subjects. However, it might have
been expected that the pioneer work by Stenhagen and R~vknge
would have been discussed more thoroughly.
In order to give as uniform a presentation of fragmentation
reactions as possible, the concept is adopted at the outset
that in compounds containing a hetero-atom, the electron
which is split off during ionization is removed only from the
hetero-atom. Although this is usually true for simple molecules, the validity of this assumption cannot be generalized,
particularly for larger molecules. The attempt to explain
all fragmentations using this scheme leads to reaction
mechanisms such as that given on page 5 where an electron
pair and a single electron inexplicably migrate in the same
direction, or to the postulation of degradation reactions
(p. 90, decomposition of compound LI) for which simpler explanations are at hand (cf. H . Audier, M . Fetiron, and W .
Vetter, Bull. SOC.chim. France 1963, 1971).
The arguments presented in the text are supplemented by a
wide selection of mass spectra. A short subject index provides
an aid to rapid reference.
G , Spite,/er [N B 252/ 1 10 1El
Chemical Kinetics of Gas Reactions. By V . N . Kondmt’ev,
translated from the Russian by J. M . Crabtree and S . N .
Ctnruthers, edited by N. B . Sloter. Pergamon Press, Oxford-London-New York-Paris 1964. 1st Edit., xi + 812 pp.,
200 figs., 62 tables, linen 43.5.0 (about $15.00).
The kinetics of chemical reactions in the gas phase has made
tremendous theoretical advances and has been applied t 3
various new fields within recent years. Theoretical treatment
267
by numerous authors of elementary chemical processes has
met with a large measure of success. Such processes include
the use of transition-state methods or quantum-mechanical
methods, of unimolecular reactions by Slnfer, and of the
transfer of translatory, vibrational, and rotational energy.
From the experimental standpoint, the classic thermal
reactions have been supplemented by many new ones, e.g.
reactions occurring in the upper terrestial atmosphere,
reactions occurring in electrical discharges, radiochemical
reactions, and novel flame reactions.
In his book which appeared in Russian in 1958, Kotzdrnt’ev
gave an excellent survey of these developments; the same can
be said of the present English translation edited by Slnfer,
which also provides extensive coverage of work meanwhile
reported. The topics dealt with include the general laws of
chemical reactions and their mechanisms, the theory of elementary processes, unimolecular, bimolecular, and termolecular reactions, energy conversions during molecular collisions,
photochemical reactions causing fluorescence or quenching of
fluorescence, reactions initiated by electrical discharges, bombardments with fast ions and atoms, the effects of penetrating radiation, chain reactions, and combustion reactions.
An enormous number of theoretical and experimental results
have been evaluated with great care; Kondmt’ev has classified
these and called attention to many imperfections and disparities requiring further theoretical and experimental investigations.
The book should prove to be of value to all chemists; it can
even be considered indispensible to all working on reaction
kinetics in the widest sense. It can be recommended to students on account of its lucid and simple presentation of the
w.
,NB 259,1 17 IEl
the3retical side of the subject.
Tables of Experimental Dipole Moments. By A.L. McClellnn.
W. H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco-Londoi 1963. 1st
Edit., 713 pp., linen L5.0.0 (about $ 16.00).
Every chemist who sometimes wants to know the dipole
moment of a certain compound is familiar with the difficulties
involved in finding the desired value because only older incomplete tables are available so that he must look for the dipole moment in general abstract journals or in the original
literature. For this reason the author of this book has undertaken the commendable task of collecting all the dipolemoment values published up to the end of 1961 and arranging
them into three tables. Table I contains the dipole-moments
for about 250 compounds containing no carbon atoms,
Table I1 summarizes those for about 4500 compounds containing one or more carbon atoms, and Table I11 lists the
values for about 100 compounds whose formulae are not
exactly known. The method of tabulation corresponds to that
of the formula indexes of Chemical Abstracts, so that all the
compounds listed can be found rapidly. Each entry in the
tables gives the molecular formula, the dipole moment (with
limits of error), and reference to the source of the measurem e x , together with the name of the appropriate compound,
its state of aggregation or solvent used, the temperature,
measuring procedure, and the atomic polarization used for
evaluation. The only worthwhile data missing are particulars
of the methods used to calculate the values from the dielectric
constants.
The quality of the tables can be appreciated from their completeness, the correctness of the data, and the orderliness of
arrangement. Numerous references selected at random proved
of the entries taken from the literature are corthat 90-95
rectly listed. The layout of the tables is very orderly. A few
small errors are naturally unavoidable within the confines of
such an extensive work; e.g. all the dipole-moments given
that were allegedly determined by the “fluorescence” method
were actually found from the dependence of the dielectric
constants of solutions on the concentration, and the dipole
moment of p-dimethylamino-w-nitrostyrene is given on page
495 under the formula and name of the corresponding stilbene.
268
The book can be recommended to every chemical library, and
it will soon be a familiar work of reference for every chemist
who has to search frequently for dipole moments. It is only
to be hoped that supplements will appear at short intervals.
W. Liptny [NB 263/121 IE]
Advances in Chemical Physics. Edited by I. Prigogine. Vol. VI.
Interscience Publishers, a Division of John Wiley & Sons,
London-New York-Sidney 1964. 1st Edit., ix + 506 pp..
several illustrs. and tables, linen €6.0.0 (about $ 17.00).
Most of the contributions in this volume attempt at as stringent a discussion of the theory of the respective topic as possible: thus, for example, in the first article “Towards an analytic theory of chemical reactions”, H. Aroeste states prefatorily: “The main purpose of an analytic approach to the
theory of chemical reactions is to furnish a detailed understanding of the elements involved rather than to provide
a quick comparison with experimentally determined macroscopic rates”.
Similar remarks apply to the contribution of A . Bellemutis
and M. de Leener on the “Electron gas in a lattice of positive
charges”. M. Fixmnn’s treatment of ,,The critical region”,
although fundamentally theoretical, lies closer to experimentation. This chapter can be recommended to all interested in
this field, which is still far from stagnating. The same can
be said of the following chapter by H. L. Frisch on “The
equation of state of the classical hard-sphere fluid”. This
is a strongly idealized model of a liquid, but it can be carried
through up to comparison with experiment. The next chapter
too, “Studies in the kinematics of isothermal diffusion.
A macrodynamical theory of multicomponent fluid diffusion” by 0. Lnmm, concerns the experimentor. The next
contribution, on the “Many-electron theory of atoms,
molecules, and their interaction”, by 0. Sinnttuglu conveys a n impressive view of the high level of theoretical
chemical research in the U.S.A., but is only accessible
to the theorist. The same might hold for the article by
J. Stecki on “Ionic solvation”. Another theoretical article by
J. Clzr. Erilcson attempts to improve the unsatisfactory situation in the thermodynamics of surface systems. The final
chapter by A. R. J. P. Ubbelohde on the “Melting mechanisms
of crystals” is again of a more experimental orientation.
The volume is of high quality throughout and ought to provide a good work of reference for all specialists in these fields,
but is probably much too specialized for the average pure
W. Jost [NB 267,138 IE]
chemist.
Analytical Chemistry of the Actinide Elements. By A . J. Moses.
Vol. 9 of the International Series of Monographs o n Analytical Chemistry edited by R. Belcher and L. Gordon. Pergamon Press, Oxford-London-New York-Paris 1963. 1st
Edit., 137 pp., numerous illustrations and tables, linen
G2.5.0 (abaut $6.25).
In view of the increasing scientific and technical impartance
of the actinides, the appearance of this monograph is to be
welcomed. The scope of the book is limited in so far as the
analytical chemistry of the transamericium elements is still
relatively unknown, although some known procedures might
be applicable to them. The presentation of the material is
terse and clear, especially due to numerous tables. Appropriate space has been devoted to the description of the
nuclear properties and the analytical applications of the
radioactivity of the nuclides; several pictures of radiation
detection and irradiation facilities covering full pages are
however more of an illustrative nature than of utility. The
importance of chromatographic separation procedures
should have been accounted for to a greater extent. The
numerous methods of detection and determination described
will be especially appreciated. Although detailed analytical
procedures are given only occasionally, the book provides
useful hints and suggestions for the analyst in helping him
to solve even special problems of actinide analysis.
K. Schwochnu [NB 2741131 IE]
Atigew. Chem. ititernot. Edit.1 Vol. 4(1965)
No. 3
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