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Book Review Chemie der Pflanzenschutz- und Schdlingsbekmpfungsmittel (Chemistry of Pesticides and Plant-Protection Agents). Edited by R. Wegler. Vol. 5. Herbicides. Technical editors R. Wegler and L. Eue

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BOOK REVIEWS
Pericyclic Reactions. Vol. I. By A. P. Marchand and R . E.
Lehr. Academic Press, Inc., New York-London 1977. 1st
Edit., xi, 286 pp., bound $ 28.00.
Twelve years after appearance of Woodward and Hoffmann’s
equally fundamental and stimulating work, Marchand and
Lehr present the first volume of “PericyclicReactions”. Selected
aspects of this type of reaction are set out and looked at
critically in four chapters.
The first chapter, “Operational Criteria for Evaluation of
Concertedness in Potential Pericyclic Reactions”, written by
Lehr and Marchand, is concerned with the experimental criteria
that can lead to a statement whether or not a reaction course
is concerted. As examples, kinetic and thermodynamic results,
investigations of isotope effects, and labeling experiments
illustrate the textual content.
The second Chapter, “The Mobius-Hiickel Treatment of
Organic Systems and Reactions and MO Following as a
Technique in Organic Chemistry”, written by H . E. Zimmerman, is fully in line with the intention laid down in the first
sentence of the article: “The present chapter presents the
author’s approach to dealing with orbital-control of organic
reactions”. Correspondingly, for instance, Fukui’s name
is not mentioned in the references. If this article is
designed to give an insight into the theoretical background
to pericyclic reactions, we cannot deny that this brilliantly
written chapter has a certain onesidedness. It may be added
that the Mobius-Hiickel procedure is also known as the EvansDewar procedure.
W M . Jones and U . H . Brinker contributed the third
Chapter, “Some Pericyclic Reactions of Carbenes”. The accent
is placed on addition to multiple bonds, insertion into C-H
bonds, and 1,2-rearrangement of carbenes, in which besides
experiments the qualitative and quantitative theoretical
approaches to these reactions are discussed. Rearrangement
of vinylcarbenes to cyclopropenes is reviewed for the first
time. Special weight is also laid on sections about carbene-carbene rearrangements and on ring-opening of cyclopropylidenes to allenes.
“PericyclicReactions of Carbanions” is the title of the fourth
Chapter, by S. W Staley. In this review of a topical and
rapidly developing field are included the rotation barriers
of unsaturated “carbanions” as well as the typical pericyclic
reactions; this feature is especially welcome, since stereochemical investigations in these species depend far more than e.g.
investigations in olefins on comparatively low rotation barriers. Onecan be excited to learn how investigations of the ionpair character and of reversible electron-transfer processes will
widen our knowledge of this field.
A11 in all, this is a volume of reviews of important areas
for those familiar with the field. It also provides any interested
chemist with an expert introduction.
Gernot Boche [NB 418 IE]
Chemie der Pflanzenschutz- und Schadlingsbekampfungsmittel
(Chemistry of Pesticides and Plant-Protection Agents).
Edited by R. Wegler. Vol. 5. Herbicides. Technical editors:
R. Wegler and L. Eue. Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York 1977. xxi, 752 pp., 6 figs., bound, DM
198.-.
In the Foreword the editor bases his purpose on the need
to use chemicals for plant protection; the efforts to produce
vegetable foods as cheaply as possible and in good quality
have led to a remarkable expansion of the spectrum of active
agents, a feature applying particularly to fungicides. Among
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 17 (1978) No. 6
the herbicides there have been no essentially new discoveries
of active substances to report recently, and yet the number
of preparations on the market has greatly increased. In countries engaged intensively in agriculture, herbicides now account
for more than half of all plant-treatment agents by amount
and by value.
The usual division into inorganic and organic herbicides
is retained in the present book. There are short introductory
chapters on the mode of action and application as well as
on tests, and a list of the various names used for weedkillers
in the literature, particularly in patents. Inorganic compounds
are mainly suitable for total weed destruction, and are still
widely used despite the fact that their importance has been
diminishing for several years. The authors have therefore confined their treatment to a few pages. Much space is given,
on the other hand, to a description of organic herbicides.
They are classified according to active components, a typical
formula being provided for the various active compounds.
In each case there follows a collection of the more recent
literature and valid patents. A review of the supplementary
patents published in 1969 to 1976 is given in a separate Appendix of over 300 pages. In the authors’ view a comprehensive
knowledge of the patent situation constitutes the basis for
decisions about new developments and investment in plant.
In view of the large number of herbicidal compounds described,
the concluding subject and compound index is a valuable
addition to the book.
Unlike earlier volumes in this series, the herbicide volume
is produced photomechanically, which means that the reproduction of the formulas has suffered somewhat. However,
the editor sees a special advantage in the possibility of continuing supplements, and in view of the continuing development
of the herbicide sector this must be accepted, though with
reservations. The book fulfils its purpose of providing detailed
information for specialists in the chemical industry and for
phytopathologists.
Dieter Knosel [NB 409 IE}
The Chemical Physics of Surfaces. By S. R. Morrison. Plenum
Press, New York-London 1977. xvii, 415 pp., numerous
figs. and tables, bound, $ 47.40.
An ever-increasing interest in the physics and chemistry
of solid surfaces is currently fostered by the recent investigations of the use of semiconductors for the conversion of sunlight
into electrical or chemical energy. Corrosion, catalysis, and
electrophotography are other examples in which electron
transfer at solid surfaces plays a part.
The author has been at pains-and with success-to bring
the physicist’s predominantly energetic mode of consideration
(bandmodeland surfacestates) into harmony with the chemist’s
mainly atomistic picture (surface groups, active centers). At
last, someone has pointed out that there is a difference between
redox processes and Lewis acid-base reactions. Of course, Lewis
base centers may occasionally donate single electrons.
The first chapter reads like a good textbook and provides
the chemist with an excellent introduction. With didactic skill
of high order the principles are first described and discussed
qualitatively, then treated formally and quantitatively. In the
energy level diagrams the coordinates are clearly marked,
which is a pleasant change. The text could, however, have
been supported by more illustrations. The real structure of
crystal surfaces is treated too briefly. The exposition of the
experimental methods is comparatively short, and owing to
the rapid development of this field it is not completely up
471
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