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Book Review Colloid Chemistry of Polymers. By Y. S. Lipatov

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Part I11 of the monograph describes the apparatus needed
for spectrometric titrations and the electrochemical and
spectrometric techniques involved.
The appendix contains the EDIA program which the authors recommend for use with a personal computer to evaluate relative pK-values (ApK), together with the TIFIT program for iterative curve fitting and statistical analysis of
data.
The authors have set out to critically evaluate the published work on spectrometric titrations which is widely scattered throughout the literature, and to present this in a clear
and easily assimilated form, amplified by results from their
own research in this area.
Perhaps it would be possible in a subsequent edition to
include more detail on methods for determining points of
inflection and stationary points, and measuring the true positions of shoulders in titration curves by repeated differentiation.
The care which has gone into the preparation of the figures, which are excellent from both a visual and a didactic
standpoint, deserves special mention, as also does the overall
quality of production and presentation. This monograph can
be warmly recommended to everyone involved in studying
equilibria and seeking a review of the current state of knowledge in this area. The literature references listed at the end of
each chapter provide a very useful aid to further, more detailed, reading. Although it is pleasing to note that the publishers, notwithstanding the excellent quality of printing and
production, have managed to keep the price down to
DM 0.45 per page, one regrets that not all the students of
chemistry, physics, biochemistry etc. with an interest in the
topic will be able to afford the book. However, it deserves a
place in all university libraries and relevant research laboratories.
Gerhard Talsky [NB 1005 IE]
Institut fur Technische Chemie
der Technischen Universitat Miinchen, Garching (FRG)
Methods for the Oxidation of Organic Compounds - Alcohols,
Alcohol Derivatives, Alkyl Halides, Nitroalkanes, Alkyl
Azides, Carbonyl Compounds, Hydroxyarenes and Aminoarenes. (Series: Best Synthetic Methods, Vol. 8). By A . H.
Haines. Academic Press, London 1988. xx, 467 pp., hardcover, 5 69.50. - ISBN 0-12-31 5502-9
Series such as “Organic Synthesis”, “Organic Reactions”,
or “Reagents for Organic Synthesis”, or more recently computerized data banks of information on reactions, provide
the synthetic chemist with information about preparative
methods which he needs for solving problems of synthesis.
Nevertheless, difficulties often arise from the fact that it is
not always easy to find the required information on chemical
reactions, or to decide on the best method of carrying out the
search. The series “Best Synthetic Methods”, of which the
present book has been published as Volume 8, is intended for
both advanced students and experienced chemists. It aims to
provide them with overviews and critical evaluations, practical advice, and representative examples of important preparative methods, together with guidance on choosing the best
one for the purpose. The author, who has already contributed the second volume of the series on methods for oxidation
of hydrocarbons, has succeeded in meeting the aims of the
series, with the result that this volume too does justice to the
general title “Best Synthetic Methods”.
Angeu Chem. In!. Ed. Engl 29 (1990) No. 5
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A major reason for the success of the volume is the orderly
and consistent arrangement of the material according to the
degree of oxidation of the educts. Each of the seven chapters
is further subdivided according to the reagents used. Since
many of the methods described are not restricted to a single
class of compounds, cross-references are provided to other
chapters in which the same reagents are mentioned, thus
providing the reader with additional guidance. The longest
chapter is that on the oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds and carboxylic acids, in accordance with the importance of these classes of compounds. Each of the methods
described in this chapter is prefaced by a general introduction on “Scope and Limitations”. Advantages and disadvantages compared with other reagents are pointed out, and the
numerous variants of one basic method which exist in many
cases are compared. Discussions of reaction mechanisms,
including questions of reactivity, selectivity and stereochemistry provide the reader with additional information to help
in deciding whether a method is suitable in a particular case.
Each sub-section contains examples of detailed preparative recipes in which the theory is applied to optimizing the
practical results. Most of these are carefully worked out
methods which have proved themselves in the exacting area
of natural products syntheses.
The clarity and thoroughness of the experimental details
contribute to the relative ease with which even those with
limited experience can repeat the preparations. Each sub-section is completed by a comprehensive list of references which
includes both review articles and important original papers.
However, the policy of describing only fully proven methods
reduces the topicality of the coverage. The later chapters of
the book deal with oxidation reactions which are of less
importance from the organic chemistry standpoint. However, the author’s balanced and careful treatment of this material succeeds in also providing the user of the book with a
useful account of these classes of compounds and the methods of oxidizing them.
Tables at the end of the book provide a summary of all the
topics covered. These list in a clear form the educts, reaction
conditions, products, yields and key literature references,
enabling the reader to quickly see the main features at a
glance.
Franz-Peter Monlforts [NB 998 IE]
Institut fur Organische Chemie
der Universitlt Bremen (FRG)
Colloid Chemistry of Polymers. By Y. S . Lipatov. Elsevier,
Amsterdam 1988. ix, 460 pp., hard cover, $155.25.ISBN 0-444-43006-7
This book by Y. S . Lipatov is the seventh volume in an
ongoing series with the title “Polymer Science Library”,
which is published by Elsevier with A . D. Jenkins as consulting editor. The main topics of this volume are the microheterogeneity of polymer melts, the morphology of phaseseparated systems, the colloidal aspects of polymeric systems, and the importance of interfacial properties in such
systems. The main emphasis is on the thermodynamic treatment of the colloid chemistry of polymer systems.
The volume consists of 13 chapters, the first of which is a
general introduction to colloid chemistry, especially as applied to dispersed colloidal polymer systems; the aims and
methods of investigations of such systems are also described.
Chapter 2 is concerned with the microheterogeneous structure of polymeric one- and multicomponent systems, with
Verlagsgesellschafl mbH, 0-6940 Weinhetm, 1990
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the main emphasis on amorphous polymers. Chapter 3 discusses the formation of structures in dispersed polymer systems, including the thermodynamics of phase formation, the
theory of spinodal breakdown of dispersed systems, phase
separation, and dissipative processes resulting from microheterogeneity in polymeric systems. Chapter 4 deals with the
interfacial potential in dispersed systems, including polymer
solutions and melts as well as solid polymers. Chapter 5 continues this theme by treating surface active phenomena in
polymers and the effects of surface active agents on the properties of polymer solutions; special attention is given to the
use of surface active agents for modifying the mechanical
properties of polymers. Chapter 6 is devoted to the adsorption of polymers on solid surfaces. Topics dealt with under
this heading include the thermodynamic and kinetic principles of the adsorption of polymers from dilute solutions, the
role of adsorbed layers in stabilizing dispersed systems, and
the adsorption of polymer blends. Chapter 7 describes the
theory of polymer adhesion and the thermodynamic aspects;
adhesives and their mode of action are also discussed. The
structure and properties of polymer boundary layers at surfaces and interfaces are described in Chapter 8; the main
aspects discussed are boundary layers of polymers on solid
surfaces and in polymer mixtures, structural changes in the
neighborhood of interfaces in such mixtures, microheterogeneities in boundary layers, and polymer monolayers.
Chapter 9 deals with filled polymers, more particularly with
structures formed in the presence of dispersed fillers, the
mechanical and rheological properties of filled polymers, the
effect of the filler on the properties of the interface, and the
use of colloidal metals as fillers. Chapter 10 discusses polymer mixtures, especially the theory of the miscibility and
compatibility of different polymers, and experimental methods for measuring compatibility. This chapter also deals with
typical features found in the phase diagrams of binary polymer mixtures and in the rheological behavior of polymer
mixtures. Polymer-polymer systems, the thermodynamics of
their formation and their colloidal and chemical structures
are described in Chapter 11. Chapter 12 is devoted to gel
formation in polymer solutions and to polymeric gels; as-
Regisrered names, rrodemarks, err. used in rhis journa/, even when nor marked as such, are nor
pects treated are the classification of gels, the conditions for
and mechanism of gel formation, and the structure and
properties of gels. Lastly Chapter 13 deals with emulsions,
dispersions and foams containing polymers; topics treated
are polymerization in emulsions, suspensions and dispersions, polycondensation in emulsions and at interfaces, and
the properties of polymer dispersions and foams.
In all these topics the book treats the most important
thermodynamic principles involved. A comprehensive bibliography is appended at the end of each chapter. A disadvantage of the book is that in translating the original 1984 Russion edition into English no more recent work has been included, and the bibliography is therefore no longer completely up-to-date. Work by Russian scientists is, as
expected, especially well represented in the literature references, but there is nevertheless adequate citation of papers
from the West. Regrettably, experimental results have only
rarely been included as a way of elucidating results derived
from theory. Despite this, the book provides many stimulating ideas, and it gives a reasonably comprehensive treatment
of the field of polymer colloid science. The presentation is
clear and readily comprehensible, and is supported by numerous figures and examples.
However, a real disadvantage of the book is the quality of
production; it has evidently been made by direct photographic reproduction from a typescript. The Greek characters in the equations and diagram and other embellishments
have been inserted by hand. Considering the high price of the
book, the text certainly ought to have been properly processed and typeset.
Apart from this lack of visual appeal, the book is of a high
scientific quality. The subject matter is equally suitable for
chemists, physicists and engineers; however, the clarity of
presentation should also enable an interested non-specialist
to learn about the latest methods and deveIopments in the
colloid chemistry of polymers. For these reasons the book
can be recommended.
Heinz Hoflmann [NB 1020 IE]
Institut fur Physikalische Chemie
der Universitat Bayreuth (FRG)
10
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