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Book Review Chemical Oscillations and Instabilities. Non-Linear Chemical Kinetics. (International Series of Monographs on Chemistry Vol. 21). By P. Gray and S. K

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ysis), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), secondary ion
mass spectrometry (SIMS), and the testing of complex semiconductor structures using low-energy electron beams. A
further chapter giving detailed descriptions of case studies in
the microelectronics field completes the book. References to
recent monographs afford access to the extensive original
literature; additional references to special and company reports are of less value to most readers.
The first part of the book describes the basic principles of
the techniques. The reader is given a mixture of detailed
information, varying from the highly relevant and interesting to the trivial. This part is difficult to appreciate without
a basic knowledge of solid state physics. However, the discussions of the properties of the individual particles used as
probes (electrons and positively charged ions) are very useful
from the standpoint of the nonspecialist. For those working
in this area, the thorough treatment of the interactions of the
particles with the sample material will be especially useful;
this applies especially to the section on sputtering effects and
depth profiles.
Each of the chapters that follow is devoted to a single
technique. In each case the experimental principles of the
method are first explained, and the latest instruments are
described. This is followed by a very useful section on sampling and sample preparation. In these sections, and in those
that follow dealing with the interpretation of data, the practical experience of the authors comes clearly to the fore.
The chapter on scanning electron microscopy contains an
excellent discussion of contrast mechanisms, and also includes information on channeling and cathode luminescence
effects, which many other monographs do not cover. The
chapter on tramsmission electron microscopy will not be
understandable to readers without any previous knowledge;
in particular it does not provide an introduction to geometrical crystallography. Electron diffraction techniques are
treated in a similarly inadequate manner. The chapter on
X-ray spectroscopy is impressive for its very good description of the operational features of the latest commercial instruments and data processing software, which have now
become highly sophisticated. The critical discussion of the
quantitative aspects of X-ray spectroscopy is also useful.
However, in this chapter, even if not earlier, one becomes
aware of a serious shortcoming of the book: there are no
tables of numerical data such as scattering cross-sections and
other quantities that one needs to know in practice for calculating results from spectra. Giving references to such tables
is no substitute for the experimentalist. Through this regrettable omission the book misses the opportunity to be a working tool used alongside the instrument, a role that it would
otherwise have filled admirably by virtue of the rest of its
contents and their orderly arrangement.
The chapter on Auger spectroscopy again includes an excellent introduction to the technique, and describes how the
results are affected by instrumental variables and settings,
followed by a detailed treatment of spatially-resolved quantitative Auger analysis. Unfortunately the section on qualitative “spectroscopy” is very brief, which is likely to disappoint readers whose interests lie outside the silicon-chip field,
since in these areas quantification is intrinsically more difficult and questionable, whereas qualitative analysis is more
important than in the semiconductor field.
The chapter on applications begins with a section on
“Analysis Strategy”, but unfortunately the reader is only
presented with statements of the obvious. Here one would
have expected to find a comparative evaluation of the different methods. The examples of applications that follow are
well chosen to illustrate the general principles described in
Angew. Chem. Inr. Ed. Engl. 31 (1992) N o . 1
the earlier parts of the book. It is here especially that the
reader benefits from the practical experience of the authors,
who give lively and interesting accounts of work in their own
field. An additional useful feature is the inclusion of experimental conditions in some of the figure captions.
On the whole the most impressive aspect of the book lies
in the excellent practically-orientated descriptions of the
chosen techniques. However, this is not a laboratory handbook, as it does not contain the tables of data that are essential in everyday practice. The book can be recommended for
everyone involved in experimental research on semiconductors, whether in industry or universities. With regard to the
interpretation of results, as applied to the everyday work of
an industrial laboratory, it provides excellent guidance and
stimulation for the critical application of these methods. The
same is true to a certain extent for the related fields of thin
films, surface coatings and information storage. As a general
introduction to the techniques the book is only of limited
value. Moreover, users with interests in particulate samples,
oxide powders or materials that are predominantly organic
will find the book less useful.
The book should be useful for preparing advanced lecture
courses on instrumental analysis methods, especially as it
brings together in a concise form information on physical
aspects that would be laborious to extract from other monographs. It should be included in every collection of works on
analytical methods, since it instructs the reader, by means of
examples, in the interpretation of experimental results.
Robert Schlogl
Institut fur Anorganische Chemie
der Universitat Frankfurt/Main (FRG)
Chemical Oscillations and Instabilities. Non-Linear Chemical
Kinetics. (International Series of Monographs on Chemistry, Vol. 21). By P . Gray and S . K . Scotl. Clarendon Press,
Oxford, 1990. xvi, 453 pp., hardcover f. 50.00.--ISBN
0-19-855 646-2
Nonlinear chemical reactions under conditions far removed from chemical equilibrium have become a focus of
attention during the last few years, and can involve fascinating phenomena such as chemical oscillations, multiple stabilities and chaos on both the time and the spatial axes. The
properties of such systems, described by Prigogine as dissipative structures, confer on them the ability for self-organization. The two authors of this book have been involved for
several years in fruitful studies of nonlinear processes in the
gas phase. This has resulted in a book which shows some of
the classical features that characterized the early Russian
publications in the area of combustion processes. The authors have included in their overview of the subject their own
numerous publications. The lively personality of one of the
two permeates the whole book: its aim is to inform, to teach,
and to correct inaccuracies-it is never boring.
Taking as an example the cases of quadratic and cubic
autocatalysis with a wide variety of boundary conditions, the
authors derive numerous analytical solutions to the problem. The topics treated include oscillations in closed isothermal and thermokinetic systems, Hopf bifurcations, relaxation oscillations, the excitability of stationary states,
autocatalysis and oscillations in isothermal and nonisotherma1 continuous flow stirred tank reactors (CSTRs), reaction-diffusion equations for pattern formation (Turing processes), chemical waves, heterogeneous catalytic systems and
chemical chaos. Local stability analysis methods using the
Verlugsgesellschuft mbH, W-6940 Weinheim. 1992
Jacobian matrix and its eigenvalues are applied to all these
processes. The analytical solutions are illustrated by numerous figures, such as highly informative flow diagrams and
phase portraits. In the interests of generality the differential
equations are given in dimensionless form. The lucid treatments of Hopf bifurcation and of the excitabability of stationary states via nullclines are especially worth mentioning.
In the analysis of bistability in a CSTR and the accompanying flow diagrams it is found, interestingly, that recognizable
patterns having the appearance of islands (isolas) or mold
growths appear.
The second part of the book deals with real chemical systems, with particular emphasis on the well known BelousovZhabotinsky reaction and the analysis of the Oregonator
model. As examples of gas phase reactions the hydrogenoxygen reaction, the CO/H,/O, reaction and the oxidation
of acetaldehyde (also in the CSTR) are discussed, together
with models developed for these. The authors are able to
show that the understanding of these gas phase reactions has
now reached a level similar to that for the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction in the liquid state.
Looked at from a teaching standpoint the structure of
each individual chapter is in the style of a lecture, and consequently it is sometimes difficult to enter the text at an arbitrary point. On the other hand, a systematic reading proves
to be very fruitful. However, the book does not describe the
numerical methods that are of such great importance to the
practical user, such as the attractor constructions, Poincare
sections, Lyapunov exponents and the dimensionality of an
attractor. For these one needs to refer to other textbooks.
Also the examples of chemical reactions are rather few, and
no biological examples or gas-solid reactions related to technical catalytic processes are given.
This interesting and well written book is intended, as the
title indicates, for the chemist with mathematical inclinations
who is interested in analytical solutions of simple nonlinear
reaction steps. It can be thoroughly recommended.
Friedemann W Schneider
Institut fur Physikalische Chemie
der Universitat Wurzburg (FRG)
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Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 31 ( f 9 9 2 ) No. 1
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