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Book Review Cytochromes C. Evolutionary Structural and Physicochemical Aspects. (Springer Series in Molecular Biology). By G. R. Moore And G. W

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symmetry operations in a space group on the corresponding
Bloch functions are discussed in detail. Some applications of
this are then described in Chapter 7. Chapter 8 is concerned
mainly with energy bands in metals, semiconductors, and
insulators, and with how they are affected by the symmetry
of the lattice. This general theme is continued in Chapter 9.
Chapter 10 describes theoretical methods based on band
structure. Regrettably, however, Altman does not go into
detail regarding the more recent approaches that are of such
great importance for solid state calculations; examples of
these are linearized muffin-tin calculations and density functional methods, which in recent years have at last made it
possible to handle systems of chemical interest. However,
perhaps these topics are outside the scope of an introduction.
The remaining four chapters deal with selected subject areas
in the general field of condensed matter. Chapter 11 is mainly concerned with lattice vibrations and electrical conductivity, and also touches on electron-phonon coupling. Chapter 12 discusses instabilities and their dependence on
characteristic solid-state properties such as dimensionality.
Here Altman analyzes the physical causes of the so-called
Peierls instabilities. The next chapter looks at analogies between band models and representations of the electronic
wave-function in real space. The book ends with a review of
surface states and localized defect states.
To summarize, S. L. Altman has here written a very good
book on symmetry in solids. The material in the individual
chapters is very concentrated, and considerable effort is
needed to work through them. The main emphasis is on
explaining group theoretical methods, rather than on covering the whole range of potential applications. From the
chemistry standpoint, the book will only be of interest to
specialists in solid state theory.
Michael C. Bohm
Institut fur Physikalische Chemie
der Technischen Hochschule Darmstadt (FRG)
Cytochromes C. Evolutionary, Structural and Physicochemical Aspects. (Springer Series in Molecular Biology). By
G. R. Moore and G. lR Pettigrew. Springer, Berlin, 1990.
XVI, 478 pp., hardcover DM 168.00. --ISBN 3-54050852-X
The book reviewed here is the second monograph written
by Moore and Pettigrew on the subject of cytochromes C.
The first one, “Cytochromes C. Biological Aspects”, was
published in 1987 in the same series. Although cytochrome C
is only one of many hemoproteins of importance in energy
metabolism, it serves here as an example for describing the
many different physical methods used to analyze structure
and function of hemoproteins. The physicochemical fundamentals of hemoprotein structures and the spectroscopic
methods used to determine them, such as NMR, EPR, CD,
MCD, fluorescence, phosphorescence, Mossbauer and Xray spectroscopies, are all described in great detail. Examples
of actual results are discussed and summarized in the form of
tables. A further chapter lists all the known amino-acid sequences of cytochrome C variants. The molecular geometries and crystal structures are treated in great detail,
including variants in which the central atom is changed or
the amino-acids are modified. The chapter on evolution includes detailed discussions of the problems of phylogenetic
trees, the molecular clock, and the theory of random genetic
drift, as well as questions such as that of genus and species
1098
0 VCH
Verlagsgesellsehufi mbH. W-6940 Weinheim. 1992
in bacteria, or the theory of endosymbionts to explain the
formation of mitochondria and chloroplasts. A further
chapter deals with the redox potentials of cytochromes C,
and here too the explanation of the physicochemical fundamentals is thorough and lucid. The final chapter gives a very
detailed and thorough treatment of the question of electron
transfer mechanisms.
The authors have shown a commendable awareness of the
need to relate the large amount of published work on cytochrome C to the basic physicochemical principles, and to
summarize the findings in useful generalizations. The book
is intended primarily for specialists, but also provides the less
experienced student with the basic knowledge needed to embark on the study of hemoproteins. Consequently it will
still remain an up-to-date work of reference ten years hence.
The book is indispensable for the libraries of biophysics
departments and those engaged in research on energy
metabolism.
Bernhard Kadenbach
Fachbereich Chemie
der Universitht Marburg (FRG)
Nucleoside Synthesis. Organosilicon Methods. (Ellis Horwood Series in Organic Chemistry.) By E. Lukevics and A .
Zablocka. Ellis Horwood, New York, 1991.496 pp., hardcover $221.95.--ISBN 0-13-812652-6
The chemistry of nucleosides, nucleotides, and nucleic acids
is currently a rapidly growing area of research. It soon became clear from studies of the structure and biological function of these natural products that syntheticallymodified species would have an enormous biological potential. Synthetic
analogues of nucleosides, nucleotides, and nucleic acids are
nowadays used as antimetabolites in biochemistry and
medicine. Examples are antiviral agents such as the
nucleoside analogues 3’-azidothymidine (AZT, which has
anti-HIV activity) and acyclovir (with anti-Herpes-simplex
activity), the antitumor agent 5-fluoridine, and the use of
“antisense-RNA’ and “antisense-DNA” as gene blockers.
Since biologically active nucleoside analogues are now so
widely used, methods for synthesizing them are of great importance.
One approach is by chemical modification, using a naturally occurring nucleoside as a precursor. However, the
scope for introducing such modifications is rather limited,
owing to the lability of the ,%glycosidic linkage that is already present. Another method is to build up the aromatic
heterocycle by using an N-glycosylated derivative as a precursor, but this method can only be considered in special
cases because of the considerable amount of synthetic work
required. The most important method, and the one that allows most scope for modifications, is the glycosylation of the
aglycone component using an appropriate carbohydrate
derivative. A special variant of this is the silyl method, in
which the glycosylation IS carried out using a silylated heterocycle, and this method is the subject of the book reviewed here. The first part of the book is devoted to a
thorough discussion of the synthetic aspects, and the second
part contains a survey, in the form of tables, of glycosylations that have so far been carried out using a silylated heterocycle (2549 examples in all!). The book is completed by
indexes listing the heterocycles and carbohydrate derivatives
that are covered, and a bibliography containing 1056 references.
0570-0833~92/0808-1098$3.50+ .25/0
Angen’. Chem. I n f . Ed. Engl. 1992. 3f, N o . 8
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