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Book Review Chemistry of Powder Production. (Series Powder Technology.) By Y. Arai

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In summary, the author has succeeded
in writing a comprehensible introduction
to glass science. The diagrams are clear,
and the use of physical and chemical formulas is restricted to an essential minimum. Of course, one can have different
opinions on the weighting of the different
topics in such a book. The book cannot be
recommended as a textbook on glass, but,
in accordance with the intentions of the
author, as an introductory overview dealing with all important aspects.
Ulrich Schubert
Institut fur Anorganische Chemie
der Technischen Universitat Wien
Vienna (Austria)
Chemistry of Powder Production.
(Series: Powder Technology.) By
Y. Arai. Chapman & Hall, London,
1996. 281 pp., hardcover E69.00.ISBN 0-412-39540-1
This book is an English translation of
the original Japanese version published in
1987. Consequently it does not cover the
latest methods for the production and
characterization of powders, but describes conventional and well-established
methods. The book can therefore best
serve as an introduction to powder technology, which now plays an increasingly
important role in the manufacture of
high-performance materials such as polymers, metals, and (ceramics. Materials in
powder form are also important in the areas of pharmaceuticals and agricultural
products. A large proportion of modern
industrial manufacturing involves the
production and processing of raw materials in powder form.
The book consisi:s of five chapters covering the basic principles of the production of powders and measurements of
powder properties. The main part of the
contents is arranged under three subject
areas: the physical properties of powders
(Chapter 3 ) , the production of powders
(Chapter 4), and methods for the measurement and analysis of powder properties (Chapter 5 ) .
Chapter 1 is an excellent introduction,
which begins by discussing what is meant
by a powder, and goes on to give a definition. According to this, powders can be
regarded as a fo-urth state of matter
alongside the three aggregated states: gas,
liquid, and solid. The powder state has
features in common with all the latter
three. The essential differences between a
powder and a bulk solid are discussed in
terms of their characteristic physical
properties. Lastly, the author explains the
distinction between powders and granular
Angeu Chem inr Ed Eizgl. 1!?97,36,NO 20
materials on the basis of their typical particle size ranges.
Chapter 2 discusses powder specifications by considering various examples:
ceramic sintering powders, powders for
magnetic applications (e.g., sound recording), and pigment powders for use in plastics, paints, and paper. The different combinations of properties needed for each of
these three areas of application are described. In each case the author explains
how the critical properties of the powder
(e.g., sintering behavior, magnetic induction at saturation, coloring power) are affected by the size and/or shape of the particles.
Chapter 3 is concerned with the fundamental physical properties of powders.
The main aspects treated are particle size,
structure, surface energy, and surface
properties such as adsorption behavior,
wettability, and catalysis. Mechanochemistry, i.e. the influence of mechanical energy input on the physical and chemical
properties of powders, is also included
Chapter 4 deals with methods for manufacturing powders. A distinction is
drawn between purely physical processes,
such as comminution or milling, and the
thermal decomposition of inorganic or
organic metal salts to yield finely-divided
ceramic powders, where the chemical
decomposition reactions determine the
constitution of the product. Another important topic discussed is the precipitation of solids from liquid phases (especially solutions). The chapter deals with the
mechanistic details of nucleation, or of
processes where a precipitate is laid down
on a substrate, as well as crystal growth,
hydrolysis of metal alkoxides, and hydrothermal reactions. Next the author
discusses the production of powders by
gas phase reactions, with special attention
to the thermodynamics of the formation
of oxide and non-oxide powder particles
from the gas phase. The chapter ends by
considering the internal structure of the
solid phase, and discusses solid state reactions, a fundamental understanding of
which is important in the production of
ceramics from powders.
Having thus dealt with the production
of powders, the final chapter is devoted to
their properties, which are of crucial importance for technological applications.
The physicochemical methods used for
studying the properties of powders are
discussed in detail. The central topics are
particle size analysis and the measurement
of surface properties (wetting energy, surface energy, heat of adsorption, zeta potential, and surface activity).
Considering the book as a whole, its
Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, 1997
special virtues are the orderly arrangement of the material and the easily understandable presentation of the main features. At the end of each chapter is a list of
references which includes the most important original papers on the subjects covered. However, it is unfortunate that the
chapters are not as up-to-date as they
should be. If the translation from the
Japanese had been combined with a thorough revision and enlargement, the result
would have been an up-to-date standard
work of great value for both teaching and
research. Bearing in mind this limitation,
the book can be recommended mainly
for advanced or postgraduate students
of chemistry, mineralogy. or materials
science, who wish to learn about the
fundamentals of powder technology, and
more particularly about the production,
characterization, and properties of inorganic powders.
R a y Riedel
Fachgebiet Disperse Feststoffe
der Technischen Hochschule
Darmstadt (Germany)
Hydrocarbon Resins. By R. Mildenberg, M. Zander and G . Collin.
WILEY-VCH, Weinheim, 1997. 179
pp., hardcover DM 198.00.-ISBN
Synthetic hydrocarbon resins consist of
rather complex oligomers and monomers
which are derived from coal tar, cracked
petroleum, and turpentine feedstocks.
Such resins-frequently consisting of complicated reaction products and blends of
numerous compounds-find many applications in formulated multicomponent
systems such as adhesives, coatings, printing inks, packaging, sealants, paints, wood
protection treatments, surface modification treatments, foundry industry chemicals, mineral oil additives, flooring, etc.
The authors of the book Hydrocarbon
Resins have compiled information about
raw materials, production processes,
methods of characterization, and chemical and physical properties of hydrocarbon resins, excluding natural resins. Special emphasis is placed upon applications
and opportunities for improving performance of formulated products in specific
end uses. The aim of the book is to
provide background information on hydrocarbon resins for chemists, engineers,
applications technologists, and sales personnel, who are concerned with production and quality control of products involving hydrocarbon resins.
The book is organized in nine chapters:
1. terminology (2 pp.); 2. raw materials
0570-0833/97/3620-2249 $17.50+ SO 0
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