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Book Review Chemically Modified Carbon Fibers and their Applications. By I. N. Ermolenko I. P. Lyubliner and N. V

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from a general use standpoint; these have all benefited from
a high level of expertise and the authors’ practical experience.
The book offers a wealth of useful information not only
for newcomers but also for “insiders”, who certainly are not
equally familiar with every one of the separation methods,
and will find here a valuable overview of the current state of
the art (the one exception to this is capillary electrophoresis,
which has made a huge step forward in the past year). The
book can therefore be recommended for buying not only by
libraries but also by everyone working in this field.
Gerhard Seipke [NB 1079 IE]
Pharma Forschung
Hoechst AG, Frankfurt/Main (FRG)
Advanced Practical Organic Chemistry. By M . Cusey, J.
Leonard, B. Lygo and G . Procter. Blackie, Glasgow 1990.
xii, 264 pp., paperback, E 14.95.--ISBN 0-216-92796-X
This book is concerned solely with the practical side of
preparative organic chemistry. The groups of readers for
whom it is intended include not only undergraduates and
graduate students of organic chemistry, but also particularly
those “non-specialists”, such as biologists, biochemists, materials scientists and polymer chemists, for whom, according
to the authors, the book can serve as a useful information
source.
A general introduction in Chapter 1 is followed by a second chapter which describes in detail how to keep a laboratory notebook (experiment number, date, reaction scheme,
references to relevant literature, etc.). Here, as also in other
parts of the book, the text seems to be aimed more at the
“non-specialists” than at organic chemistry undergraduates
and graduate students, who should already have learned
these procedures in their elementary practical work.
Chapter 3 describes in detail the fitting out of an individual work-bench station and of the laboratory as a whole. It is
of particular interest to anyone who needs to set up a new
organic chemistry laboratory. He or she will find here a
useful survey of general laboratory equipment (rotary evaporators. balances, vacuum pumps, drying ovens etc.) and a
detailed list of all the items required at the laboratory bench
(numbers and sizes of flasks, and so forth). There is also a
good description of modern vacuum systems which have
additional facilities for working under inert gases.
Chapter 4 deals with the purification and drying of solvents, and Chapter 5 with the purification and handling of
reagents (e.g. transfering liquids under an inert gas, and the
preparation of diazomethane). There then follows a chapter
on working with gases and another on the various types of
vacuum pumps and their capabilities.
Chapter 8 describes how one carries out an organic reaction. Special attention is devoted to reactions using air-sensitive reagents, and there is a very good account of various
techniques for working under inert gases. Some simple methods that the organic chemist can use to monitor the progress
of a reaction are also described. The following chapter then
deals with the work-up of a reaction mixture, including the
various methods available for purifying reaction products.
The next two chapters are concerned with special points that
arise when carrying out reactions on either a very small or a
very large scale.
The chapter on methods of characterization deals with the
various spectroscopic techniques (NMR, IR, UV, MS), but
unfortunately only very superficially. One must ask whether,
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instead of this really very scanty treatment of such an important subject, it would not have been more useful to refer the
reader to appropriate books on spectroscopic methods
where these matters are covered in detail.
Towards the end of the book, in a sequence which seems
to make little sense, come chapters on the chemical literature
(Chemical Abstracts, Beilstein, computer databases), special
techniques (photolysis, ozonolysis, vacuum flash pyrolysis
etc.), advice on what to do when a reaction goes wrong,
examples of particular reactions (the preparation of n-butyllithium, the aldol reaction, Claisen rearrangements etc.), and
lastly-incredibly placed at the end of the book-a chapter
on safety. Especially in view of the authors’ claim, referred to
earlier, to have addressed the book in part to a readership
less familiar with preparative organic chemistry, the placing
of the chapter on safety at the end strikes this reviewer as
highly questionable. Paradoxically, this chapter begins by
stating that “safety is your primary responsibility”.
Despite the criticisms made here concerning a few points,
the book as a whole provides a very useful survey of modern
preparative techniques used in the organic chemistry laboratory. It can be recommended for advanced students, who
should be able to afford it in view of the low price.
Hans-Joachim Knolker [NB 1082 IE]
Institut fur Organische Chemie
der Universitat Hannover (FRG)
Chemically Modified Carbon Fibers and their Applications.
By I. N . Ermolenko, I. P . Lyubliner and N . C.: Gulko. VCH
Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim/VCH Publishers, New
York 1990. x, 304 pp., hardcover, DM 184.00.-ISBN 3527-26027-410-89573-873-2
This monograph summarizes in about 300 pages the considerable amount of knowledge gained during the last two
decades on carbon fibers (C-fibers). In 1982 the authors published in book form in the USSR a summary of research on
doped C-fibers. The present book is an English translation of
a revised and considerably enlarged edition of the earlier
work. This review of a specialized field is intended not only
for specialists but also for graduate students and scientists
who wish to become involved in the area of modern fibers.
The introduction describes the various types of C-fibers
and classifies them on the basis of their heat treatment and
mechanical properties. Here the authors explain that the
emphasis in the chapters that follow is on doped C-fibers,
which they call “element-carbon-fibers’’ ; for information on
undoped C-fibers the reader is referred to other reviews.
In Chapter 2 the structures of C-fibers are discussed with
the help of models and experimental results. The pyrolysis
process which is an essential part of the preparation of the
fibers can be considerably influenced by elements and compounds introduced as dopants, and this causes variations in
the (supermolecular) structure of the resulting fibers and in
the distribution and chemical form of the dopants in the
matrix. Chapter 3 deals with mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of C-fibers and their chemical stabilities. In
particular the relationship between microscopic ordering
and mechanical strength is discussed. Two special sections
are devoted to the activation of adsorption and desorption
and that of ion-exchange processes by chemical modification
of the C-fibers.
Chapter 4 deals with the pyrolysis of cellulose fibers as a
four-stage process. For each temperature range in the process the characteristic chemical changes undergone by the
Verlugsgesellschuft mhH, W-6940 Wemheim, 1991
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cellulose, up to its complete carbonization, are discussed in
the light of spectroscopic and chromatographic evidence.
However, the number of different variables involved in the
pyrolysis process is so great that it is probably not realistic to
expect a clear relationship between chemical changes of the
fiber matrix and the structural and mechanical properties to
emerge here.
Chapter 5 is the longest and the most important as regards
detailed information content; it deals with the preparation of
doped C-fiber materials, with special attention to the effects
of different additives on the pyrolysis process. Although the
effects occurring during the different stages of the process
are many and varied, the authors succeed very well in deriving a systematic relationship between the chemical properties
of the additives and their effects on the pyrolysis process.
Chapter 6 is entitled “Surface Modification of C-Fibers”.
The main emphasis is on the introduction of ionic groups in
relation to ion-exchange applications, and on chemical and
thermal methods for increasing the adsorptivity of C-fibers.
Compared with this, the surface modification of C-fibers
to improve their adhesion properties in polymer and metal
fiber-reinforced composites is treated rather too briefly. Also
in the applications described in Chapter 7 the authors limit
their account mainly to low-modulus fibers and their typical
applications in the areas of adsorption, catalysis and medical
science. Uses of C-fibers in composite materials are treated
briefly, and for applications of high-modulus fibers the reader is referred to already existing reviews.
Although this monograph does not cover all aspects of the
chemical modification of C-fibers, it is a useful survey within
this specialized field. The qualities of the book that impress
are its high information content and the many literature
references, which in some parts raise it to the standard of a
handbook. It can be strongly recommended for the readership intended by the authors.
Worfgang Meyer [NB 1085 IE]
Max-Planck-Institut fur Polymerforschung,
Mainz (FRG)
Mycotoxins. Chemical, Biological and Environmental Aspects. (Series: Bioactive Molecules, Vol. 9). By V. Betina.
Elsevier, Amsterdam
1989. 438 pp., hardcover,
HFI 295.00.--ISBN 0-444-98885-8
The book gives an overview of the most important mycotoxins, their occurrence, their structures and physicochemicat properties, the fungi that produce them, their biosyntheses and their biological activities.
Chapter 1 covers very briefly, but also in a way understandable even to non-microbiologists, some aspects of the
taxonomy and chemotaxonomy of mycotoxin-producing
fungi. Mycotoxins and their producers are summarized very
clearly in four tables, with indications of the chapters in
which they are treated more thoroughly.
Chapter 2 covers general aspects of secondary metabolites, which include mycotoxins. The most important topics
and theories are introduced and discussed.
Chapter 3 summarizes the most important biological effects of mycotoxins. In addition to the toxic effects on man
and mammals, their effects on insects, plants and other microorganisms are discussed. The relevance of biological
screening is also discussed. Chapter 4, on modes of action,
describes many different sites of action and metabolic pathways that are affected by mycotoxins. Unfortunately there is
not much critical evaluation of published results. A distinc214
0 VCH Verlagsgesellschafl mbH, W-6940 Weinheim, 199i
tion between primary and secondary effects would have been
helpful to the non-specialist. Chapter 6 briefly describes
some ecological aspects of toxins and the organisms that
produce them. With regard to methods of detection, biological tests are described in most detail.
In the second half of the book, covering 12 chapters, the
most important mycotoxins are described, and arranged by
chemical structure or biological action. The aflatoxins,
sterigmatocystins and versicolorins, the ochratoxins and related compounds, citrinin, the tricothecenes, patulin and
other small lactones (penicillic acid, mycophenolic acid,
butenolide, citreoviridin), zearalenone, the cytochalasans,
rubratoxins, anthraquinones, tremorgenic mycotoxins (including penitrems and paspaline) and epipolythiopiperazine3,6-diones such as gliotoxins and chaetocins, are all comprehensively described.
The chapter “Miscellaneous Toxins” deals very briefly
with PR toxin, secalonic acid D, viridicatum toxin, cyclochlorotine, cyclopiazonic acid, moniliformin and fusarin C.
For each mycotoxin, information on the organism that produces it, its occurrence, the biosynthesis of the toxin, its
isolation and physicochemical characterization, its structure, biological activity, mode of action and ecological aspects is set out very clearly.
The book has several merits; it is easy to follow, well-organized, and contains essential information for all the toxins
listed, covering the literature up to 1988 inclusive. The mycotoxin producing organisms are listed separately in the index.
It is almost unavoidable for a book of this size to also contain some flaws. The formula of one of the tautomeric forms
of mycophenolic acid (p. 244) is incorrect. Beside the formula for moniliformin there is an extra unrelated group.
Overall, this book serves as an up-to-date compilation of
the most important mycotoxins. It can be recommended as
a reference work, as an introduction to the subject, or as an
accompaniment to lectures. Unfortunately the variety of biological effects are often only listed but not evaluated, which
reduces the value of the book for the non-biological reader.
Timm Anke [NB 1094 IE]
Lehrbereich Biotechnologie
der Universitat Kaiserslautern (FRG)
Biomineralization, Chemical and Biochemical Perspectives.
Edited by S. Mann, J. Webb and R. J. P. Williams. VCH
Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim/VCH Publishers, New
York 1989. xiv, 541 pp., hardcover, DM 274.00. ISBN 3-527-26750-6/0-89573-672-1
Reports on international conferences about aspects of
biomineralization appear at nearly regular intervals of four
to five years. A particularly important contribution on this
topic was that of the 1981 Dahlem conferences (Lve Science
Research Report 23). Up to then biomineralization had been
understood to be a process involving the formation of insoluble calcium compounds. In addition biomineralization had
come to be regarded as a biological phenomenon that also
includes pathological aspects such as the formation of stones
in the body, and demineralization processes (osteoporosis,
caries). Since 1983, however, the term biomineralization has
started to undergo a change of meaning to include the area
of “biological metal accumulation”, and appears to be becoming a part of “bioinorganic chemistry”. Thus the original meanings of the terms are gradually becoming blurred.
The bood reviewed here is well produced and appeais at
an opportune time, especially in view of the fact that, in
addition to the emergence of the aspects mentioned above,
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Angew. Chem. h i . Ed. Engl. 30 (1991) No. 2
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