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Book Review CVD of Nonmetals. Edited by W. S. Rees Jr

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BOOKS
Modern Materials
The Chemistry of Ceramics. Edited by
H . Yanugidu, K. Kuomoto and M .
Miyuyamu. John Wiley & Sons,
Chichester, 1996. 263 pp., hardcover
E 19.99.-ISBN 0-471-96733
Engineering ceramics or high-performance ceramics are playing an increasingly important role in the development of
new technologies,
especially in the
fields of microelectronics and telecommunications, automotive and turbine
engineering, power
generation, medical
technology, and special materials such
as cermets. In this
book, which is an
English translation of the second edition
of a monograph first published in 1993,
the editors’ main aim was to present the
basic chemistry and physics of this new
class of constructional materials. The detailed engineering and technical aspects of
ceramics, such as processing methods or
fracture mechanics, are only touched on
at an elementary level.
The work consists ofjust four chapters,
resulting in a structure that is clear and
easy to grasp. The first chapter is an introduction which explains the special importance of ceramic materials, reviews their
history and the present situation, and considers the potential for future developments.
The second chapter dcscribes the characteristic solid state structures of ceramics
and glasses. The crystal structures are
classified according to the coordination
number and the arrangement of the ions.
I
This section contains book reviews and a list of
new books received by the editor. Book reviews are
written by invitation from the editor. Suggestions
for books to be reviewed and for book reviewers
are welcome. Publishers should send brochures
or (better) books to the Redaktion Angewandte
Chemie, Postfach 10 11 61, U-69451 Weinheim,
Federal Republic of Germany. The editor reserves
the right of selecting which books will be reviewed.
Uninvited books not chosen for review will not be
returned.
L
Angew Cheni Int ELI Engl 1997 36, No 20
Point defects and dislocations, which are
of fundamental importance for understanding the relevant powder processing
technology and the properties of polycrystalline materials, are treated in detail. The
microstructures of both dense sintered
and porous materials in molded components are then described, and are related
to their properties. Surface structures are
discussed, first in a general way, then with
special reference to thin films, fibers, and
interfaces.
For a thorough understanding of solid
state syntheses and the properties of the
resulting materials it is essential to have a
detailed knowledge of the different reactions that can occur in ceramics, especially
at high temperaturcs. Therefore the third
chapter begins by concentrating on phase
equilibria, phase diagrams, and phase
transformations. Diffusion and mass
transport in solids, and the many different
types of reactions that solids can undergo
with gases or liquids, are treated in detail.
These discussions then provide the basis
for a section devoted to the sintering processes that play a key role in the compaction of ceramic powders, and make
possible the manufacture of a variety of
technologically important refractory materials. The development of suitable sintering methods has made it possible to
produce a whole range of new synthetic
ceramics with especially valuable properties, such as those based on barium or aluminum titanates, zirconium dioxide, silicon nitride, and silicon carbide. As well as
dealing with the purely physical fundamentals of sintering, the chapter also describes the most important technological
compaction processes. This part ends with
a description of processes for manufacturing ceramic powders, thin films, fibers,
porous structures, and composite materials.
The final chapter is devoted to the physical properties of ceramic materials in relation to their technological applications.
These are discussed under the headings of
thermal properties (melting point, coefficient of expansion, thermal conductivity),
electrical and magnetic properties, and
optical, mechanical, and chemical properties. The treatment of electrical and magnetic properties is quite detailed, but some
5 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, 1997
of the other properties, such as corrosion
behavior, are only covered rather superficially. A more extensive and thorough
treatment of these aspects in a future edition would add further to the generally
very favorable impression given by this
monograph.
In its structure and content The Chemistry of Ceramics is an excellent textbook
which provides a good treatment of the
fundamental relationships betwcen the
structure and properties of modern technical ceramics. It can therefore be recommended unreservedly for chemistry students specializing in solid state chemistry,
and for students of materials science subjects and applied mineralogy.
R a y Riedel
Fachbcreich Materialwissenschaft
der Technischen Hochschule Darmstadt
(Germany)
CVD of Nonmetals. Edited by W S.
Rees Jr. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft,
Weinheim, 1996. 424 pp., hardcover
DM 238.00.-ISBN 3-527-29295-0
This book is a further addition to those
recently published by VCH Verlagsgesellschaft on the topical theme of chemical
vapor deposition (T. Kodas, M. Hampden-Smith, The Chemistry of Metals
CVD, 1994; A. C. Jones. P. O’Brien, CVD
of Cornpound Semiconductoiq 1996).
Chapter 1 is a short introduction which
explains how the book should be used,
and briefly summarizes the basic principles of physical and chemical gas phase
deposition techniques. The reader wishing
to gain a deeper insight should consult the
more advanced literature listed in the bibliography. The topics treated in the main
text are: superconductors (Ch. 2, D. L.
Schulz and T. J. Marks), nonmetallic
(transparent) conductors (Ch. 3, T. Gerfin
and K.-H. Dahmen), compound semiconductors (Ch. 4, G. S. Tompa), insulators
(Ch. 5, A. R. Barron), and structured
ceramics and composites (Ch. 6, W. J.
Lackey). The book ends with a chapter by
G. E. Krauter and W. S. Rees entitled
“Other Materials”, in which the authors
have carefully gathered together all the
topics that would not naturally fit in under any of the other headings.
0570-0833/97/3620-2247 $17.50 + .SO/O
2247
BOOKS
A focus of considerable interest in this
area, as in CVD methods generally, is the
chemistry of the starting materials; On
this aspect one is helped by the very detailed documentation that the editor has
provided, with about 1230 literature references extending up to 1993194. The book
is intended for a heterogeneous readership
with backgrounds in different disciplines.
Thus the users are likely to include,
among others, synthetic organometallic
chemists, electrical engineers, and solid
state physicists whose common interest is
an involvement in the design and manufacture of novel types of microelectronic
components.
The chapter on superconductors is especially interesting and well written. The
established systems such as Nb,Ga and
Nb,Sn are compared with the new ceramic high temperature superconductors
(Section 2.4, pp. 67-132). The problems
of producing these materials from organometallic precursors by CVD or VPE (vapor phase epitaxy) are discussed in detail.
For example, Section 2.4.1.2 (pp, 71 ff)
considers “Limitations of Alkaline Earth
P-Diketonate Complexes for HTS CVD”,
and describes recent developments (e.g.,
the use of an alternative precursor for the
barium component). The comparison of
different methods for introducing the relatively involatile precursors (P-diketonates and P-ketoiminates) is well worth
reading. The following section, “Conducting Materials”, is mainly concerned
kith TIN, In,O,, SnO,, and ZnO. There
is an interesting and useful description of
the recently clarified mechanistic details
of the breakdown of the tetrakis-dialkylamidotitanium precursor to give TIN or
TiN,C,, a reaction which depends critically on the process conditions (thermal
CVD with or without NH,, or plasma
methods). This part of the book is highly
recommended; it is well structured and
carefully written, and is ideally suitable to
be adapted for use in undergraduate
courses related to materials chemistry.
Aspects such as the interaction between
the surface and the chemistry of the gas
phase, the effects of different process conditions (reactor type, means of energy
supply), positionally selective deposition,
prenucleation in the gas phase, purity,
electrical and morphological properties,
mechanisms that incorporate carbon,
transamination, labeling studies, and
plasma chemistry, are treated concisely
but thoroughly. For completeness CVD
of compound semiconductors is briefly
discussed in Chapter 4. However, this subject is already covered by some other excellent monographs (examples are those
mentioned above and: G. B. Stringfellow,
2248
Organometallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,
Academic Press, 1989). The book does
not cover new trends in the chemistry of
precursors. Chapter 5 deals with the important topic of the deposition of electrically insulating layers, and also extends
the analogy to discuss “chemically insulating” films, such as diffusion barriers
and passivating layers. The materials discussed include SO,, A1,0,, AlN, and
Si,N,.
Chapter 6 describes methods for deposition from the gas phase onto ceramic
fibers and various types of composites, for
example porous materials treated by
chemical vapor infiltration. Here again
the deposited materials are mainly oxides
of aluminum, zirconium, and tin, and in
some cases Sic. Thus, from the chemical
point of view there is little here that is new.
Instead the emphasis is on aspects such as
reactor design, a very detailed description
of the processes involved, and the analysis
of the morphology and materials properties of the layers produced.
Chapter 7, which occupies the last 20
pages of the book, presents an interesting
collection of research results taken from
the widely scattered sources in the literature. These relate to a wide variety of deposited substances, from metal fluorides
via metal carbides to metal tellurides.
On the whole the book has been carefully written and produced. However, the
quality of the figures is not consistently
good, and a few are disappointingly crude
in appearance; for example one may contrast Figure 1-3 with Figure 6-1. It is also
noticeable that the literature coverage
only extends to about 1993194, and is
mainly concentrated within the years 1988
to 1993. There are scarcely any references
to more recent developments from 1995
onward. Nevertheless, the work is a useful
additional resource, both for molecular
chemists with an interest in this field and
for users of vapor deposition, and will
provide them with quick and convenient
access to the literature on CVD of nonmetals.
Roland A . Fischer
Anorganisch-chemisches Institut
der Universitat Heidelberg (Germany)
Introduction to glass science and technology. By J. E. Shelby. Royal Society
of Chemistry, Cambridge, 1997.
244 pp., paperback E 18.95.-ISBN
0-85404- 53 3 -3
This book, written by a well recognized
glass scientist, is intended as an introduction for students or beginners. The material is limited to what can be covered in a
0 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, 1997
single semester of course work, and assilmes no more than a general knowledge
of physical and inorganic chemistry. Depending on the extent of prior knowledge,
the reader will therefore find that some
chapters can be read more quickly than
others. Each of the ten chapters of the
book, with one exception, ends with a
concise summary. The bibliography is
necessarily short, due to the brevity of
monography although somewhat one-sided, and the index is sufficiently detailed.
The first two chapters deal with the
principles of glass formation and glass
melting, including technological aspects
such as the formation of bubbles or inhomogeneities. Immiscibility and phase separation is discussed in a separate chapter.
The attempt to elaborate the structures of
glasses in only 37 pages is obviously only
possible in a very limited way. Although
the author emphasizes that he wants to
restrict himself to general principles (including the trivial statement: “. . . the author now proposes the Fundamental Law
of Structural Models: ‘no model can be
considered to be valid unless that model
can explain all of the available data’ ”), he
does not always meet this claim, and
sometimes loses himself in details that are
out of place in a book of this kind. For
example, there are mini-subchapters on
rare earth alumino/galliosilicate glasses,
fluorogermanate glasses, and ZnC1, glasses. Instead a little more space could have
been allocated to the treatment of organic
and metallic glasses, which are given only
half a page each. The viscosity of glassforming melts is treated in a fairly general
way in the following chapter, which also
includes a section on viscosity measurement techniques. The next chapter discusses the influence of composition, thermal history, phase separation and
crystallization, radiation exposure, and
pressure on the density and thermal expansion behavior of glasses. Under the
heading “Transport Properties”, a concise
general introduction to the fundamentals
of diffusion is followed by discussions of
ionic diffusion, ion exchange, ionic conductivity, chemical durability, weathering, gas permeation, and diffusion. In the
chapters on mechanical and optical properties a more detailed discussion of how
these are related to the structure and composition of glasses would have been desirable. The title of the final chapter, “Glass
Technology”, is rather misleading, as it
deals with forming methods. Its 12 pages
are definitely insufficient to give more
than a rough overview. For example, the
one page on sol-gel processing is hardly
enough to give the uninformed reader a
clear impression of this method.
0570-083319713620-2248 $17.50+.50/0
Angew. Chem. Inl. Ed. Engl. 1997,36, No. 20
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