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Book Review Chemische Technologie (Chemical Technology). Edited by K. Winnacker and L. Kchler

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adequate substitute for nutritional proteins and that no
side effects occur. Moreover, such mixtures can be used
for improving second class proteins. The authors discuss
the nitrogen balance and biological value of proteins,
amino acids, and their mixtures, and also the reasons for
variations in the degree of utilization of proteins and amino
acid mixtures; in conclusion they turn their attention to
amino acids in medicine, concentrating particularly on
parenteral administration. [Mixtures of Amino Acids in
Human Nutrition. Russ. Chem. Rev. 40, 441-445 (1971);
164 references, 6 tables]
[Rd 428 IE -MI
nitrenium ions ( 3 ) , 1,l-disubstituted diazenium ions ( 4 ) ,
and phenylogous and azavinylogous diazenium ions ( 5 )
receive particular attention. [Aus der Chemie reaktiver
(4).X
The chemistry of reactive nitrogenous intermediates is the
topic ofan article by S. Hiinig. The author deals mainly with
the production and subsequent reactions of uncharged
,and cationic intermediates having a sextet of electrons on
the nitrogen. Nitrenes ( I ) , 1,l-disubstituted diazenes (2),
= H,
OR
(5)
stickstoffhaltiger Zwischenstoffe. Helv. Chim. Acta 54,
1721-1747 (1971); more than 100 references]
[Rd 429 IE -M]
BOOK REVIEWS
Catalyse et catalyseurs en chimie organique (Catalysis and
Catalysts in Organic Chemistry). By P . Brun. Masson et
Cie, Paris 1970, 1st ed., 241 pp., 29 figures, Fr. 70.--.
The use of catalysts in organic reactions has received comparatively scanty treatment in previous textbooks on heterogeneous catalysis. The attempt of the present book to
repair this deficiency is therefore welcome. The book starts
with a section on methods for the investigation of surfaces
and on the underlying phenomena which play a part in
catalysis; this is followed by a section on the role of individual chemical elements in catalysis. After a discussion of
the properties required for technical purposes, reactions
such as hydrogenation, oxidation, dehydrogenation, hydration, dehydration, rearrangements, polymerization, and
also the influence on radicals and many other topics are
discussed.
Although the plan of the book is good, its execution leaves
much to be desired. Conciseness in presentation should not
be achieved at the expense of comprehensibility, but this
occurs frequently, particularly in the first chapter. On the
basis of the descriptions given there no-one could understand the BET method of surface area determination or the
measurement of a pore spectrum, or even carry them out.
The bibliography should be just as complete as the collection of reactions ; if, however, one averages out the years of
appearance of the papers quoted, values prior to 1940 are
obtained in some cases. It is therefore not surprising that
one looks in vain for many reactions at the forefront of
current interest (oxidation of ethylene on silver to ethylene
oxide ; oxidation of propylene to acrolein, butene to butadiene, and the ammoxidation of propylene to acrylonitrile
on bismuth-molybdenum catalysts). On the other hand, it
is pleasing to find the catalytic reactions of complicated
organic molecules handled in previously unknown detail.
Willi Herzog
Angew. Cbem. internal. Edit. Vol. 10 (1971) No. 12
[NB 995 IE]
Chemische Technologie (Chemical Technology). Edited by
K . Winnacker and L. Kuchler. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich 1969. 3rd ed., Vol. 1 : Anorganische Technologie I
(Inorganic Technology I), xx, 729 pp., 271 figures, 137
tables, bound, DM 168.--. Vol. 2: Anorganische Technologie I1 (Inorganic Technology 11), xxiii, 671 pp.,
267 figures, 138 tables, bound, DM 168.-.
This established collective work gives in a limited space a
description of the individual branches of the chemical
industry. The editors’ efforts to keep the size within limits
can be clearly seen: despite complete rewriting, many of
the articles have the same number of pages as in the previous edition. Even the bibliographies have not just been
amplified by the addition of new references but have been
critically reviewed, so that in places they are in fact shorter
than before. Some of the articles are completely new, which
has suggested a regrouping of the whole material. For this
reason, although the individual volumes of the third edition
have the same number of pages, or even fewer than before,
the whole work will consist of seven volumes, while the
previous edition consisted only of five.
Volumes 1 and 2, which have now appeared, deal only with
inorganic technology, in contrast to the previous editions.
The review articles on process technology and chemical
reaction techniques, which previously were at the start of
the entire work, will now appear in Volume 7 (“General”).
Volume 1 starts with an new contribution, “Lines of development of chemical technology”, by Winnacker and Biener,
which provides an excellent introduction to the descriptive
articles that follow. The stages of the short history of the
German chemical industry are clearly shown and set in an
international context. The particular problems of research
are discussed, as also are those of patent technology and
documentation.
945
In the other articles an attempt has been made to adapt the
material so that related topics are brought together, Over
half of the 35 principal authors are subject specialists who
are new to this task. This, and the consideration of recent
developments, has led to considerable changes in places.
The overall field is broken down into the following articles:
Volume 1 : Lines of development of chemical technology
( Winnacker and Biener, 45 pages); Water (Greiner, 31 pages);
The potassium industry (Autenrieth, 85 pages); Technology
of boron compounds (Heinerth, 12 pages); Common salt,
soda, and potash (Heuse and Wilsing, 51 pages); Chlorine
and its inorganic compounds (Hund and Zirngiebl, 97 pages); Fluorine and its inorganic compounds (Weise, 17 pages) ; Phosphorus and its inorganic compounds (Hnrnisch
and Saenger, 79 pages); Carbide, calcium nitride, and silicon carbide (Ritter and Krause, 40 pages); Electrolytic
graphite and artificial carbon (Dunges and Vohler,47 pages);
Peroxo compounds (Pistor, 81 pages); Nitrogen and its
inorganic compounds (Mundo, 117 pages).
Volume 2: Sulfur and its inorganic compounds (Diinges,
Saenger and WOK84 pages); Chromium compounds (Dilthey and Weise, 35 pages); Manganese compounds (Preisler,
19 pages); Inorganic pigments (Hund and Schultz, 53 pages); Rare earths (Greinacher, 29 pages) ;Binders in building
work (Wittekindt, 56 pages); Ceramics (Kienow, 60 pages);
Glass (Trier, 65 pages); Liquefaction and separation of
gases (Baldus,Knapp and Schlutterer, 101 pages); Materials
of high surface area (Bratzler, 46pages); Problems of
chemical technology in nuclear technology (Kiichler, 93
pages).
There is no need to read further than the article on water
to see how favorable an influence the new treatment can
exert on both form and content. However, it is surprising
that waste water purification is no longer dealt with in a
separate section. In this connection, the question arises
whether air, which like water is used as a raw material and
as a coolant and is burdened with waste materials, does not
deserve a more thorough treatment than it receives in the
article on gas separation.
All the articles on classical inorganic technology have been
rewritten and brought up to date as far as possible. Statistical data and literature references are considered up to 1968.
New developments have caused large changes, particularly
in the electrochemical processes used in chlorine chemistry. The articles on graphite and on nuclear technology
are new.
From the earliest days graphite electrodes have been of
decisive importance in the great electrochemical and electrothermal processes of inorganic chemistry. The arrival
of more and more new applications, particularly in apparatus construction, in nuclear technology, and most recently
in the field of fibers, justifies the treatment of this topic as a
subject in its own right.
Nuclear technology is beginning to make a significant contribution to power supplies, and it is high time that is was
included in the normal realm of technology. From the production of fissionable material with the use of minimum
separation factors to the performance of radiochemical
reactions in chemical nuclear reactors and the processing
of nuclear fuels under conditions necessitating extreme
purity and safety requirements, many problems of chemical
technology are involved. Kiichler and his associates have
summarized them very successfully.
946
It is a difficult task to cover so vast a field as that of inorganic
chemistry while on the one hand presenting a comprehensive picture and on the other hand preserving the unity of
the presentation by keeping it as far as possible to a limited
space. The participation of a large number of authors may
lead to a sharing but not a simplification of this task. The
editor and publisher have overcome the problems with
great success in the first two volumes of the third edition
of this work. It is to be hoped that the remaining volumes
will soon be published, so that the complete work can take
its place in our libraries.
Ulrich Wagner [NB 997 IE]
Thermal Stability of Polymers, Vol. 1. By R. T. Conley.
Marcel Dekker Inc., New York 1970. 1st ed., x, 644 pp.,
numerous figures, bound S 44.50.
The two-volume work, which is being published in the
series “Monographs in Macromolecular Chemistry”, and
of which this is the first volume, reviews the most important
literature on heat-resistant plastics.
The opening chapters are devoted to the polymer properties
and the structural characteristics that influence the thermal
stability of polymers. The broad concept of the “thermal
stability” of polymers is first explained and discussed with
reference to general criteria such as molecular structure
and crystallinity, kinetics and mechanism of the thermal
depolymerization, the basic theory of random degradation
processes, and fundamental problems relating to oxidation
products. Separate chapters are devoted to the thermal or
oxidative degradation of various important classes of substances, e. g. polyolefins, rubber, vinyl and vinylidene polymers, polyfluorohydrocarbons, polyamides, polyesters,
polyethers, formaldehyde-based thermosets, epoxy resins,
cellulose derivatives, and some heterocyclic ring systems.
The last chapter deals with inorganic polymers based on
boron, silicon, phosphorus, and sulfur. The possible reactions of the various classes when heated in the presence and
in the absence of oxygen are discussed in detail.
Since the book draws on the specialized experience of several authors, it cannot and does not claim to be complete in
its coverage of polymers and to give equal treatment to all.
The present first volume unfortunately contains no table
of contents for Volume 2, which is in preparation. Consequently. no final judgment can be made on this point at
present.
The keyword index is regrettably not sufficiently comprehensive, since many of the facts and classes of substances
treated are mentioned only superficially. For example,
polysulfides are mentioned on p. 181, but do not appear in
the subject index. More information on the practical use
of members of the classes of substances discussed and of
the effects described would have been of special interest to
the industrial chemist.
A few technical shortcomings must be mentioned. Temperatures in “C and in O F are indiscriminately mixed. As a
result of many errors, e. g. missing or displaced double and
single bonds and H atoms, as well as tetravalent phosphorous or tetravalent boron, some of the formulas are
almost incomprehensible.
Despite these faults, the book should be of use to any
chemist who is concerned with the degradation of polymers
and who requires information beyond that normally available.
RudolfMerten [NB 1000 IE]
Angew. Chem. inrernat. Edit. / Vol. 10 (1971) / No. 12
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