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Book Review Determination of Thermodynamic Properties. 2nd Edition. (Series Physical Methods of Chemistry Vol. 6) Edited by B. W. Rossiter and R. C

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BOOKS
view and some insights. To that extent the
book fulfills the aims set out by the editors
in the preface. Those wishing to study the
subject in greater depth will need to extend their reading to advanced monographs and more detailed texts, helped by
the numerous literature references given
(nearly 1500). Although not suitable as a
student textbook, the work certainly offers students with sufficient previous
knowledge an excellent resource for stimulating an interest in inorganic chemistry
with regard both to materials and applications.
Hans Reuter
Institut fur Anorganische Chemie
der Universitat Osnabruck (FRG)
Thermal Analysis-Techniques
and
Applications. Edited by E. L. Charsley and S. B. Warrington. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, 1992.
VIII, 296 pp., hardcover E 45.00.ISBN 0-85 186-375-2
This multiauthor work is based on a
course held in 1992 by the Thermal Analysis Consulting Service. It aims to provide
an overview of the most important methods used in thermal analysis (TA) and to
acquaint the reader with some recent advances and applications.
A brief (and superficial) introduction to
TA methods is followed by chapters on
differential thermal analysis and dynamic
difference calorimetry (too brief and too
qualitative), thermogravimetry, supplementary methods (not exhaustive, but upto-date). evolved gas analysis. thermomechanical analysis and dynamic mechanical
analysis (not enough relevant literature
references), controlled rate TA (an important and valuable introduction to this new
technique), applications of TA to polymers (informative, but lacking enough
references to more advanced and detailed
literature), TA in pharmacy (superficial
and does not give an up-to-date review),
applications of TA in metallurgy and materials science (very specialized), applications to minerals and fossil fuels, applications of TA to catalysts (does not remotely
live u p to what the title of the chapter
promises), and quality control by TA (a
first introduction to this important area,
though it does not treat it in much depth).
Unfortunately the chapters concerned
with fundamentals are not by themselves
adequate in either their breadth of coverage or depth of treatment to enable the
reader to apply TA methods. On the other
hand, the chapters on applications are
very uneven in quality. In some cases the
586
authors are content to merely list examples of applications, and in others only
a few examples are discussed in detail (as in
the case of magnetic resonance TA, a technique which has probably scarcely been
used by anyone other than the inventor
and author of the article). There has evidently been insufficient discussion between
the authors of the individual chapters, resulting in much unnecessary repetition and
a lack of consistency in nomenclature. The
quality of printing is good, despite the fact
that the manuscripts have been reproduced
in ordinary typescript characters (surprising in view of modern text-processing technology), with some of the chapters in justified style and others with an irregular
right-hand margin. Some of the equations
have been very carelessly typed.
Thus we have here a review volume
which is of rather uneven quality (though
inexpensive). It can serve as an introduction to this field, though not in much
depth.
Heiko K . Cummenga
Institut fur Physikalische und
Theoretische Chemie
der Technischen Universitiit
Braunschweig (FRG)
Determination of Thermodynamic
Properties. 2nd Edition. (Series:
Physical Methods of Chemistry,
Vol. 6) Edited by B. W. Rossiter and
R . C. Buetzold. Wiley, Chichester,
1992. XI, 743 pp., hardcover
E 157.00.-1SBN 0-471-57 087-7
At a time when the primary literature is
expanding at a near-explosive rate, whereas library budgets are suffering deep cuts,
handbooks have become even more important than they were, say, 20 years ago.
Such classics as the Physical Methods of
Chemistry series aim to provide scientists
involved in research and applications with
a comprehensive, accurate, and concise introduction to the theory, methodology,
and applications of measurement techniques, thus enabling them to select the
most suitable ones for particular problems, and to consult the specialist literature before applying them.
Volume 6 of this 12-volume handbook
is concerned with the determination of
thermodynamic properties (although, regrettably, it does not cover the subject
anywhere near exhaustively). In the chapter on “Mass and Density Determinations”
R. S. Davies and W. F. Koch give a
thoroughly adequate description of the
most important methods of determining
mass, together with their fundamental ba-
<-‘VCH Verlugr~esellsrhufrmhH, 0-69451 Weinheim, 1994
sis, including secondary effects on the
weighing operation. However, in some
places they might have brought out more
clearly the advantages and disadvantages
of the different weighing principles. The
use of weighing methods in applications
such as density measurement, and the
measurement of partial molar volumes,
moisture contents. and specific surface areas, are treated in appropriate detail.
However, for many other applications,
such as the determination of surface tension and contact angle, not even literature
references are given. In the chapter “Pressure and Vacuum Measurements” C. R.
Tilford treats the physical aspects of the
measurement methods thoroughly, but
includes almost nothing on applications,
nor on the suitability of the methods for
particular measurement tasks, aspects that
the chemist wishing to determine properties would expect to find included. For
example, there is not a word about vapor
pressure measurements! P. J. Dunlop,
K. R. Harris. and D. J. Young, in their
chapter “Methods for Studying Diffusion
in Gases, Liquids, and Solids”, give a
lucid introduction to the theory of diffusion (including ternary systems) and describe in great detail the experimental
methods for gases, liquids, and solids.
D. K. Wyatt and L. T. Grady contribute a
chapter on “Determination of Solubility”
(regrettably with some printing errors that
should have been corrected) in which they
review the classical methods. Here the authors could have shortened some of the
material included in the previous edition
and instead given more detail on, for example. gas-chromatographic and optical
methods, the currently important topic of
determining solubilities in liquified and
supercritical gases, and continuous methods. Appropriate space is devoted to the
determination of the rate of dissolution of
solids in liquids. In the chapter on “Viscosity and its Measurement” J. Greener
gives a good and detailed (perhaps even
too detailed) theoretical treatment of the
viscous behavior of fluids. and devotes
special attention to the various sources of
error in viscosity measurements. Unfortunately, though, measurements on gases
are generally not discussed in enough detail. In the chapter on “Temperature Measurement with Application to Phase Equilibria Studies” J. B. Ott and J. R. Goates
give a good introduction to this subject of
great practical importance, with a wealth
of important literature references. and
their account of the application of temperature measurements to investigating
phase equilibria is lucidly presented.
However, it is unfortunate that in deriving
thermodynamic relationships for mixed
OS70-0833~94!0505-0586B 10.00+ .25:0
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BOOKS
systems they have mainly limited their
treatment to the ideal cases that so seldom
occur in practice. J. L. Oscarson and
R. M. Izatt, in their contribution on
“Calorimetry”, give most emphasis to descriptions of types of calorimeters, with
less attention to the principles and applications of calorimetry, with the result that
the chapter is more a list of publications
than an aid to the user. The chapter “Differential Thermal Methods”, by J. BoerioGoates and J. E. Callenan, is of very uneven quality. with numerous printing
errors (including some in equations), an
inadequately researched literature coverage, and not enough references to up-todate monographs and reviews dealing
with new techniques and their applications.
These eight contributions together make
u p a volume in which much of the material
is of excellent quality but some is in need of
improvement. The editors ought to have
paid attention to achieving better coordination between the contributions (and less
repetition), ensuring that the same symbols were used for the same quantities
throughout, eliminating obsolete units,
and above all ensuring appropriate coverage of published work from outside the
USA (especially when highly relevant).
However. although the volume leaves
much to be desired, it and the series to
which it belongs should be in every library.
Heiko K. Cammenga
Institut fur Physikalische
und Theoretische Chemie
der Technischen Universitat
Braunschweig (FRG)
Solid Supports and Catalysts in Organic Synthesis. ( O r g a n i c Chemistry
Series.) E d i t e d by K. Smith. Ellis Horwood/Prentice Hall, New York, 1992.
XIV, 338 pp., hardcover $85.00.
ISBN 0-1 3-639 998-3
As K. Smith explains in the preface to
this book o n solid phase reagents and catalysts, it has been written especially with
the needs of organic chemists in mind. It
can be said at the outset that this aim has
been very well fulfilled. The twelve chapters by eminent authors provide the reader with information on almost every aspect of solid phase reagents in organic and
bioorganic synthesis. The individual contributions together make up a well rounded work, a praiseworthy achievement by
the editor.
The first part (61 pp.) describes the most
commonly used solid phases. The discusAnXew.
Chcnr.1/11. Ed. EiiRi. 1994. 33. N o . 5
sion is divided into inorganic phases (P.
Diddams) and organic phases (J. M.
Maud), affording an insight into the structures and properties of silica gels, aluminas,
graphites, clays, and zeolites, as well as a
variety of polymers, mostly polystyrenebased. The tables detailing and comparing
the different phases are an especially pleasing feature; the wealth of useful information provided includes structural type,
pore size, specific surface area, acidity,
manufacturers (!), and names of commercial products (!).
The second part (1 30 pp.) describes
“conventional” organic reactions using
solid state reagents. These are discussed
according to the types of support materials, namely amorphous inorganic supports (M. Butters), clays and graphites
(J. A. Ballantine), zeolites (M. Butters),
and polymers (J. M. Maud), rather than
under reaction types. This arrangement
gives a good overview of the areas of application of each type of solid phase, but
for the user wishing to carry out a particular transformation it is undeniably rather
inconvenient. This would not be a serious
shortcoming if there were a good index
enabling one to find particular reaction
types. Here, however, one of the book’s
few weaknesses becomes apparent, as the
subject index is much too sparse and does
not even enable one to find relevant sections. For example, if one is seeking information about the oxidation of alcohols,
under this heading the index refers one
only to Section 3.10.1 (oxidation of alcohols on SO,), failing to mention Sections 5.12.2 (oxidation of alcohols on zeolites) o r 9.6 (oxidation of alcohols using
biocatalysts). Under “Alcohols” one finds
no entry at all on this topic. Regrettably,
any number of such examples could be
given, and this diminishes the value of the
book.
The third part (80 pp.) is devoted to biological applications, consisting of detailed treatments of solid phase peptide
syntheses (J. S. Davies), oligonucleotide
syntheses (H. A. White), and immobilized
biocatalysts (J. M. Woodley). Nonspecialists too will benefit from reading these clear
and readily understandable chapters.
Last but not least, the fourth part
(52 pp.) describes special applications. It
begins with a chapter by M. E. Fakley and
F. King on hydrogenations, which is unfortunately rather too brief. In the report
on microreactors by P. Laszlo which follows, one would again have liked some
more detailed information on the types
and applications of such systems. The
book ends with an excellent chapter on
the use of microwave radiation to activate
reactions on solid phases (G. Bram, A.
f- VCH Verlugsjysellschulr m h H , 0-69451 Weinheim, 1994
Loupy, and D . Villemin), including many
examples illustrating the considerable potential of this method, which has so far
been little exploited.
Despite some weaknesses (notably the
subject index), a few printing errors, and
minor inelegancies (floating substituents
in some of the structure diagrams), the
organic chemist will find in this book a
wealth of useful examples of reactions on
solid phases. The numerous literature references will be an additional aid to readers
seeking to become involved in the world
of supported reagents and catalysts.
Oliver Reisrr
Institut fur Organische Chemie
der Universitat Gottingen (FRG)
Solid State Chemistry. An Introduction. By L. Smart and E. Moore.
Chapman and Hall, London, 1992.
XII, 292 pp., paperback E 15.95.
ISBN 0-412-40040-5
L. Smart and E. Moore have set themselves the task of writing an introductory
textbook o n solid state chemistry specially
for students following a basic chemistry
course. It can be said at the outset that
they have succeeded very well. Each of the
eight chapters introduces its subject matter at a basic level, assuming very little
previous knowledge.
Chapter 1 is concerned with simple crystal structures, which are described in terms
of the occupancy of the holes in a closepacked arrangement of spheres. The twocolor illustrations (in green and gray) are
clear and self-explanatory. The only structure diagram that I would criticize is that
for quartz, in which the helical connection
of the tetrahedra is not obvious. Chapter 2 treats bonding in solids on the basis
of the band structure model, then Chapter 3 discusses lattice defects and nonstoichiometric compounds. The authors constantly seek to relate the subject to
modern technological applications; in this
chapter, for example, they describe oxygen ion conductors and the sodium-sulfur accumulator. Chapter 4 deals with
low-dimensional solids such as polyacetylene and the tetracyanoplatinates.
and discusses their anisotropic physical
properties. Chapter 5 introduces the
structural chemistry of zeolites, including
also modern techniques for the elucidation of zeolite structures such as solidstate 29Si NMR spectroscopy. Applications of zeolites are discussed. with the
main emphasis on their catalytic properties. Chapter 6 is concerned with the optical properties of solids, and again these
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