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Book Review Chemistry of the Rare-Earth Elements. By N. E. Topp. Monograph Series Topics in Inorganic and General Chemistry. Edited by P. L. Robinson

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theoretical principles and the rather minor place given to the
combination of several methods in tackling analytical problems. The various sections in Part I are arranged according
to methods and Part I1 according to elements, and all sections
were written by specialists.
Chemistry of the Rare-Earth Elements. By N . E. Topp.
Monograph Series: Topics in Inorganic and General
Chemistry. Edited by P. L. Robinson. Elsevier Publishing
Company, Amsterdam-London-New York 1965. 1st edit.,
xi + 164 pp., bound. Dutch fl. 27.50 ($7.50).
The sixth volume of Part I continues the discussion of
optical methods in analysis; it contains a section o n emission
spectrography by B. F. Scrihner and M . Mnrgoshes and a
section on flame photometry by B. L. Vczllee and R. E.Thiers.
Both sections present good surveys; the section on emission
spectrography dces not stress sufficiently the importance of
this method for the automated analysis of metals. In the
chapter on flame photometry, the reader searches in vain for
the more recent developments, particularly atomic absorption
and the possibilities of the flame fluorescence technique.
Indications towards the end of the section, as well as the list
of references, suggest that tQis section, like several others,
does not correspond to the latest stage of development.
The author reports the chemistry of the rare earths in an
easily intelligible manner. Twelve chapters introduce the occurrence, treatment, and use of the rare earths. Various
chapters describe in detail the history of their discovery,
their most important minerals, and methods of processing.
Methods of separation, e.g. by ion exchange and countercurrent extraction, are also treated. Analysis, preparation of
rare-earth metals, and the most important technical uses are
reported. The book includes the preparation of pyrophoric
alloys (“flints”). manufactureof east iron by means of nodular
iron, purification of high-melting metals, use of compounds of the rare-eaqh qerals as polishing materials, inclusion of rare earths inultraviolet- absorbing glass, coloration
of glass. and preparation of glas2 with 2 high refractive index.
In addition, the use of cerium fluoride to increase the light
yield from carbon arcs and of sulfides for preparation of
materials stable at high temperatures is reported briefly. The
isotopes of the rare earths, with their physical properties, are
tabulated in an appendix.
E. Ruf
[NB 501 IE]
A . L. Smith contributes more than 200 pages on infrared
spectroscopy. A closer reference to practice would have been
preferable in many places, and in particular a list of the
characteristic bands of inorganic and organic compounds
might have been included. The next section, in which E. J .
Rosenbnum deals with Raman spectroscopy, can only be
described as poor. Though the importance of Raman
spectroscopy as a molecular-spectroscopic method is smaller
than that of infrared spectroscopy, advances in both apparatus and methods have been made in recent years which
might have been mentioned in this section. Considerably
more detailed, the next two sections by J. H. Reisner and
G. W . Leddicotte deal with electron diffraction and scattering
and with neutron absorption and scattering. The section on
neutron scattering scarcely mentions the possibilities of this
method in the structural analysts of organic compounds.
S. 2. Lewin and W . S. Struck then discuss the measurement
of refraction, and E. C . Olson describes the measurement of
optical rotation. Both of these are good surveys. The use of
circular dichroism for the structural analysis of organic
compounds receives too little attention. The literature (and
hence also recent flndings) is evidently covered up to 1959
at latest The last two sections of the book are both good
reviews: dealing with optical [W. C. McCrone and L. B.
McCrone) and electron microscopy (G. G. Cocks).
The first ten volumes of Part I1 of Kolthoff-Elving are systematically arranged according to chemical elements, and deal
mainly with the analysis of inorganic compounds. Volume 11
begins Section B of the second part, which deals with organic
analysis. The present two volumes give a well-rounded
impression, and in addition to an introduction on nomenclature ( L . T . Capelf and K. L. Leoning), the stability of
organic compounds ( H . Eyring and F. W . Cngle),and reaction
kinetics (C. S . Hnmmond), they deal with the elementary
analysis of organic compounds. The description of the
methods for the determination of carbon and hydrogen
(G. Ingrnm and M. Lonsdnle) and of nitrogen and phosphorus (G. M . Gusrin, C . L . Ogg, and E. Q. Laws) in Vol. 1 1
is preceded by general considerations on this field by E. W. D.
Huffmnn and a review of ultramicro methods by M . Williams. Vol. 12 deals with the determination of oxygen ( A .
Steyermark), sulfur ( J . F. Alicino, A . I . Cohen, and M . E.
Everhcird), fluorine ( T . S . Mu), boron ( R . D . Strahm), and
silicon ( H . J . Homer). T.T. Gorsirch concludes this volume
with a review of the methods for the determination of
metallic elements in organic compounds. A special section
in Vol. 11 finally deals with biological and biochemical
methods of analysis.
Apart from the reservations mentioned above, the three
volumes are worthy successors, both in content and in
presentation, to those published earlier.
[NB 536 IE]
H . Kienitz
[ l ] Angew. Chem. 77, 927 (1965): Angew. Chem. internat. Edit.
4 , 381 (1965).
Angew. Chem. internnt. Edit.
Vol. 5 (1966)
No. I 1
Diels-Alder Reactions. Organic Background, Physico-chemical
Aspects. By A. Wassermann. Elsevier Publishing Company,
Amsterdam-London-New York 1965. 1st ed., viii, 114 pp.,
numerous illustrations and tables, paper, Dutch fl. 15.00.
The author, himself a pioneer in this field, presents a concise
monograph o n Diels-Alder reactions, which is intended
mainly for the chemist interested in the relationships between
structure and mechanism.
A twenty-page section o n preparative aspects of the reaction
is followed by 15 pages on its stereochemistry, 9 pages on
equilibrium phenomena, 26 pages on kinetic results, and a
25-page discussion of the mechanism. In view of the importance of Diels-Alder additions and the current interest in
their mechanism, a much more comprehensive treatment of
this subject would have been desirable.
The important aspects of cycloadditions with formation of
six-membered rings are presented systematically, but often
briefly and without detajled discussion; many readers will
probably find it necessary to refar to the original literature.
Useful data arE presented in tabulated form in chapters 2 to 5.
The references are mainly confined to the years up to 1962,
and onty a f e d references bring us Up to 1963/1964; consequently, a nurhber of results are out of date or should be
supplemented (e.g. reactions of benzene, hexamethylradialene, Woodward-Hofmann rule). The book does not
contain an alphabetic author index. The print and most of
the formulae are clear, with only very few confusing printer’s
J. S u e r
[NB 507 IE]
Atmospheric Oxidation and Antioxidants. By G. Scott. Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam-London-New York
1965. x, 528 pp., numerous illustrations, bound, Dutch
fl. 72.50.
In recent years, autoxidative processes and their inhibition
have been the subject of growing practical interest, particularly in connection with the development of petroleum,
rubber, and plastics technology. The author presents an
interim report on this fast-growing subject, ranging from the
general reaction mechanisms of the autoxidation of organic
compounds and the action of antioxidants, through the
measuring techniques employed, to the description of
special autoxidation reactions in industrial materials and
their prevention by stabilizing additives.
98 1
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