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Book Review Crystal Structure Analysis for Chemists and Biologists. By J. P. Glusker M. Lewis and M

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ter 2, “Instrumentation”. is of particular
interest for newcomers to surface analysis,
familiarizing them with the most important components of ultra-high vacuum
systems and of electron spectrometers.
Chapter 3 describes the characteristic features of Auger and photoelectron spectra,
and explains in a clearly understandable
way how such spectra are interpreted and
what information they contain. Chapters 4 and 5 are concerned with depth profile analysis and with the methods used to
establish quantitative scales of concentration and depth. All the most important
theoretical relationships are given here, as
well as practical methods for obtaining
quantitative data, and the problems of
depth profiling by ion sputtering are also
treated. These two chapters are among the
best in the book.
The following chapters describe important areas of application of AES and XPS,
and this naturally involves reviewing the
current state of progress in research and
techniques. Some representative examples
of applications in specialized fields are described. In the course of this the authors
devote particular attention to experimental problems that must be overcome, such
as surface charging, effects of radiation
damage, and limitations on lateral and
depth resolution, as well as some important complementary methods of analysis.
Thus the editors’ aim of providing an introduction to the various areas of application and also giving a broad survey is
achieved in nearly every case. Chapter 6
deals with “Applications of AES in Microelectronics” and Chapter 7 with “AES
in Metallurgy”. The latter chapter begins
with an interesting introduction and a discussion of ways of studying segregation,
then deals in detail with theoretical aspects, thermodynamic processes, and the
kinetics of segregation. In contrast to
these two rather weak chapters, Chapter 8
contains an excellent account of the applications of electron spectroscopy in heterogeneous catalysis research, including a
very good discussion of the experimental
problems and possible sources of error.
XPS studies of catalyst support materials.
platinum metal catalysts. zeolites, and
desulfuration methods are discussed in
detail. Electron energy loss spectroscopy
(EELS) is also included as an important
complementary technique. Chapter 9 is
devoted to “XPS in Polymer Technology”; in particular it contains very useful
sections on bond energies and functional
groups. Lastly, Chapter 10 describes the
use of electrochemical measurements as
an important complementary method in
corrosion research. with detailed discussions of surface roughness and radiation
effects. The book ends with nine appendices which cover physical aspects and experimental results of importance in electron spectroscopy. Appendices 5 -9 contain useful and up-to-date tables of energies, sensitivity factors, and line positions.
To summarize, this book IS a must for
all analysts working in the field of Auger
and photoelectron spectroscopy. and the
availability of a paperback version now
makes buying one’s own copy easier from
the standpoint of cost.
Henning Buhert
Institut fur Spektrochemie
und Angewandte Spektroskopie
Dortmund (Germany)
Crystal Structure Analysis for
Chemists and Biologists. By J. P.
Glusker, M . Lewis, and M .
Rossi. VCH Publishers, New York,
1994. 854 pp., hardcover $ 69.95,
DM 120.00.--ISBN 0-89573-273-4
After many years during which chemical crystallography experienced a dearth
of good or outstanding new monographs
o r textbooks, there has recently been a
marked increase in the choice of material.
Notwithstanding this welcome improvement, it is an exciting development when a
further addition appears under the authorship of such a doyen of the discipline
as Jenny Glusker, in collaboration with
M. Lewis and M. Rossi. After a long wait
since the first announcement, we at last
have before us a work of 854 pages. As
stated in the title. the book aims to make
crystal structure analysis more easily accessible to chemists and biologists. In fact,
the first sentence of the introduction narrows down the anticipated readership still
further to those chemists and biochemists
who, although not actually using the
method themselves, need to be able to understand the results. On first picking up
this bulky and comprehensive work,
which does not merely deal with the
applications but includes a careful and
thorough treatment of the basic principles, one is almost inclined to say that it
is not ideally suitable for the readership
indicated, although that in no way detracts from the excellence of this book in
covering nearly every facet of the subject
that the title implies.
However, to discuss matters in their
proper order: the book consists of 18
chapters covering the subject of chemical
crystallography. About half the chapters
are concerned mainly with the method itself, including the physical and mathematical fundamentals. The rest of the book
concentrates on the results that it can give,
and on their interpretation in terms of
structure and the related chemistry and
biochemistry. However. the boundary between theory and applications is a very
fluid one, which is one reason why one can
never become bored while reading the
book. Another pleasing feature is that the
authors avoid imposing too rigid a distinction between “small” and “large”
molecules. In the examples discussed there
is a strong emphasis on molecules and
macromolecules related to biological systems, which comes as no surprise in view
of the authors’ backgrounds.
Each chapter ends with a brief rlsume
in which the main points covered are summarized with a paragraph for each, followed by a glossary ofthe most important
terms and a comprehensive bibliography.
For each of the publications cited the title
is given in the original language, together
with a translation of any title that is not in
English. Altogether the book contains 102
(!) summary paragraphs, 435 (! !) glossary
terms, and 1834 (! !!) literature references.
The introduction alone contains 14 references. Even these rather dry statistics
provide impressive evidence that the authors have not shirked their task, and the
quality of the final result fully justifies the
book’s claims in every respect.
The manner in which the method and
its applications are explained and discussed is very Par from dry. Even the chapters devoted to the method itself impress
one by the way in which applications are
described for illustration, while ensuring
that this does not detract from the thoroughness of the treatment. Historical aspects (some of which are little known) are
also interwoven with the discussion. so
that one often becomes really absorbed in
the story. For example, where else would
one discover that the first correct proposal for the structure of diborane appeared in an article by W. Dilthey in 1921
with the title “Uber die Konstitution des
Wassers” ( Z . Angeu. Chem. 1921, 34,
596)? Incidentally, this example also illustrates the point that by no means all the
structures discussed relate to biological
systems. In addition to boron and boranes, inorganic chemists will be pleased
to find such ancient topics as the various
tin modifications and blue (copper) vitriol, or may enjoy a glimpse at fullerenes.
The treatment of fundamentals begins
with the structure and symmetry of crystals, then goes on to their physical properties, diffraction by crystals, superposition
of waves, Fourier syntheses. measurement
of structural amplitudes, the solution of
the phase problem, electron density syntheses, and structure refinement. Al-
-
though this arrangement of the subject
matter largely follows the conventional
pattern. the style of treatment is different
i n many respects from that in other books,
with resulling henefits. The exceptionally
clear way in which the subject is developed is n o lesa than one expects from these
authors. Although lengthy mathematical
derivations ;ire not completely absent,
they iire often avoided in favor of a more
effectibe pictorial presentation. Where
mathematical derivations d o occur, they
are enclosed in boxes separated from the
main text. a device which again greatly
improws the readability of the book. Despite this, thc discussion is never siinplifled where that would be inappropriate,
nor is the required depth of treatment ever
sacrificcd. The discussion is illustrated
throughout by many examples (both old
and new). and together with the carefully
prepared figures. many of which are in
stereoscopic form, these further serve to
bring out thc essentials in great clarity.
The many kibles and summaries also
make the b o o k ii valuable reference
source. The clear definitions and explanations o E terms. which are provided in the
text and in the glossary, are especially
commendable.
I n the part of the book devoted to applications the treatment is very different
from that in other related texts (and is
much better). The strong emphasis on
biological aspects in the many examples of
crystal structures has already been mentioned. Some of the topics to which considerable space is given are: molecular
conformation (including its importance in
biological macromolecules). chirality and
absolute structure, structure comparisons
including the use of data banks, receptors
and molecular recognition, and stereochemical aspects of chemical reactions in
crystals (although the latter topic appears
under the rather misleading heading
“Structure- Activity Results”). The authors have not neglected such highly topical (and difficult) areas as atomic and
molecular scattering phenomena, molecular dynamics of polypeptides, and packing
in molecular crystals. Atomic coordinates
and their interpretation also receive careful treatment.
Although the book contains some practical advice and discusses the experimental aspects of crystal structure analysis, it
is definitely not intended as a handbook
for the practitioner. It does not even go
into the details of crystallographic computer programs. In fact that would not be
very desirable. as it would not fit in well
with the character of the book in its
present form. Moreover, a wide choice of
BOOKS
other textbooks of a more practical kind is
already available. On the other hand. one
regrets that there is no discussion of the
many different kinds of errors that can
arise in crystal structure analysis and interpretation (and which regrettably occur
increasingly often). In omitting this aspect the authors have missed a good opportunity to review the now extensive literature on ”incorrect crystal structure
analyses”, to point out the most important kinds of errors that are likely to occur, and to persuade the reader to give
some thought to this very important subject.
However, that is a very minor shortcoming in this thoroughly excellent book,
and in no way detracts from the wide
recognition that it deserves. The style of
presentation, the construction of the
book, and the treatment of the examples
mark this out as a typical “Glusker”. At
almost every point one is aware that a lifetime’s experience in both research and
teaching have been distilled into the text.
It can be confidently predicted that this
book will remain one of the standard
works in chemical crystallography for
some years to come.
Gerhard Miiller
Fakultiit fur Chemie
der Universitlt Konslanz (Germany)
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