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Book Review Einfhrung in die Arzneibereitung (Introduction to the Preparation of Pharmaceuticals). By F. Fstirner

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(4 pp.). Other longer articles include: odoriferous substances
(86 pp.), reproduction technology (33 pp.), proteins (33 pp.),
reaction mechanisms (33 pp.), platinum and the platinum metals (29 pp.), polymethine dyestuffs (28 pp.), mercury (23 pp.),
reduction and hydrogenation (19 pp.), soot (17 pp.), pyrotechnics (15 pp.), and rocket fuels (13 pp.). The remaining
176 pp. are filled by 29 shorter articles dealing mainly with
topics from organic chemistry, e.g. pyridine and its derivatives, reactive dyes, pyrazolones, and purines and purine derivatives.
The authors of this volume comprise 78 experts, including
eight collaborators from abroad (U.S.A., Great Britain, Italy,
Switzerland, and Austria). Twenty-three contributers come
from technical colleges, and the remainder are emploeyd in
the chemical industry. The reviewer observes with satisfaction
that “Ullmann” is enjoying more and more interest and support from industrial foundations. Closer perusal of the staff
of coauthors reveals that industry has frequently its acknowledged experts available. Thanks to their cooperation and the
highly differentiated presentation of the text, the information
offered is up-to-date and complete.
Nineteen authors have combined in the compilation of the
long article on polymers. In the introduction (30 pp.), H .
Fikentscher deals with the mechanism, technology, and peculiar features of polymerization, and thereby reveals the quintessence of his decades of industrial research work o n polymerizations. High-pressure polyethylene (10 p ~ . )and the
Phillips process for polyethylene ( 5 pp.) are described by
BASF chemists, low-pressure polyethylene made by the Ziegler process (12 pp.) by chemists from Farbwerke Hoechst,
and polypropylene, amorphous ethylenelolefin copolymers
and isotactic polybutene (16 pp.) by G . Nntta. All the other
sections on polymers, polycondensates, and polyadducts are
well written, and thus “Ullmann” gives the best presentation
of the essentials of this subject available at present.
I n the article o n odoriferous substances (86 pp.), 106 complex
perfumes of natural origin (23 pp.) and 164 chemically uniform compounds or classes of compounds with odoriferous
properties are described. The introduction to this chapter
(8 pp.) gives a short historical survey, a n instructive section
on odor and constitution, and a brief but interesting review
of the specialized technology used in the production of odoriferous substances. This whole article is well done.
The article on furs deals with the production of tanned and
prepared pelts. One of the admirable features of “Ullmann”
is that it includes also borderline aspects of technological
chemistry and presents them for comparative examination. The article on soot is compiled by a team from the firm Degussa and gives a readily surveyable review of the development and present-day technical status of the production of
amorphous carbon. Unfortunately no economic data are
given.
It should be remarked that on the whole, far too little consideration has been given to economic data in the present
volume, although they are essentially the decisive factors for
all considerations about the technical production of chemical
products. Of the 48 articles included, only seven quote economic data, which are sometimes even too short and general,
e.g. as in the article o n quartz and quartz glass. A short but
lucid economic review with numerical data is given in the
article on mercury. In addition, the comparisons given of
various procedures which lead to the same product would
have been more valuable if economic aspects such as the ratio
of plant-construction costs to operational costs had been discussed. It should have been stressed that the question of
costs does not arise solely in the commercial evaluation of the
products of technical chemical processes but already participates decisively in determining the aims and structure of chemical technology as a whole.
The article on photomechanical reproduction techniques affords good insight into a new and rapidly developing field. A
section o n “reprography” describes the procedure for phototechnical production of permanent copies of originals. -
174
Further well-written sections which deserve mention are those
on fungal infections, rocket fuels, hydrogenation and reduction, and proteins.
Under the headings “Radicals” and “Reaction mechanisms”,
the physical chemist expects to find information o n the theoretical fundamentals and practical applications of reaction
kinetics, but will be amazed to find that physical chemistry
has no part in these articles, and that gaseous systems are also
entirely neglected. It is to be hoped that this basic field which
has become so important in practice since the development of
petrochemistry will be awarded the treatment it deserves in
another part of the encyclopaedia.
The reviewer’s critical remarks are not intended to obscure his
general impression that this 14th volume of “Ullmann” maintains the excellent standard of its predecessors, so that it is to
be wished that the undertaking can reach a speedy and SUCcessful conclusion.
H. Sachsse [N B 284/ 142 1 E]
Die Entwicklung nener insektizider Phosphorsaure-Ester (The
Development of New Insecticidal Phosphoric Esters). By
G . Schradzr. Verlag Chemie, GmbH., WeinheimIBergstr.,
1963. 3rd Revised edit., VII, 444 pp. linen D M 44.- (about
SIl.-).
At the start of the fifties, a monograph o n the development of
new insecticidal organic fluorine and phosphorus compounds
appeared in two editions and caught the attention of those
working in the field. The impressive extension and broadening of developments in this field has led the author t o
prepare a revised edition; this is to be welcomed, for who
could give better coverage than he, who not only had the
honor and credit of having initiated this development but
who has contributed to it in such an extraordinarily effective
way, as a glance at the author index shows?
The originally small monograph has meanwhile become a
distinguished and sizeable volume. It starts with an introduction to the general development of organophosphorus
compounds, followed by 49 excellent chapters o n important
individual compounds. Each chapter gives complete details of
the methods of preparation, and of the chemical, physical,
toxicological, and insecticidal properties of the compound in
question. Analytical problems, compounds of closely related
structure, and the commercial importance are also discussed.
In many cases (e.g. for TEPP, DDVP, and Rogor), a detailed
historical commentary is included. Hence, because the subject is so intimately related with the experience of the author, and described from his experience, the book makes
enthralling reading for the interested reader, a commendation which can seldom be conferred upon the current
flood of relevant literature. Gerhard Schrader and Verlag
Chemie deserve our praise and congratulations for producing
this excellent volume.
E. Kniisli
[NB 216193 IE]
Emfiihrung in die Arzneibereitung (Introduction to the Preparation of Pharmaceuticals). By F. Gstirner. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH., Stuttgart, 2nd revised edit.
1963, XVII, 419 pp., 108 iIlustrs., cloth, D M 49.50 (about
S 12.50).
This modernized edition of the original book has erradicated
the failings but retained the character of a n introduction
to methodology despite its extension by 77 pages. This is
greatly to the credit of the author, who has at the same time
made the terminoiogy used more “scientific” and placed the
emphasis on process technology. Naturally, in order to keep
the book within reasonable limits, some topics, such as
tissue preparations, vaccines, dialysates, and the isolation of
active ingredients, are not included.
The book is divided strictly into sections on the preparation
of synthetic, natural, and homeopathic drugs. A new appendix
deals briefly with sterilization techniques, dressings, and
surgical sutures. This last section is, as is emphasised in the
text, only a brief resum6. It is clear that the contents in almost
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. / Vul. 4(1965)
I No. 2
all the chapters have been completely revised, e.g. the chapter
o n emulsions has increased from 30 to 56 pp. and the chapter
on ointments includes references to silicone bases. hydrocortisone ointments, e f c . Modern techniques in such classical
fields as the preparation of pastes, powders, soaps, suppositories, pills, syrups, capsules, tablets, and dragees are dealt
with. The particularly important practical section o n tabletting faults provides an excellent basic introduction to the
methodology. Treatments more suitable for a textbook are to
be desired in some sections, e.g. that on solutions for injection. The sections o n the preparation of n a t u r a l drugs is
particularly valuable, since their therapeutic use has been
greatly undervalued in face of the abundance of chemical
pharmaceuticals. The same applies to the section o n homeopathic pharmacy. The completely new illustrations might have
been supplemented by technological flow-sheets for the
preparation of pharmaceuticals.
This is a book which will be useful not only to the student of
pharmacy, but also to practising chemists in the pharmaceutical industry.
S . Balke
[ N B 219197 IE]
Fortschritte der Strukturforschung mit Beugungsmethoden
(Advances in Structural Analysis using Diffraction Methods). Edited by R. Brill. Vol. I. Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn,
Braunschweig; Interscience Publishers, a division of John
Wiley & Sons, New York-London 1964. 1st Edit., VIII +
221 pp., 102 figs., linen D M 48.- (about S 12.25).
The appearance of this new series on “advances in structural
analysis using diffraction methods” has closed a gap between
the numerous original publications in journals and extensive
monographs on the subject. I n this first volume of the series,
individual topics selected from this vast field are discussed by
acknowledged experts ( G . E. Boron, B . K. Vainshtein, J .
Karfe, W. Hoppe, H . Jagodzinski, and A. Niggli). In addition
to two articles on the application of neutron and electron diffraction to the determination of structures, particularly the
determination of the positions of hydrogen atoms, there is a
review of methods for measuring phase angles. Two further
sections are devoted to thermal background variations and to
the interpretation of the diffuse interferences occurring in
crystals with dislocations. Finally, a short discourse on some
symmetry problems is given. Every user of this book will be
grateful for the instructive examples and mathematical derivations included. The numerous references given will also
prove a great aid for the perusal of original publications
G . Hribermehl
[NB 245/103 IE]
Chemie und Technologie aliphatischer f luororganischer Verbindungen (The Chemistry andTechnology of Aliphatic Organofluorine Compounds). By D . Osteroth. Collection of
Chemical and Chemical Technological Reviews. New
Series 59. Founded by F. B. Altrerzs, edited by R. Pnmmerer,
L. Birkofer, and F. Goubeau. Ferdinand Enke Verlag, Stuttgart 1964. 1st Edit., VIII, 195 pp., 8 figs., 41 tables, linen
D M 58. - (about $15.00).
The author has attempted to provide a survey of the development of the chemistry and technology of aliphatic fluorine
compounds up to the year 1961. The book deals with syntheses of fluorinated hydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and compounds containing
nitrogen and sulfur, as well as with their chemical reactions.
I n view of the rapid development and vastness of fluorine
chemistry, n o single author can reasonably be expected t o give
a complete critical account of the whole field. The reviewer
thus looked in vain among the literature cited for numerous
references to methods of preparative importance.For example,
the synthesis of monofluorocarboxylic acid esters or monofluoroketonas is covered better by the publications of E. D .
Bergmonn. Fluorination by perchloryl fluoride is not mentioned, nor are cycloaliphatic fluorine compounds, such as the
pharmaceutically important fluoro steroids. Interactions of
N-bromoacetamide and hydrogen fluoride with olefins, and
Angew. Chem. intrrimt. Edit. 1 Vol. 4 (1965) No. 2
reactions with difluorocarbene or fluorochlorocarbene have
also been overlooked. Reaction mechanisms are hardly touched upon, but patents and technological aspects are more
fully covered.
H . Machleidt [ N B 233190 IE]
Mathematik fur Naturwissenschaftler und Chemiker (Mathematics for Scientists and Chemists). By H. Sirk and M .
Draeger. Completely revised by M. Draeger. Verlag Theodor Steinkopff, Dresden-Leipzig 1963. 9th Edit., xii +
385 pp., 132 figs., linen DM 25.20 (about $6.50)
The value of“Sirk” is demonstrated by its many editions,
and now it has appeared in a new edition completely revised
by M. Drrrcger. Despite radical alterations, the character of
the book has been maintained, and o n the whole, the presentation - as well as the typographical appearance - of the
volume are clearer. This has been achieved partly by a reorganization of the material. The elementary mathematics
hitherto appended at the end now appears together with one
section each on combinations and determinants in the new
first part of the book. Infinite series and approximation
procedures are discussed in a new fifth part. The practical
examples in thermodynamics are now gathered together in a
single chapter in the third part (functions with several variables). I n addition, even more effort has been made here than
in previous editions to conveying a lucid and intelligible appreciation of mathematical concepts in order to simplify
understanding of the methods described. In this connection,
the section o n the basic number e, the detailed discussion of
the geometrical interpretation of simple, first-orderdifferential
equation as a vector field and of its general integral as a oneparameter series of curves, theclesr treatment of the method of
the integrating factors, and the section applied to differentiating between the concepts of “necessary” and “sufficient”
conditions can be cited as examples. Furthermore, the illustrative examples given in the text are supplemented by numerous problems whose solutions are given in the appendix. There
is a brief summary at the end of each chapter to assist rapid
orientation.
A few sections had to be shortened to make room for these
welcome additions and innovations. Thus, treatment of the
method for cd!CUhting errors by the law of least squares and
of Taylor series has been omitted, and elimination of the
section on the Schrodinger equation has consequently led to
the lack of mention of boundary conditions, eigenvalues,
and eigenfunctions of a differential equation. In view of the
increasing importance of electronic computers, a somewhat
more extensive treatment of iteration procedures would have
been desirable.
This new edition of “Sirk/Draeger” is an exceptionally lucid
and well-planned introduction to the fundamentals of higher
mathematics and can therefore be earnestly recommended to
every student of chemistry. Here not only will he find the
mathematical basis of classical physical chemistry, but
he can also acquire the background which will facilitate his
explorations into specialized fields of modern physical and
M . Klessinger
[NB 2SO/lOS IE]
Carl Wilhelm Scheele. Apotheker - Chemiker - Entdecker. By
0 . Zekert. Vol. 27 of the series “Grosse Naturforscher”
edited by H . Degen. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgeseilschaft
m.b.H., Stuttgart 1963. 1st Edit., 142 pp., 23 illustrations,
linen DM 15.80 (about S4.00).
Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742-1786) was one of the most prominent chemists during the transition from the phlogistic to
the antiphlogistic eras; his biography and achievements are
recounted in the present volume. Many of the results of his
investigations can be regarded as the beginnings from which
organic chemistrydeveloped into an independent science. Even
though Wdhfer’s synthesis of urea is generally accepted as the
starting point of synthetic organic chemistry nowadays, it
should not be forgotten that, during his investigations of “the
coloring material i n Berlin blue”, Scheele prepared hydrogen
175
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