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Book Review Dielectric and Related Molecular Process Vol. 1

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a translation of the 2nd edition, which has little but its name
in common with the first, the doyen offers a refreshingly
unconventional presentation of the principles underlying the
investigation of heterolytic reactions of organic compounds
in solution. Established views are very carefully and critically
spot-lighted, and their historical development is traced (only
apparently loosely) with the intimate familiarity of one who
wasactually present. At an advanced level (mastery of algebraic
details and knowledge of current physicochemical laws are
assumed), Hammett fills a gap, particularly noticeable in Germany, between textbooks on mechanisms of organic reactions
and “pure” physical chemistry.
The work can be broadly divided into three parts. After introductory original remarks on the self-assessment of the chemist,
the first part deals with fundamental physicochemical concepts.
A self-consistent, very formal and terse description of “Thermodynamics in Solutions” and notes on statistical mechanics
are followed by a very useful introduction to the treatment
of kinetic data and an excellent account of the theory of
the transition state and its direct consequences, such as isotope
effects, the Curtin-Hammett principle, etc. In the middle part,
the author presents a skillful and even exciting illustration
ofthe knowledge that has been acquired, taking as his examples
“Nucleophilic Substitution” and “Azo Coupling”, and leading
the reader naturally to the ion-pair concept, which becomes
the central theme in the subsequent chapter “Salt Effects”
and “Influence of the Solvent on Reactivity”. The final part
presents brilliant summaries of fields that are closely associated
with the name Hammett: acidity functions; acid and base
catalysis ; linear free energy and isokinetic relations.
This work must inspire all who are interested in the investigation of organic reaction mechanisms. Advanced students
should find the chapters on kinetics, theory of the transition
state, and linear free energy relations extremely valuable. The
layout of the book is very clear, and it contains many excellent
graphs. The translation by Peter Schmid is good, and a number
of technical terms used rather loosely by the author have
been discreetly corrected.
Giinter Helmcken
[NB 200 IE]
Der Umfang des Stoffschutzes fur chemische Erfindungen (The
Scope of Substance Protection for Chemical Inventions).
By B. Geissler. Carl Heymans Verlag KG, Cologne-Berlin-Bonn-Munich,
1972. 1st Edit., xxiii, 189 pp., DM
42.
The lifting of the ban on product protettiofl has raised a
number of problems, including the question of the scope of
product protection for chemical compounds. The subject is
discussed systematically and in the light of different legal
backgrounds. After an introductory chapter on the history
of product protection in Germany, the author deals with the
scope of protection provided by product claims for chemical
inventions in France, in the USA, and in the Scandinavian
countries. After a brief outline of patent theories it is deduced,
with a careful weighing up of the arguments for and against
absolute product protection, that only a purpose-linked product claim is adequate for chemical inventions. Although this
result appears virtually only as a conclusion from the arguments presented, it leaves a certain uneasiness. Perhaps this
is because the discussion of the problem of protection for
products that have not been prepared chemically, which has
long been practiced in the Federal Republic of Germany is
a little too brief. Claims of the “agent for ...” type that were
customary even before the ban on product protection was
lifted are purpose-linked (and therefore largely satisfy the
488
author’s requirements) but they are incapable of completely
satisfying the requirements. If broad product protection is
granted to alloys, glasses, and compositions of matter, similar
protection should be extended to new chemical substances.
The question of whether it is only “apparently” broad would
have to be investigated in all cases on the same principles.
However, it must not be overlooked that, for example, intermediates cannot be adequately covered by purpose-linked
product claims. The “object” problem in the case of new
products, with which the author deals, also offers much food
for thought: in the discovery of a new substance, does not
the essence of the invention after all lie in the provision of
this newly constituted substance, as is stated in the Imidazoline
Decision of the Federal Supreme Court published after the
book went to press? The fact that these new substances must
(also) be useful is a legal requirement for patentability. In
spite of these misgivings the book can be recommended to
anyone who has to deal with the scope of claims: it is a point
in favor of a book if it makes the reader think.
Friedrick Rtimisck
[NB 2031
Dielectric and Related Molecular Processes, Vol. 1, Specialist
Periodical Reports. The Chemical Society, London 1972.
1st Edit., xv, 394 pp.. several figures and tables, bound
E 8.
In seven chapters the present book contains several up-to-date
articles on dielectrics and molecular processes in the substances.
Chapter I. “The Theory of the Macroscopic Properties of
Isotropic Dielectrics” by B. K. P. Scaqe, presents an introduction from the classical standpoint. Chapter 2, “Dielectric Relaxation and Molecular Correlation” by G. Wytlie, deals with
the dielectric relaxation processes and the molecular models
used for their interpretation. This is probably the most detailed
modern review of this field in existence at the moment.
Chapter 3, “Dielectric Polarization in Gases” by H . G. Surfer,
is concerned with the special problems that arise in the dielectric polarization of gases. Relaxation phenomena are not discussed. Chapter 4, “Time Domain Methods” by A . Suggett,
gives an excellent, concise (18 pp.) survey of the modern
methods in which the pulse technique is used for the determination of dielectric data in liquids, solutions, and polymers.
Chapter 5, “Dielectric Properties of Water and of Aqueous
Solutions” by J . B. Husted, deals fairly comprehensively with
the phenomena that occur in water or in aqueous solutions,
and the structure of water is also discussed. Chapter 6, “Dielectric Polarization Phenomena in Biomolecular Systems” by
G. Schwurz, presents a brief description (26 pp.) of the use
of dielectric methods for the investigation of biopolymers,
and the author also deals with his own field, the conformational transitions of biopolymers.
Chapter 7, “General Molecular Theory and Electric Field
Effects in Isotropic Dielectrics” by S. Kielick, occupies roughly
half of the book and gives a detailed account of the electrical
and magnetic properties of molecular systems, with special
consideration of multipoles and the corresponding potentials.
The statistical and electromagnetic properties of dielectrics
are then briefly discussed. A very long section is devoted
to electro-optical properties, particularly to the Kerr effect,
and another section deals with the changes in the electrical
properties in strong electric fields.
Despite its heterogeneous content, the book will be of great
value to any scientist working in the field of dielectrics. It
Angew. Cham. internut. Edit.
/ Vol. 13 ( 1 9 7 4 ) / No. 7
is regrettable that apart from the section on biopolymers,
the dielectric phenomena of high polymers are not discussed.
The book also lacks descriptions of measurements in the
microwave and far IR regions. It is to be hoped that these
topics will be included in subsequent volumes of this series.
Werner Zeil [NB 204 IE]
Biosynthesis, Vol. I. Specialist Periodical Reports. The Chemical Society, London 1972. 1st Edit., 149 pp., bound E 6.50.
The present first volume in a series on the biosynthesis of
cell constituents is mainly concerned with methodological
studies and results for natural products from plants. The
literature discussed is mainly from the years 1970 and 1971,
though earlier studies are also included where these are
required to clarify relationships and basic principles.
The general principles are presented by S. A . Brown in the
opening chapter on labeling procedures in living plants and
in isolated tissue systems. with mutants and with specific
antimetabolites. This chapter also deals with the recent development of differential NMR spectroscopy for following the
fate of structural components, which can take the place of
isotope studies in favorable cases. The book then continues
with the discussion of fields in which particularly fruitful
and penetrating developments and results have been achieved
in recent years: the biosynthesis of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes from acetyl coenzyme A ( J . R. Hunson), the conversion of isopentenyl pyrophosphate into triterpenes, steroids,
and carotenoids ( H . H. Rres and 7: W Goodwin), and the
biogenesis of phenolic compounds from shikimic acid or from
acetate units ( J . B. Hurhornr). One still often has t o resort
to general feeding experiments here to determine the reaction
sequence; in the case of the flavonoids, however, it has been
possible to establish the individual enzymatic steps, particularly through the work of Grisebach, and it is to be expected
that the next volume will be able to report similar progress
from other synthetic chains of plant materials. The book ends
with a mainly tabular summary of the biogenesis of alkaloids
( E . Lrrte), a complete account of which is to be given in
another series.
The detailed studies on the stereochemical course of the condensations, rearrangements, and oxidoreductions in the polyprene syntheses are conceptionally and experimentally outstanding. The individual chapters are excellently written, and
not only give the essential lines of current research but also
show the directions that are now becoming important. The
careful selection and discussion of the literature makes the
volume a strongly commendable guide to these publications
on plant physiology, which are often widely scattered and
not readily accessible. Those who are working in the field
will find this helpful in their own work, and it will also
prove a n excellent aid to anyone seeking a general survey.
These volumes thus really fulfill their intended purpose, and
will be welcomed by everyone concerned with the biochemistry
of the natural products of plants.
L. Jarnicke [NB 205 IE]
Atom-Absorptions-Spektroskopie (Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy). By Brrnhard Welz. Verlag Chemie GmbH, Weinheim/Bergstr. 1972. 1st Edit., x, 216 pp., 52 figs., 46 tables,
cloth D M 58.--.
Atomic absorption spectroscopy is one of the methods of
instrumental analysis whose widespread use is not confined
to chemical laboratories. Atomic absorption spectrometers
are nowadays to be found in many biological, mineralogical,
and clinical laboratories. This spectroscopic method is also
one of the standard methods of analysis in the protection
A n g m . Churn. infernut. Edil J Val. 13 (1974)
1 No. 7
of the environment. W-hen an instrumental method of analysis
is used in such a wide variety of fields, one often finds that
it is not always used to its full advantage, mainly because
of the user’s training. A particularly welcome feature of the
present book, therefore, is that it has been written in such
a way that it will also be understandable to biologists, mineralogists, geologists, and clinical chemists.
The book deals with the physical principles of the method
without going into special physical and mathematical details,
as well as with the component parts of the instrument (light
sources, optics, electronics, etc.) and the determination of the
various elements (in alphabetical order).
A separate chapter is devoted to specific applications in medicine, biochemistry, toxicology, food chemistry, geochemistry,
petrochemistry, rtc. Literature references for further information are given here in tables arranged according to elements
for the particular type of test sample in question ( r . g . serum,
urine, fertilizer, rtc.). The book also contains a short chapter
on flame emission spectroscopy and atomic fluorescence spectroscopy, a very comprehensive bibliography (859 references),
and an appendix listing the commercially available atomic
absorption spectrometers (with tables of technical details).
The book, which may be described a s an excellent synthesis
of introduction and reference work, will be useful to anyone
who is concerned with atomic absorption spectroscopy.
Egon Fuhr [NB 207 IE]
Wechselwirkung von x-Elektronensystemen mit Metallhalogeniden. By H.-H. Perkampus. From the series “Molekulverbindungen und Koordinationsverbindungen in Einzeldarstellungen”. Edited by G. Brirgieh, F . Cramrr, and H . Hartmum. Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1973. xi, 215 pp., bound DM
68.--.
Contents. Einleitung und Abgrenzung; Donatoren und Acceptoren; Proton-Additions-Komplexe; rc-Komplexe; o-Komplexe.
Free-Radical Chemistry. Structure and Mechanism. By D. C.
Nonhehel and J . C. Wulton. Cambridge University Press
1974. xv, 571 pp., bound E 15.00.
Contents: Production of Free Radicals; Detection; Shapes;
Stabilities; Reactions in the Gas Phase; Reactions of Atoms;
Alkyl Radicals; Heteroradicals; Oxidations and Reductions;
Aromatic Substitution; Fragmentations; Rearrangements;
Cycli~itions;Displacement Reactions.
An Introduction to Solid State Physics and its Applications.
By R. J . Elliott and A . F. Gibson. Macmillan, London
1974. xxi, 490 pp., bound E 5.95.
Contents: Crystal Structure; Excitations; Lattice Vibrations;
Electrons in Bands; Imperfections in Crystals; Optical Properties of Solids; Optical and Microwave Properties of Free
Carriers; Transport; Semiconductor Junction Devices;
Magnetism.
Biosynthesis, Vol. 2. Senior Reporter: 7: A. Geissman. The
Chemical Society, London 1973. ix, 308 pp., bound E 8.W.A volume in the series “Specialist Periodical Reports”.
489
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